issues + debates ; gender + culture ; culture bias

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in '92 what % of the worlds psych researchers were american
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psychology is maily the study of?
white american males (everyone's favourite ppl)
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- universality and bias
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though psychs claim to have unearthed 'truths' about ppl all over world in reality?
findings only apply to particular groups stdied
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critics argue mainstream psych has generally ignored?
culture as important inf on human behaviour
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and bu doing so mistakenly assumed?
findings derived from studies in western cultures are worldwide
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if norm / standard for a particular behaviour is judged only from standpt of one culture then what happens to cultural differences?
seen abnormal / inferior / unusual
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what is this known as?
cultural bias
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- ethnocentrism
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particular form of culture bias that believes?
superiority of ones own cultural grp
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in psych this may be communicated through which view?
that behavs which don't conform to western model are underdeveloped
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what attachment thing is a key example of this?
ainsworth's strange situation
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which has been criticised for?
only reflecting norms / values us culture
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what did ainsworth identify as the key defining variable of attachment type?
anxiety on separation
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she suggested ideal attachment characterised by?
infant showing moderate distress when left alone
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but what did this lead to?
minsinterpretation of child-rearing practices in other countries
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e.g german mothers viewed?
cold and rejecting
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thus strange situation revealed as?
inappropriate measure attachment type for non-us children
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- cultural relativism
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ainsworth's research is an example of an imposed etic why?
in assuming us-based model was norm she imposed own cultural understanding upon rest of world
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what does an etic do?
look @ behaviour from outside of culture and attempts to describe those that are universal
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an emic approach does what?
functions from inside certan cultures and id's behaviours sepcific to that culture
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psychology has often been guilty of imposing an etic approach why?
aruge theories etc r universal when rlly came about through emic research
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suggests psychs should be more mindful of what in rsrch?
cultural relativism
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that things they discover may only?
make sense from perspective of culture they were in
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and being able to recognise this is one way to avoid?
culture bias in rsrch
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- individualism / collectivism
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often in past whe psychs made reference to culture they did so within context of what distinction?
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individualistic culture is associated with west wh are thought to value?
personal freedom / independence
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collectivist like india and china said to pace more emohasis on?
interdependence / group needs
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however what have critics argued about this distinction todya?
lazy to apply it to this age of incresad global communication / interconnectedness
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takano and osaka found how many out of 15 studies that had no evidence of traditional distinction in us / japan compared studies?
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this could suggest whata bout culture bias?
less of an issue than it was
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- cultural relativism
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what is a reminder to psychs of culturally specific nature of work?
imposed etic
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however it shouldn't be aumed that?
all psych research is culturally relative and theres no such thing as universally human hevioaur
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research suggests what are the same all over the human / animal world?
facial expressions for emotions
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critiques of the strange situation shouldn't obscure the fact that some features of human attachmetn are universal like?
imitation / interactional synchrony
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full understanding of human behaviour requires study of both?
universals and varaition among individual groups
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- unfamiliarity with research tradition
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when conducting research in western cultures what is assumed?
pps familiarity with general aims / objectives scientific enquiry
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but same knowledge and faith may not?
extend to cultures w/o this history
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for this reason what may be exaggerated with locals?
demand characteristics
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and this may have an adverse effect on what about research?
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- operationalisation
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in different cultures variables under review may not?
be experienced by same way by all pps
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for example behavioural expression of emotions like aggression may give rise to?
diff behaviours in indigenous pop than west
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in china invasion of personal space is normal where in west this may be viewed?
threatening / confrontational
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issues like these affect interactions between?
resaercher pps / western - non pps in cross-cultural studies
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- challenging 'implicit' assumptions
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what is one of the great benefits of cross-cultural research?
may challenge typically western ways of thinking ad viewing world
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being able to see some of knowledge / concepts we take for granted aren't shared bu others roun world may promote?
greater sensitivity to individual difference / cultural relativism in future
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this counters what charge made against some psych theories in past?
scientific racism
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but also means conclusions are likely to have more validity if include?
recognition of role of culture
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in '92 what % of the worlds psych researchers were american



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psychology is maily the study of?


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- universality and bias


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though psychs claim to have unearthed 'truths' about ppl all over world in reality?


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