HideShow resource information
the period that took Europe from the ‘darkness’ of religious dogmatism, social hierarchy…into the ‘light’ of free inquiry
Samuel Fleischacker (What is Enlightenment?)
1 of 33
advancing liberal reforms, rights and Freedom – opposes Becker’s idea that enlightenment was an ideal, rather a period of profound change
Peter Gay
2 of 33
not a unified movement – different in different places – by localising, we can see it isn’t bound by period, but rather a process that took hold across nations
Porter and Teich (The Enlightenment in National Context)
3 of 33
theological and scientific thinking and spreads to undermine the institutions of Europe’s ancien regimes
Jonathan Israel (Radical Enlightenment)
4 of 33
progress was the "Grand Illusion" – working in cloud of 1930s totalitarianism - fought Christianity, built a "heavenly city" of their own
Carl Becker (The Heavenly City of the Eighteenth Century Philosophers)
5 of 33
legacy of Enlightenment as the ‘modern’ to which postmodernity wishes to oppose itself –why little Enlightenment history is written by postmodern historians
Daniel Gordon (Postmodernism and the Enlightenment)
6 of 33
there will no longer be ‘The Enlightenment,’ a universal phenomenon with a single history to be either celebrated or condemned, but a family of discourses arising about the same time in a number of European cultures
John Pocock (Enthusiasm: The Antiself of Enlightenment)
7 of 33
the ‘philosophes undoubtedly provided the ideas’
Maurice Cranston (The French Revolution: Ideas and Ideologies)
8 of 33
sees the Terror as, in part, a consequence of their weakness. The Jacobins had only shaky legitimacy
Marisa Linton (Robespierre and the Terror)
9 of 33
Revolutionary government had as its inevitable accompaniment the Terror
Albert Mathiez
10 of 33
many today, conditioned by historicist ways of thought and by the multiple "terrors " of a revolutionary world, tend to visualize terror as an inevitable vehicle of political and social development
George Kelly (Terror of arbitrary government)
11 of 33
‘a phenomenon as awful and irreversible as the first nuclear explosion, and all history has been permanently changed by it’
Eric Hobsbawm (Age of Revolution)
12 of 33
indictment of tyranny and injustice – liberty, equality, fraternity
Robert Darnton (What Was Revolutionary about the French Revolution?)
13 of 33
‘amazement at how many such issues French legislators felt they must publicly discuss, debate, and decide’
Lynn Hunt (The French Revolution and Human Rights
14 of 33
‘Slavery in the colonies seemed peripheral to the urgent political and constitutional issues at home’
Richard Sanders (The Historical Encyclopedia of World Slavery)
15 of 33
concludes that both Nazism and Communism were totalitarian movements that sought to eliminate all restraints upon the power of the State
Hannah Arendt (The Origins of Totalitarianism)
16 of 33
Nazi regime adopted the system of repression from those of the Soviet Union, in particular from the Gulag system
Stéphane Courtois (The Black Book of Communism)
17 of 33
the Nazis were sincere in their use ‘socialist’, which they saw as inseparable from the adjective national, and meant it as a socialism of the master race, rather than the socialism of the "underprivileged and oppressed seeking justice and equal righ
Conan Fischer (The Rise of the Nazis)
18 of 33
objects to Courtois' arguments, "Third Reich's four-year extermination machine, overshadows any other calamity, even when numbers of victims are the main concern", and that peasants in Russia "were not targeted in toto for extermination as were Jews
Amir Weiner (Journal of Interdisciplinary History)
19 of 33
radical anti-semitism had led to holocaust, not Hitler’s own views
Martin Broszat (Hitler and the Genesis of the 'Final Solution’)
20 of 33
saw Nazi regime as too disorganised for totalitarian purposes, instead argued that Hitler’s utopian outlook caused the holocaust, but he was not the founder of it - no written order from Hitler for the "Final Solution to the Jewish Question"
Hans Mommsen (The Holocaust In History)
21 of 33
calls holocaust ‘uniquely unique’
Gunnar Heinsohn (What makes the Holocaust a uniquely unique genocide?)
22 of 33
‘would suggest retaining the term genocide for ‘partial’ murder and the term ‘holocaust’ for total destruction’
Yehuda Bauer (Rethinking the Holocaust)
23 of 33
memorials represent societal trends and beliefs, thus, when these change or differ, memorials become controversial - Act as a blank canvas
Bernard Barber (Place, Symbol, and Utilitarian Function in War Memorials) -
24 of 33
‘forms of meaning in war memorials are influenced by reinterpretations of history that enhance, contradict, or deemphasize the status of past wars’
James Mayo (War memorials as political memory)
25 of 33
US commemorates Spanish-American War relatively heavily but nobody remembers war so memorials have little meaning
James Mayo (War memorials as political memory)
26 of 33
Darwinian theory broke the romantic ideal of consonance between the human and the natural
George Levine (Darwin and the Novelists)
27 of 33
‘The dialogue of place and displacement as a feature of Romantic period writing is often regarded as a response to the great historical movements of urbanization and industrialization that marked late 18th- and 19th-century British life.’
Peter Kitson (Placing and Displacing Romanticism)
28 of 33
without an economic and scientific basis, modern environmentalism cannot rationally claim that its proposed climate policies would make the world better off.
Alan Carlin (Modern Environmentalism)
29 of 33
postmodern perceptions towards science as almost embarrassing, although he does concede that everything we do is due to social constructs
Noam Chomsky
30 of 33
condition of post-modernity is the escape from ‘Fordism’ (manufacturing system designed to spew out standardized, low-cost goods and afford its workers decent enough wages to buy them)
David Harvey (The Condition of Postmodernity)
31 of 33
"reader" who, now freed from the ostensibly unnecessary restrictions of print media - including the dreaded "linearity" of print - can manoeuvre through hypertexts in whatever sequence and fashion he or she chooses.
Charles Ess (Modernity and Postmodernism in hypertext)
32 of 33
history is a study of change over time - brought into question, throwing the profession into a crisis of self-confidence about what it is doing and how
Lawrence Stone (History and Postmodernism
33 of 33

Other cards in this set

Card 2


Peter Gay


advancing liberal reforms, rights and Freedom – opposes Becker’s idea that enlightenment was an ideal, rather a period of profound change

Card 3


Porter and Teich (The Enlightenment in National Context)


Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4


Jonathan Israel (Radical Enlightenment)


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


Carl Becker (The Heavenly City of the Eighteenth Century Philosophers)


Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards


No comments have yet been made

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all all resources »