Paper 3- issues and debates, gender, schizophrenia and addiction

HideShow resource information
Universality
belief that all humans are alike and as such what is true for one human is true for everyone
1 of 141
Gender Bias
when differences between genders have not been properly considered, leading to a biased or potentially biased opinion
2 of 141
androcentrism
a gender bias that leans particulalry in favour of males as the research comes from a male centred view of the world
3 of 141
Alpha Bias
where any differences that might exist between males and females are exaggerated
4 of 141
Beta Bias
where any differences that might exist between male and females are ignored or minimised
5 of 141
Zeitgeist
the 'spirit of time', in that any period in time has certain social and moral expectations that people will generally adhere to
6 of 141
Cultural Bias
when differences between cultures have not been consiered properly, leading to a biased or potentially biased conclusion
7 of 141
Ethnocentrism
a cultural bias that leans in favour of a particular culture because the research has only been conducted using participants of that culture
8 of 141
Eurocentric
a form of ethnocentrism that is particularly focused on the Western world's viewpoint
9 of 141
Emic
a focus on a single culture to understand it within a local context
10 of 141
Etic
a focus across multiple cultures in order to understand elements that apply across all cultures
11 of 141
Cultural Relativism
a person's own cultural background affects þe view they have and the behaviours they display
12 of 141
Free Will
the belief that our behaviour is governed by our choices, and that those choices are only minimally determined by other forces
13 of 141
Causal Explanations
the ability to explain a phenomenon in terms of the causes that made it happen. knowing the causes of things allows us to make scientific predictions of what will happen if certain conditions prevail
14 of 141
Determinism
what happens has to happen and could not have occured in any way other than the way it did
15 of 141
Hard Determinism
the determinist principle to the letter of the with no room for the concept of free will
16 of 141
Soft Determinism
only some elements of our behaviour are determined and the rest is open to free will (the choices we make). it is sometimes called the compatibilist viewpoint
17 of 141
Biologically Determined
determinism happens at the level of biology
18 of 141
Genetic Determinism
determinism that happens at the genetic level
19 of 141
Psychic Determinism
behaviour that is determined by psychic (psychodynamic) phenomena
20 of 141
Environmental Determinism
determinism that happens as a direct result of the influence that our envionment has on us
21 of 141
Heredity
the transfer of genetic characteristics from parents to their offspring
22 of 141
Environment
the social and cultural forces that shape a persons behaviour
23 of 141
Nature
the idea that a behaviour is a consequence of heredity
24 of 141
Nurture
the idea that a behaviour is a consequence of the environment. This includes experience and learning, but also factors such as stress and diet
25 of 141
Nativist
someone who believes that a behaviour is the consequence of nature rather than nurture
26 of 141
Nururist
someone who believes that a behaviour is the consequence of nurture rather than nature
27 of 141
Interactionist Approach
in the context of nature and nurture, it is one that considers behaviour to be influenced by both nature and nurture
28 of 141
Levels of Explanation
the idea that any behaviour can be explained at different levels of reduction. At the very top is the holistic level, where no reduction is suggested and at the very opposite end is the level of physics where everything is reduced to atoms or smaller
29 of 141
Reductionism
the idea that complex behaviours can be reduced to, and fully explained by, looking at the components at a lower level that make up that behaviour
30 of 141
Biological level of explanation
all can be explained in terms of the workings of the brain
31 of 141
Evolutionary lebel of explanation
all can be explained by reference to the evolutionary adaptations that lead to a behaviour
32 of 141
Behavioural Level of Explanation
all can be explained with reference to learning processes
33 of 141
Cognitive Level of Explanation
all can be explained by understanding the information processing that happens
34 of 141
social\environmental level of explanation
all can be explained by understanding the things that happen in the social environment
35 of 141
Biological Reductionism
all behaviour can be reduced to, and explained by, the biology of the organism at that moment in time
36 of 141
Environmental Reductionism
all behaviour can be reduced to and explained by the environmental circumstances impacting on the organism at that moment in time
37 of 141
Holism
the idea that complex behaviours cannot be fully explained by reducing them to explanations at lower levels, but must be explained at the highest, holistic level
38 of 141
Idiographic Approach
how individuals behave and how they differ
39 of 141
Nomothetic Approach
using group data to create theories and laws about people's behaviour in general
40 of 141
Empirically tested
testing in a scientific way that allows for a theory to be supported or refuted
41 of 141
Ethical Guidelines
a set of principles that can be used to judge whether or not a piece of research was conducted in an ethical manner
42 of 141
Health and Care Professions Council (HCPC)
a regulator, set up to protect the public against the risk of poor practise. they keep a register of health and care professionals who meet set standards for their training, professional skills, behaviour and health
43 of 141
British Psychological Society
the professional body and learned society for psychologists in the UK
44 of 141
Social Sensitivity
research that may have an emotional effect on its participants
45 of 141
Sex
the biological fact of being male or female based on genes and hormones
46 of 141
Gender
the difference between the ways that men and women behave and the concepts of masculinty and femininity
47 of 141
Gender Dysphoria
a mismatch between biological sex and core gender identity, commonly described as 'feeling trapped in the wrong body'
48 of 141
Sex Role Stereotype
a generalized expectation about a typical feminine or masculine quality
49 of 141
Androgynous
possessing a blend of maculine and feminine characteristics in roughly equal proportions
50 of 141
Hormones
chemicals released from the endocrine glands. they travel in the bloodstream to target organs
51 of 141
Androgens
male hormones such as testosterone
52 of 141
Klinefelter's Syndrome
a condition in males that results from an XXY chromosome pattern, affecting 1/600. they have normal male genitals, but small testes not producing sperm (they are infertile with low sex drive)
53 of 141
Turner's Syndrome
a condition in females resulting from a partially or fully missing X chromosome (XO). both patterns occur randomly and are linked to infertility in adulthood due to normal external genitals but ovaries fail to develop. affects 1\2000.
54 of 141
Testosterone
a male hormone or androgen that is released from the testes
55 of 141
Hypothalamus
an area of the forebrain involved in physiological functions such as regulating sexual behaviour
56 of 141
Social Learning
learning through observation and imitation of role models
57 of 141
Culture
the shared habits of a group of people
58 of 141
Cognitive Explanation
focuses on the child's understanding and active construction of knowledge about gender
59 of 141
Gender Identity
the ability to label oneself correctly as a girl or boy
60 of 141
Gender Stability
the understanding that gender is stable across time
61 of 141
Gender Constancy
the understanding that gender does not alter despite changes to appearance
62 of 141
Psychosexual Stages
stages in which the ****** focus is on different parts of the body at different ages
63 of 141
Internalization
taking aspects of other people into the psyche
64 of 141
Identification
a change to identity due to the process of internalization
65 of 141
Positive Symptom
a behaviour that is present but would not be seen in ordinary people (eg hallucinations)
66 of 141
Negaltive Symptoms
a behaviour that is missing but we would normally expect ot be displayed (eg an abaence of volition)
67 of 141
Co-morbidity
where one or more secondary disorders coincide with the primary disorder
68 of 141
Culture Bias
decisions based partly on the culture in which they are made
69 of 141
Gender Bias (re. schizophrenia)
decisions made regarding diagnosis being different depending on whethe the patient is male or female
70 of 141
Prevalence Rate
the percentage of live cases within a population suffering from someething (eg schizophrenia) at any given moment
71 of 141
Incidence Rate
the number or percentage of new cases in a given period of time. this is usually a much lower figure than the prevalence rate (about 15 per 100,000 for schizophrenia)
72 of 141
Twin Study
a study that looks at the development of symptoms in twins that are raised in the same home environment
73 of 141
Monozygotic Twin
twins that both come from the same zyogte and as such share 100% of their DNA. they are commonly referred to as identical twins
74 of 141
Dizygotic Twins
twins that come from two different zygotes but develop in the womb at the same time. on average they share 50% of their DNA. they are commonly referred to as non-identical twins
75 of 141
Adoption Study
a study that looks at the development of symptoms in twins who are raised in different home environments
76 of 141
Family Study
a study that looks at the development of symptoms in the family of a person with a disorder. usually this extends to the immediate family but it can look beyond this
77 of 141
Co-morbidity Rate
the rate at which two people show the same disorder. it is not to be confused without the version without the word 'rate' that refers to two separate disorders in the same individual
78 of 141
Ventricular Enlargement
fluid fills the inside of the brain and is confined to areas called ventricles. the fouid is under pressure so if there is brain damage the ventricles become enlarged and this can easily be seen in the brain scan
79 of 141
MRI scan
magnetiv resonance imaging that provides a static image of the inside of the brain
80 of 141
Basal Ganglia
involved in movement, emotions and integrating sensory info. abnormal functioning in schizophrenia is thought to contribute to paranoia & hallucinations-excessive blockade of dopamine receptors by traditional antipsychotics lead to motor side effect
81 of 141
Frontal Lobe
critical to problem solving, insight and other high-level reasoning. perturbations in schizophrenia lead to diffuculty in planning action and organising thoughts
82 of 141
Limbic System
involved in emotion. disturbances are thought to contribute to the agitation frequently seen in schizophrenia
83 of 141
Auditory System
enables humans to hear and understand speech. in schizophrenia overactivity of the speech area (wernickes area) can create auditory hallucinations - the illusion internally generatd thoughts are real external voices
84 of 141
Occipital Lobe
processes information about the visual world. people with schizophrenia rarely have full blown visual hallucinations but disturbances in this area contribute to diffuculty interprting complex images, recognising motion and reading others' emotions
85 of 141
Hippocampus
mediates learning and memory formation, intertwined functions that are impaired in schizophrenia
86 of 141
Neurotransmitter Substance
a chemical released from neurons when they fire. the neurotransmitter travels across amvery small gap and attaches to anreceptor on thebnext neuron to make a small on whether or not that next neuron will fire
87 of 141
Dopamine
a neurotransmitter substnace thought to be overproduced in schizophrenia, and is believed to be one of the main reasons for the positive symptoms
88 of 141
Psychodynamic
using inner thoughts and feelings to explain the human condition. it assumes human behaviour to be influenced by inner drives and forces that ar often unconscious
89 of 141
Family Dysfunction
communications within a family are detrimental to the workings of the family group such that they create conflict and distrust
90 of 141
Rorschach Inkblot
a symmetrical pattern made from a blob of liquid ink. the pattern is abstrct but is used to elicit a story of what the image represents. it is one technique used to examine family dysfunction
91 of 141
Communication Deviance
a lack of effective communication. it occurs when the speakers (parents) fail to communicate their meaning to the listener (schizophrenic). the reason for the lack of communication is as the speakers use contradictory statements and, or behaviour
92 of 141
Expressed Emotion
where relatives, especially immediate family, use hostile forms of communication towards the person with schizophrenia
93 of 141
Mixed Methods Approach
combines quantitative methods (experiments) with qualitative methods (interviews) within a single study
94 of 141
Working Memory
used to hold information while it is being processed by other systems such ä the language or reasoning systems
95 of 141
Delusional Thinking
where a person holds a beleif that is not true. they can be overly positive (eg believing you sre god) or overly negative (eg believing the government is after you)
96 of 141
Antipsychotics
drugs used to treat psychosis. these drugs usually target the positive symptoms of schizophrenia
97 of 141
Potency
the power of a drug. a more potent drug will need less of it to be administered than a less potent drug in order to get a particular effect
98 of 141
Drug Adherence
the degree to which a patient will continue to take a drug. particular problem for schizophrenics, who suffer delusions of persecution making them less likely to want to take the drugs
99 of 141
Placebo
a simulated treatment that is not a real treatment. for example, if the treatment is in pill form then the placebo may be a sugar pill made to look like the real pill
100 of 141
Family Therapy
includes all of the family or close relatives as part of treatment
101 of 141
Psychoeducation
informing relatives about the nature of schizophrenia
102 of 141
Behavioural Family Therapy
therapy that concentrates on problem-solving and communication skills and which involves the entire family
103 of 141
Relatives Group
therapy that only involves key members of the schizophrenic's family and may not include the patient themselves
104 of 141
Cognitive Behaviiur Therapy (CBT)
a form of therapy that breaks a problem down into more manageable pieces that can be improved one at a time
105 of 141
Token Economy
a behaviour management technique where tokens are given out for good behaviour. the tokens can later be exchanged for things the person wants (e.g. treats)
106 of 141
Interactionist Approach
this approach suggests that the best explanations combine biological and psychological elements and the best therapeutic outcomes are obtained by using a combination of drug therapies and psychological therapies (i.e. drugs and CBT)
107 of 141
Diathesis-Stress Model
the most well-known kind of interactionist model, where the disorder (in this case schizophrenia) is seen as the result of a combination of biological and psychological factors
108 of 141
Addiction
a hard-to-define term that refers to the need to engage in a behaviour despite that behaviour having negative consequences for the person engaging in it
109 of 141
Dependence
the inability to refrsin from a behaviour. it is hard to separate this term from addiction
110 of 141
Physical Dependence
the physical need to engage in a behaviour. failure to engage results in physical (eg bodily) effects
111 of 141
Psychological Dependence
the psychological need to engage in a behaviour. failure to engage results in psychological (eg mental) effects
112 of 141
tolerance
the decrease in effect that pccurs over time for same input (eg a single cigarette). where it occurs, it means that the addict must increase their dose for the same level of satisfaction
113 of 141
Withdrawal Symtoms
symptoms that occur when a person stops engaging in an addictive behaviour. these can be unpleasant and make the person want to re-engage in the behaviour
114 of 141
Startle Response
the response commonly referred to as "jumping out of your skin". for example, hearing a large bang close by - initial response is to tense up and freeze with every sense pointing to the source of the noise
115 of 141
Salience
the importance of something to that particular person.
116 of 141
Conflict
when problems arise between an addict and those around them as a direct result of engagement in addictive behaviour
117 of 141
Relapse
the return to a behaviourafter trying to give up
118 of 141
Genetic Risk Factor
within the context of addiction, it is any genetic mechanism that causes the likelihood of a person becoming an addict to increase
119 of 141
Family Studies
studies that look at whether a particular genetic trait runs in families
120 of 141
Adoption Studies
studies that look at whether a person (usually a twin) develops more in line with the traits of their adoptive family or with the traits of their biological family. often the behaviours of the adoptive twin is compared with the non-adopted twin
121 of 141
Peers
anyone a person comsiders to be of an equal standing to them. friends would be peers and some family members would be considered in the same way, though who these are may differ from person to person
122 of 141
Addiction-Prone Personality
a personality measure found to be particularly useful in distinguishing between those who are more likely to become addicts and those who are less likely to
123 of 141
Cortisol
a hormone released when the body requires more energy (generally in a stressful situation). it also increases the activity of dopamine, thst stimulates the reward system
124 of 141
Reinforcement Schedule
pattern of rewards given after a response can be given after a fixed period of time (fixed interval) or no of responses (fixed ratio) alternatively time or no of responses required before reward can be given varies from trial to trial
125 of 141
Allele
one of two or more versions of a gene on a chromosome. an individual inherits two alleles for each gene, one from each gene
126 of 141
Enkephalins and Endorphins
two kinds of naturally occuring neurotransmitter substances (referred to as opiods because opiates like herion have the same efect) that have the effect of reducing pain and providing pleasure
127 of 141
Cue Reactivity
the process by which external environmental cues can trigger the initiation of an addictive behaviour (ie the sulphur smell of a march being lit may trigger desire to have a cigarette, even though the match was being lit for a different reason)
128 of 141
Self-efficacy
the ability to control what happens to you. the urges associated with smoking will be etremely hard to resist in a person who has low self-efficacy
129 of 141
Cognitive Myopia
myopia means short-sightedness, so this term refers to cognitive short-sightedness. ie nicotine addiction this is the denial of future health problems in favour of immediate pleasure of smoking
130 of 141
Locus of Control
how a person sees the influences on life events. someone with internal LOC may believe they control what happens. someone with an external LOC believes behaviour is influenced by external environment and so isnt directly under their control
131 of 141
Partial Reinforcement
wherena reward (reinforcement) is not provided after every correct behavioural response but is given only after some responses
132 of 141
Variable Ratio Reinforcement Schedule
operant conditioning schedule in which reinforcement is provided after variable number of attempts. in slot machine scenario pay out may occur somewhere between 1&50 tries and pay outs are weighted to be small (hope of win while losing money anyway)
133 of 141
Extinction
gradual reduction of a conditioned behavioural response due to the removal of the reward that had become associated with that response
134 of 141
Cognitive Bias
sort of thinking short-cut in that there are rules of thumb allowing people to make quick decisions based on expectations drawn from past experience, mostly helpful and accurate but can sometimes be erroneous and lead to false beliefs
135 of 141
Drug Therapy
a treatment that involves giving a personma drug to mimic or replace the drug they are receiving through thier addictive behaviour
136 of 141
Aversion Therapy
therapy designed to extinguish the addicitve behaviour by pairing it eith something unpleasant
137 of 141
Covert Sensitisation
therapy that tries to pair the addicitve behaviour with an unpleasant feeling but does so by using the person's imagination rather than live stimuli
138 of 141
CBT (in context of addiction)
technique designed to get a person to change their thinking to change their behaviour. gradually the person learns to think about the addictive behaviour as less desirable and also learns coping strategies to deal with the desire to feed addiction
139 of 141
Theory of Planned Behaviour
that an intention to behave stems from the combination of behavioural beliefs, normative beliefs and comtrol beliefs
140 of 141
Prochaska's Stage Model of Behaviour Change
a model that tries to explain the stages that a person must go through in order to change addictive behaviour. includes possibility ofmrelapse as well as successful removal of addictive behaviour
141 of 141

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

when differences between genders have not been properly considered, leading to a biased or potentially biased opinion

Back

Gender Bias

Card 3

Front

a gender bias that leans particulalry in favour of males as the research comes from a male centred view of the world

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

where any differences that might exist between males and females are exaggerated

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

where any differences that might exist between male and females are ignored or minimised

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Addictive behaviour resources »