Phobias

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  • Created by: snovia17
  • Created on: 01-12-19 19:25
How are Phobias categorised?
Phobis are categorised by excessive fear and anxiety triggered by a stimulus
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What categories of phobias are recognised by the DSM-5 ?
Specific Phobia: Phobia of an object, animal or body part / Social Anxiety: Phobia of a social situation e.g. public speaking / Agoraphobia: Phobia or bein outside or in a public place
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What are the Behavioural Characteristics of Phobias?
Panic, Avoidance, Endurance
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What are the Emotional Characterisitcs of Phobias ?
Anxiety, Emptional responses are unreasonable
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What are the Cognitive Characteristics of Phobias ?
Selective attention to phobic stimulus, Irrational Beliefs, Cognitive Distortions
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What is the Two-Process model and who proposed it?
Hobart Mower, proposed the two-process model, which states that phobias are acquired through classical conditioning and continued through operant conditioning.
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What is the experinment conducted to prove acquisition by classical conditioning?
Watson and Rayner, created a phobia in 9 month old baby called little Albert. He was shown a white rat before the experiment, where tried to paly with it. To create a phobia, they made a loud noise by banging an iron bar close to his ear.
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What was the outcome of this experiment?
Albert acquired the phobia and the condition generalied to other similar objects. Little Albert displayed distree at furry objects e.g. A fur coat, santa clause beard etc.
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Show how classical conditioning is acquired
Noise (US) ------- Fear (UR) / Rat (NS) + Noise (US) -----> Fear (UR) / Rat (CS) ------> Fear (CR)
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How is Phobia maintained through operant conditioning?
Oprant conditioning takes place when behaviour is rewarded or punished. In case of negative reinforcement an individual avoids a situation that is unpleasant. :.Behaviour will be repeated.
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What does Mower state about phobias regarding operant conditioning?
Mower stated when we avoid a phobic stimulus we escape the fear and anxiety. This reduction in fear reinforces the avoidance behaviour and so phobia is maintained
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AO3: What are the strengths and limitations of behavioural approach to explaining phobias
P: + Is that it has good explanatory power / P: - Is that there is alternative explanation for avoidance behaviour / P: - There is an incomplete explanation of phobias / P: - Not all bad experiences lead to phobias
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What is Systematic Desensitisation and how is it used to treat Phobias?
SD is a behavioural therapy which gradually reduces phobic anxiety, through classical conditioning.
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Card 2

Front

What categories of phobias are recognised by the DSM-5 ?

Back

Specific Phobia: Phobia of an object, animal or body part / Social Anxiety: Phobia of a social situation e.g. public speaking / Agoraphobia: Phobia or bein outside or in a public place

Card 3

Front

What are the Behavioural Characteristics of Phobias?

Back

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Card 4

Front

What are the Emotional Characterisitcs of Phobias ?

Back

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Card 5

Front

What are the Cognitive Characteristics of Phobias ?

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