Psychology - Crime - Raine

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Raine study
Brain abnormality in murderers indicated by PET
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Raine topic
what makes a criminal?
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Raine background
physiological and non-physiological explanations of criminal behaviour.
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Raine application
biological strategies for preventing criminal behaviour
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Raine aim
To study the brain activity in murderers and non-murderers using PET to find out whether there are differences in areas thought to be involved in violent behaviour.
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Raine hypothesis
violent offenders will have relatively localised brain dysfunction in the prefrontal cortex, angular gyrus, amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus and the corpus callosum and no dysfunction is expected in any other area of the brain.
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Raine method
Quasi experiment
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Raine DV
The DV was whether the participant showed evidence of brain dysfunction in their prefrontal cortex and other brain areas linked with violence.
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Raine participants - experimental group
41 participants tried in the state of California (39 males, 2 females), mean age 34.3. All charged with murder or manslaughter.
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Raine participants - control group
Matched – sex, age, diagnosis of schizophrenia. nobody took any medication for 2 weeks prior to testing.
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Raine procedure summary 1
All injected with a tracer substance (flurodeoxyglucose) that was taken up by the brain to show the location of brain metabolism (activity), while conducting a continuous performance task requiring them to detect target signals for 32 minutes.
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Raine procedure summary 2
A PET scan was immediately given to show the relative brain activity (glucose metabolised) for 6 main cortical areas (outside of the brain) and 8 sub cortical areas (inside of the brain).
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Raine results
No significant differences in activity were found in the recordings from the temporal cortex and the corpus callosum. Additionally, no significant differences were found when looking at ethnicity, head injury and handedness.
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Raine - prefrontal cortex
Lower activity than controls - Linked to loss of self-control and altered emotion.
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Raine - parietal cortex
Lower activity than controls - Linked with verbal ability, educational failure and crime.
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Raine - amygdala
Lower on the left side of the brain in murderers than controls - Problems with these may cause a lack of inhibition for violent behaviour, fearlessness, and failure to learn the negative effects of violence.
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Raine - hippocampus
Lower in the left side of the brain in murderers than controls - Problems with these may cause a lack of inhibition for violent behaviour, fearlessness, and failure to learn the negative effects of violence.
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Raine - thalamus
Higher activity on the right side in murderers than in controls - Problems with these may cause a lack of inhibition for violent behaviour, fearlessness, and failure to learn the negative effects of violence.
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Raine conclusion 1
Murderers pleading NGRI have significant difference in the metabolism of glucose in a number of brain areas compared to non-murderers.
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Raine conclusion 2
The reduced activity in the prefrontal areas may explain impulsive behaviour, a loss of self-control, evidence of immaturity, altered emotionality and the inability to modify behaviour which might contribute to criminal behaviour.
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Card 2

Front

what makes a criminal?

Back

Raine topic

Card 3

Front

physiological and non-physiological explanations of criminal behaviour.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

biological strategies for preventing criminal behaviour

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

To study the brain activity in murderers and non-murderers using PET to find out whether there are differences in areas thought to be involved in violent behaviour.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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