Psychology - Development of Personality

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  • Created on: 01-06-16 16:23
The thoughts, feelings and behaviours that make an individual unique
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The genetic component of personality
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Temperament Study - Thomas, Chess and Birch; Aim
To discover whether ways of responding to the environment remain stable throughout life.
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Thomas, Chess and Birch; Method
They studied 133 children from infancy to early adulthood. The children behaviour was observed and their parents were interviewed. The parents were asked about their childs routine and reactions to change.
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Thomas, Chess and Birch; Results
Children feel into 3 types 'easy', 'difficult', and 'slow to warm up'. The 'easy' were happy, flexible and regular. The 'difficult' were demanding, inflexible and cried a lot. The 'slow to warm up' didn't respond well to change but once adapted fine
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Thomas, Chess and Birch; Conclusion
These ways of responding to the environment stayed with the children as they developed. Temperament is innate.
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Monozygotic and Dizygotic Twins
Monozygotic - twins developed from one fertilised egg. Dizygotic - twins developed from two separate fertilised eggs
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Temperament Study, Twins- Bluss and Polmin; Aim
To test the idea temperament is innate.
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Bluss and Polmin; Method
Studied 228 pairs of monozygotic twins and 172 pairs of dizygotic twins. They rated the temperament of the twins when they were 5 years old. The looked at 3 dimensions. Emotionally, activity and sociability. Then compared scores for each pair of twin
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Bluss and Polmin; Results
There was a closer correlation between the scores of monozygotic than dizygotic.
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Bluss and Plomin; Conclusion
Temperament has a genetic basis.
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Temperament Study, Biological Differences - Kagan and Snidman; Aim
To investigate whether temperament is due to biological differences
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Kagan and Snidman; Method
Studied reactions of 4 month old babies to new situations. For 1st min the baby was placed in seat with caregiver sitting nearby. For next 3 mins the caregiver moved out of the baby's view while the baby was shown different toys by researcher.
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Kagan and Snidman; Results
21% of babies showed distress and were classed as high reactive. 40% showed little movement or emotion and were classed as low reactive. The rest feel between. In a follow up study they found there was still a difference in the way the two groups
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Kagan and Snidman; Conclusion
These two temperaments are due to inherited differences in the way the brain responds.
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Eysencks type theory
Personality types are thought to be inherited. They can be described using related traits.
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A personality type that describes people who look to the outside world for entertainment.
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A personality type that describes people who are content with their own company.
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A personality type that describes people who are highly emotional and show quick, intense reaction to fear
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Eysenck; Aim
To investigate personality differences between people.
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Eysenck; Method
700 serviceman competed a questionnaire. Eysenck analysed the results using a statistical technique known as factor analysis.
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Eysenck; Results
He identified two dimensions: extroversion-introversion and neuroticism-stability.
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Eysenck; Conclusion
Everyone can be places along these dimensions of personality.
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Eysenck's Personality Scales
Ways of measuring personality using yes/no questions
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A third dimension identified by Eysenck. People who score high on this are hostile, aggressive, insensitive and cruel.
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Eysenck Personality Inventory
Used to measure extroversion-introversion and neuroticism. Yes/no questions. The two dimensions are not related.
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Eysenck Personality Questionnaire
Also used to measure extroversion, introversion and neuroticism. Psychotics is added. The individual is given a separate score fro extroversion, neutrocticism and psychoticism
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Antisocial Personality Disorder
A condition in which the individual does not use socially acceptable behaviour or consider the rights of others.
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Characteristics of APD
Not following the norms and laws of society, being deceitful by lying, impulsive, irritable, aggressive, careless and irresponsible
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Biological Causes - Amygdala, Grey Matter and Prefrontal Cortex
Amygdala - part of the brain involved in emotion. Grey Matter - outer layer of brain. Prefrontal Cortex - very front of brain involved in social and moral behaviour and controls aggression.
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Biological Causes Study - Raine et al; Aim
To support the theory that abnormalities in the prefrontal cortex cause APD.
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Raine et al; Method
Magnetic resonance imaging was used to study 21 men with APD and a control groups of 34 healthy men.
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Raine et al; Results
The APD group had an 11% reduction in prefrontal grey matter compared with control group.
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Raine et al; Conclusion
APD is caused by reduction in the brains grey matter
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Situational Causes of APD - Socioeconomic factors
Social and financial issues that can affect an individual e.g. low income and poor housing.
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Situational Causes Study - Farrington; Aim
To investigate the development of offending and antisocial behaviour in males studied from childhood to the age of 50.
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Farrington; Method
Longitudinal study in 411 males who lived in a deprived area of London. First studied at age of 8 and till 50. Parents and teachers were interviewed. Searches carried out at Criminal Office to discover if they or family committed a crime
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Farrington; Results
41% convicted at least one offence. Most important risk factors were criminal behaviour in family, low school achievement, poverty and poor parenting
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Farrington; Conclusion
Situational factors lead to development of antisocial behaviour.
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Situational Causes Study - Elander et al; Aim
To investigate the childhood risk factors that can be used to predict antisocial behaviour in adulthood.
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Elander et al; Method
Investigated 225 twins diagnosed with childhood disorders and interviewed them 10-25 years later.
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Elander et al; Results
Childhood hyperactivity, conduct disorders, low IQ and reading problems were strong predictors of APD
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Elander et el; Conclusion
Disruptive behaviour in childhood can be used to predict APD in adulthood.
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The genetic component of personality

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Temperament Study - Thomas, Chess and Birch; Aim


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Thomas, Chess and Birch; Method


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Thomas, Chess and Birch; Results


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