Psychology - Sex and Gender

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Define sex identity
The biological fact of being male or female shown through genitals and produced through nature
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Define gender identity
psychological and cultural aspects of male and female and how they should be treated through nurture.
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Define chromosomes
the 23rd pair of chromosomes decide whether your female or male
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Define hormones
oestrogen and testosterone are in both genders but in different quantities. They are in charge of changes in reproductive organs, external genitalia and the brain
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Define the psychodynamic theory
a view that explains personality in therms of conscious and unconscious forces such as unconscious desires and beliefs
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Define identification (internalising)
where the child adopts characteristics of the same sex parents gaining the same characteristics, attitudes and behaviours
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Define the opedius complex
Where boys wishes to possess their mother sexually and perceives the father as his enemy and believes he will castrate him. the boy is in a state of conflict + starts to internalise his farther who becomes his superego.
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Define electra complex
girl has penis envy and blames her mother. She sexually desires her dad who has one and is jealous towards her mother who sexually possesses the father. The girl realises she can't have her dad or a penis so she starts to internalise her mother.
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Define social learning theory
says that gender identity is learnt through modelling, observation, imitation and vicarious reinforcement
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Define imitation
copying the behaviours of others. children learn whats appropriate for their sex by noting how often that behaviours performed
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Define modelling
a model is someone thats behaviours observed and we are more likely to copy models of the same sex.
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Define vicarious reinforcement
when we learn a behaviour from others who are rewarded, and we are then more likely to copy that behaviour.
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Define a schema
mental representation about how we expect something to be, its built up over a long period of time through new experiences of the world
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Define a gender schema
knowledge we have about each gender, it effects how we expect each gender to behave in society
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evaluation of the psychodynamic theory of gender development
S- Freuds ideas had huge contribution towards psychology + offers explanation of gender identity W- theory ignored the effects of biological factors such as hormones and chromosomes and social influences of gender development
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Evaluation of social learning theory of gender development
S- great deal of research to support it, for example: Bandurus. W- cannot explain why some gender appropriate behaviour is shown in children in children who has never observed that behaviour.
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Whats the difference between gender schemes in people of different ages
When children are young they have rigid and stereotypical gender schemas, however when they grow up their schemas become more flexible
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Evaluation of gender schema theory of gender development
S- has supporting evidence such as the Martin study. W- ignores other factors in gender development such as a biological approach like hormones therefore we can't grasp a full explanation
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Card 2


Define gender identity


psychological and cultural aspects of male and female and how they should be treated through nurture.

Card 3


Define chromosomes


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Card 4


Define hormones


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Card 5


Define the psychodynamic theory


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