Psychology- social influence

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  • Created by: Rachael1
  • Created on: 24-04-17 18:29
What's normative social influence?
stems from our desire to be accepted by others and fear of social ostracism
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What's informational social influence?
stems from our reliance on others for correct information and interpretation of situation
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What are the two type of social influence?
majority and minority
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What are the three type of conformity?
compliance, identification, internalisation
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What were the evaluations of Clark's study of internalisation?
Scientific, may know ending of film and so are biased, 9 point scale is subjective, cant tell whether it was internalisation or compliance, lacks ecological validity, small sample
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What's locus of control and who discovered it?
Julian Rotter, its a personalioty dimension- ability to control their own lives. Either it resides internally within them or externally with others and the world
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What's conformity?
a type of social influence involving a change in belief or behaviour to fit in with the majority
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What's the aim of Solomon Asch's line judgment study?
to see what extent social pressures fro a majoirty group cause a person to conform
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On how many trials in the Solomon Asch study did the confederate give the wrong answer?
12/18
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What was Milgram's aim?
To investiagte the germans are different hypothesis. Inverstigate if individuals would obey orders of an authority figure to dangerous levels which incurred negative consequences and went against ones moral code
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What was the conclusion on Milgram's study?
We believe obedience to authority figures to be normal in a hierarchically organised society.
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How can the minority cause social change?
people conform to social pressures of established ideas of majoirty, rebellious minoirty voice dissenting opinon, minoirty consistent in opinion, some individuals move, majoity lack informational social influence, laws change
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What was the aim of Moscovicis study of social change?
To see if the minority could affect the majority and if so why?
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How many people were in the group of Moscovicis study?
6 people and 2 confeds
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What were the results of Moscovici's study?
Consistent- 8.42% Inconsistent- 1.2%
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What were the evaluations of Moscovici's study?
scientific and controlled, results were not significantly different, lacked ecological validity, small sample, lacks mundane realism
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What's serial processing?
computers do this, one process has to be completed before the next one has started
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What's parallel processing?
some or all of the cognitive tasks occur at the same time
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The cognitive model is a . . .
theory or idea which explains observations of thought processes in someones mind
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What's selective attention?
attending to one thing rather than another
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What's cocktail syndrome party?
when we switch our attention to something which was previously unattended
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What is attentional capacity?
how many things we can attend to at once
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What's the cognitive neuroscience defintion?
scientific study of the biological structures which underpinn cognitive thought procersses
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What did Paul Broca identify?
damage to an area of the frontal lobe could permanently impair speech production
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Explain two variations of milgrams study in 1974 when obedience was reduced and increased?
close touch proximity to confederate reduced to 30%// peer support to do it 72.5%
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Define social change?
Change in nature, social relations, social behaviours and social institutions in a society
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What's independent behaviour?
resisting pressures to conform and obey authority figures
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What are the 3 categories of independent behaviour?
independents- neither moving towards or away from social norms, conformists-moving towards a social norm, anti-conformists- moving away from social norms
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What was the aim of Zimbardo's standford prison experiment?
To investigate conformity to social roles and to see if this is because of situational factors or dispostional factors
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What were the results of the standford prison experiment?
cut 8 days short, hungar strikes, negative health problems like rashes, apathy
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What were the positive evaluations of the standford prison experiment?
Debrief them, did show people conform to situational and prison policies in America were improved and guidelines in psychology
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What were the negative evaluations of the standford prison experiment?
Zimbarbo was unobjective, cut 8 days short, people suffered, biased small sample, appear no right to withdraw, did not consent to being arrested
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Who conducted a study of compliance?
Solomon Asch with his line judgement experiment
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What was the conclusion of Solomon Asch's line judgement experiment?
normative and informational social infleunce
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Who conducted the study of internalisation?
Clark
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What were the conclusion and results of Clarks study?
if 4 or more changed their opinion, others were more likely to// minorities can influence if there's a significant minority to conform to
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Outline the emergence of cognitive neuroscience. . .
combination of psychology and cognitive,cognitive science, neuroscience definition, emerged as technology did
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Define social influence?
When an individual's thoughts, feelings and actions are affected by people causing a change in belief and behaviour
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Define obedience?
Submission to a law or rule of authority, complying with the rules and demands of an authority figure
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Define conformity?
a typle of social influence involving a change in belief or behaviour to fit in with a group
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Explain a study showing normative social influence other than Asch's?
Sheriff- voluntary testing movements
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Explain a study showing informational social influence other than Asch's?
Pincus- judge music, is it same as target note
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Define compliance ?
disposition to yield to others despite personal feelings and ideas
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What's good about obedience?
effective towards law, community comes together and acts as one, understand that those in authority have the right to give orders
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What are the evaluations of informational social influence?
backed up by pincus, should have confidence in ourselves, cant separate it from normative, does not consider role of authority as a reason, lab research hard to generalise as it lacks eco validity
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Evaluations of Solomon Asch's line judgement experiment?
scientific and controlled, witnessed in schools, good starting point for compliance research, norm in 1950s to conform, only 32% did it constantly, lacks ecological validity and mundane realism, deception, small biased sample,
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Evaluations of normative social influence?
backed up by sheriff,scientific, what is the norm, lack ecological validity, embarrassed to admit being influenced, helpful in health campaigns, feel judged and so comply
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What were the bad evaluations of Milgram's paradigm?
unethical- seizures and deception, volunteer sample, paid 5 a day, lacked ecological validity and experimental validity- orne and holland, no explicit right to withdraw
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What were the good evaluations of Milgram's paradigm?
Scientific and controlled, psychiatric test, sheridan and king puppy 75%, Holfling 21/22, Slater Antely Davidson, Meeus and rajimakers said 1% would, without these studies they'd be no ethical codes and guidelines
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Give 5 reasons why people may obey?
agentic state, personal responsibility, legitimacy of authority figure, foot in the door, authoritarian personality
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Define situational and dispostional . . .
situational is environment and dispositional is personality, these are two types of social influence
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Name a study that backs up agentic state theory?
Bass and Schmitt- Milgram as people handed responsibility to him
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What's a weakness of foot in the door?
doesn't explain why we obey big requests without pre-committing to smaller ones
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What's a weakness of legitimacy of an authority figure?
Some people resist authority still and ignores personal responsibility
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What are the evaluations of the F-scale?
does gather large amount of information on personality, boredom affect, not best judges of own personality, closed questions
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What's temporal validity?
true and accurate in today's times
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What 4 studies support Milgram's study ?
Sheridan and King 75%, Hofling 21/22, Meeus and Raijmakers 90%, Slater Antely and Davison 74%
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What case study is there regarding the complaint personality?
The Birmingham 6- believed they burnt down a pub in 1980s, 3 of them pleaded guilty
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What's reactance?
Motivational action to people, rules or regulations which threaten to eliminate specific behavioural freedoms
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What did Hamilton found out about Australian adolescents in 2005?
low reactance group tolf smoking drugs was a natural part of growing up and this group was less likely to take drugs. High reactance told to never take drugs- more likely
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What's learned helplessness?
sense of powerlessness due to persistent failure to succeed
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Who conducted an experiment regarding learned helplessness?
Sleigman in 1965 with dogs and classical conditioning
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What were the evaluations of Sleigman's learned helplessness study?
individual differences between dogs, unethical, effective treatments fr people with depression
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Evaluations of the authoritarian personality?
cannot generalise to everyone, cannot explain the holocaust, hard to establish cause and effect relationship between authoritarian and upbringing with obedience, adorn f scale, act independently
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What are the characteristics of a compliant personality?
introverted, not aggressive, lack responsibility, desire to be protcted
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Give an example as to when obedience was a mechanism for social change?
Nazis- holocaust
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What's informational social influence?

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stems from our reliance on others for correct information and interpretation of situation

Card 3

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What are the two type of social influence?

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Card 4

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What are the three type of conformity?

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What were the evaluations of Clark's study of internalisation?

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