Punishment and crime prevention

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What did Newburn find to be the main aims of punishment?
1)Discouraging criminals from reoffending (rehabilitation) 2) Retribution-ensuring criminals get their 'just deserts' 3)Reinforce social norms and values 4)Protect society
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What did Garland find to be the focus of the CJS in contemporary society?
While the CJS used to focus on rehabilitating criminals, in contemporary society more importance is placed on retribution and punishment of criminals. Reflects move from left realism to right realism in politics.
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What was punishment like in the past?
In the past, punishments took on more brutal and physical forms- focusing on retribution through the infliction of pain e.g. public hanging/torture. Punishment was also usually a public spectacle.
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How and why has punishment changed?(Foucault)
Foucault: punishment has changed in response to a change in power, from the sovereign to the state. Punishment is now more a means of controlling societal members.
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How and why has punishment changed? (Rushe&Kirchheimer)
Rushe+Kirchheimer: The form punishment takes reflects theeconomic interests of the ruling class. Imprisonment is popular in times of labour shortages.
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What is a 'surveillance society'?
A society which uses surveillance as a means of control over its members. The constant threat and fear of being watched has lead to members exercising self-surveillance.
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What are the issues with imprisonment?
It is ineffective- 47.5% of prisoners released in 2010 were found to have reoffended within a year of release. Boorman&Hopkins found that prisoners have often had chaotic childhoods. These issues are worsened with prison, destabilizing family ties.
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What is an alternative punishment to imprisonment?
Restorative justice- process by which an offender and victim are brought together, so the offender can face and take responsibility for the consequences of their crime, and the victim can restore their dignity and reduce their fear.
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What are functionalist views about the role of punishment?
Durkheim- society is based on collective conscience and laws are an expression of this. Punishment is a means of society expressing its disapproval at this violation of consensus, and also a means of boundary maintenance.
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What are Marxist views about the role of punishment?
Punishment is a means of maintaining social control. Althusser- punishment is part of the repressive state apparatuses, institutions which assert control via force. Rusche&Kirchheimer-punishment is selectively enforced- means of control over the poor
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What are left realist approaches to crime prevention?
Left realists recognise the detrimental nature of military style policing. Preventing crime involves: 1)early intervention in poorest communities where risk factors for crime are greatest 2)Ethnic minority police 3)tolerance training for police
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What are right realist approaches to crime prevention?
Tough on the criminals. Wilson&Kelling- preventing crime involves reducing symbols of deviance emerging so people are not encouraged to commit crime. Involves keeping environments in good physical conditions and zero tolerance policing.
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What is Clarke's situational crime prevention?
Preventing crime by reducing the physical opportunities available for committing crime.
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Card 2

Front

What did Garland find to be the focus of the CJS in contemporary society?

Back

While the CJS used to focus on rehabilitating criminals, in contemporary society more importance is placed on retribution and punishment of criminals. Reflects move from left realism to right realism in politics.

Card 3

Front

What was punishment like in the past?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How and why has punishment changed?(Foucault)

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How and why has punishment changed? (Rushe&Kirchheimer)

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Preview of the front of card 5
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