Representations

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Male Gaze
Laura Mulvey - Media texts use women for the purpose of attracting the male audience.
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Female Gaze
Judith Butler and Laura Mulvey - More modern and the opposite of male gaze. The objectification of men to give female audiences an equal amount of appeal.
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Scopophillia
N/A - Texts which portray people in such a way that they are seen by their audiences not as human beings but as sexual ‘objects’.
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Voyeurism
N/A - The intimate detailing and viewing of all aspects of an individual’s life for the purpose of entertaining.
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Gender Trouble
Judith Butler - When the boundaries between what is considered feminine or ‘girly’ and what is considered masculine or ‘boyish’ are blurred.
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Post Feminism
Laura Mulvey and bell hooks - Era of post feminism is 1980s to the present. Some post feminists argue that feminism isn’t relevant anymore because women have won equal rights. Feminists say that it is a way to ‘manufacture consent’ and forcing women to ac
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Feminist Theory
bell hooks - Argues that feminism is a struggle to end patriarchal oppression and the ideology of domination, and that the position of the underrepresented is impacted upon by class and race as well as gender.
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Gender Stereotypes
Lisbet Van Zoonen - The underlying frame of reference within the media is that women belong to the family and domestic life and men to the social world of politics and work.
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Aftermath of Feminism
Angela McRobbie - Argues that feminist ideas from the past aren’t seen as relevant by young women now. She explores how the media encourage women to consent to and play a part in negative media representations.
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The Beauty Myth Theory
Naomi Wolf - Argues that women are oppressed by the pressure to fit in to a myth or false ideal of beauty. Women are held back by an obsession with physical appearance and a narrow definition of beauty. Wolf attacks the fashion and beauty industries and t
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Raunch Culture
Andrea Levy - Levy attacks the increasingly sexualised culture that objectifies women. She argues that women are encouraged to see themselves as objects and to see sex as a weapon. Images of girls and women now saturate the media and are widely available
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Objectifying Women
Lisbet Van Zoonen - Gender is constructed through discourse, and that its meaning varies according to cultural and historical context. The display of women’s bodies as objects to be looked at is a core element of Western patriarchal culture.
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Gender Performativity
Judith Butler - Identity is constructed by the expressions that are said to be its results. There is no gender identity behind the expressions of gender. Performativity is not a singular act, but a repetition and a ritual.
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Post Colonialism
Paul Gilroy - The legacy of colonialism continues to impact contemporary attitudes to race and ethnicity in the current postcolonial era. The idea that civilisation constructs racial hierarchies and sets up binary oppositions based on the notion of othern
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Tokenism
N/A - Use of an ethnic person as a way of creating diversity.
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Orientalism
Edward Said - He suggests that the east and the orient are represented as provoking both fear and fascination within western culture.
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Stereotyping
Stuart Hall - Representation is the production of meaning through language, more specifically through a system of symbols or signs which convey specific meanings. Tends to occur where there are inequalities of power, as subordinate or excluded groups are
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Pick and Mix Theory
David Gauntlett - The media provide us with ‘tools’ or resources that we use to construct our identities. The media today offers us a more diverse range of stars, icons and characters from whom we may ‘Pick and Mix’ different ideas.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Judith Butler and Laura Mulvey - More modern and the opposite of male gaze. The objectification of men to give female audiences an equal amount of appeal.

Back

Female Gaze

Card 3

Front

N/A - Texts which portray people in such a way that they are seen by their audiences not as human beings but as sexual ‘objects’.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

N/A - The intimate detailing and viewing of all aspects of an individual’s life for the purpose of entertaining.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Judith Butler - When the boundaries between what is considered feminine or ‘girly’ and what is considered masculine or ‘boyish’ are blurred.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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