Research Methods (PS111)

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Chookie
  • Created on: 01-12-16 12:36
Why are different research methods needed?
To address different psychological questions
1 of 102
What are the aims of Psychological research?
Describe, Explain, Predict, Control. (DEPC)
2 of 102
How do researchers communicate their research?
Publication in scientific journals, books and conferences
3 of 102
What is the benefit of publication?
It adds to a collective body of knowledge and facilitates scientific progression
4 of 102
What format must a scientific article follow?
Title, Abstract, Introduction, Method, Results, Discussion, References
5 of 102
What are the two basic approaches to research?
Experimental and Non-Experimental (correlational)
6 of 102
What is a Hypothesis?
A formal statement of prediction. Hypotheses need to be amenable to empirical testing.
7 of 102
What is are Variables?
Any concept that varies and can be measured or assessed in some way. Simple examples are intelligence, height and social status
8 of 102
What is an Independent Variable?
The variable manipulated by the researcher
9 of 102
What is a Dependent Variable?
The variable that the researcher measure. It is predicted to depend on or vary according to the independent variable.
10 of 102
What is the manipulation of the IV responsible for?
Any observed changes in the DV
11 of 102
In research, many scientists have tried to aspire to what is known as the....?
True Experiment
12 of 102
What is the purpose of a true experiment?
To test cause and effect relationships by collecting evidence to demonstrate the effect of one variable on another
13 of 102
Why is Random assignment important?
Because otherwise the experiment is a quasi-experiment
14 of 102
What can only the true experiment do?
Identify cause and effect relationships
15 of 102
What are the three essential criteria needed for a true experiment?
1. Experimenter manipulation of the independent variable. 2. Control over the experimental environment and procedures. 3. The participants are assigned randomly to the conditions.
16 of 102
Why is the experimenter being able to manipulate the IV good?
Because then the researcher has full control over the IV and is able to precisely control how one condition of the experiment differs from another.
17 of 102
Why is the researcher being able to control the experimental environment and procedures good?
Because then all factors other than the independent variable remain constant.
18 of 102
How does the researcher control the experimental environment?
The environment is often a laboratory so the lighting, heating, time of day can be controlled.
19 of 102
How does the researcher control the procedures?
Any procedures (experimental instructions, experimenter's behaviour, tasks given) are standardised.
20 of 102
Why is the researcher randomly assigning participants good?
By randomising participants to conditions, the group attributes for the different conditions will be roughly equivalent.
21 of 102
How are participants randomly assigned to different conditions?
Through simple techniques such as coin toss and names in a hat. This means each participant has an equal chance of being allocated to either condition.
22 of 102
What does random assignment eliminate?
The influence of unconsidered or confounding variables. Random assignment equates (equals) group differences.
23 of 102
Name an advantage of a true experiment.
Precise measurement of variables is possible
24 of 102
Name an advantage of a true experiment.
All variables can be controlled
25 of 102
Name an advantage of a true experiment.
Can test cause and effect relationships enabling explanation as well as descriptions of behaviour
26 of 102
Name an advantage of a true experiment.
Easy to replicate
27 of 102
Name an disadvantage of a true experiment
IV and DV often narrowly defined
28 of 102
Name an disadvantage of a true experiment
Lacks ecological validity
29 of 102
Name an disadvantage of a true experiment
Not always possible or appropriate to manipulate psychological variables
30 of 102
What is a Quasi-experiment?
If the researcher is unable to randomly assign participants to conditions
31 of 102
Why might random assignment not be possible?
Some independent variables are naturally occurring therefore random assignment of participants to conditions is not feasible.
32 of 102
What can't Quasi-experiments test?
They cannot test cause and effect propositions.
33 of 102
If there isn't any random assignment, what can't the researcher rule out?
Without random assignment the researcher cannot equate, therefore rule out, confounding variables (e.g, housing conditions, step-parents, family discord)
34 of 102
What is a Laboratory experiment?
An experiment which takes place in a very controlled environment
35 of 102
What is a field experiment?
An experiment which is conducted in the participant's natural environment
36 of 102
What is a natural experiment?
An investigation of a naturally occurring event
37 of 102
What type of equipment does a laboratory experiment typically use?
Sensitive equipment providing precise measurement
38 of 102
Is a laboratory experiment a true experiment?
Not necessarily. True experiments are typically carried out in a laboratory setting, however, a laboratory setting/experiment does not assure/mean a true experiment.
39 of 102
Do field experiments improve ecological validity?
yes
40 of 102
What is ecological validity?
Ecological validity refers to the extent to which the findings of a research study are able to be generalized to real-life settings.
41 of 102
If a researcher is conducting a field experiment, do they still care about the true experiment?
Yes. The researcher will still attempt to adhere to the principles of the true experiment
42 of 102
Is it harder to achieve scientific rigour and control in a field experiment compared to a laboratory one?
Yes
43 of 102
In an natural experiment what is does the researcher do to the IV?
Nothing. The researcher exploits naturally occurring differences in the IV, no direct control over IV or setting.
44 of 102
Is a natural experiment regarded as a quasi-experiment?
Yes
45 of 102
What are the advantages of a natural experiment?
increased ecological validity, reduction of demand characteristics
46 of 102
What are the disadvantages of a natural experiment?
Lack of control, difficulty in replication
47 of 102
What are the two major types of experimental design?
Between-subjects and Within-subjects
48 of 102
What are the other names for a between-subject design?
Between-groups, independent samples, independent groups
49 of 102
What are the other names for a within-subject design?
Within-groups, repeated measures, related groups
50 of 102
What is a Between-subject experimental design?
When there is a different group of people for each condition
51 of 102
What is a within-subject design?
When each participant takes part in all conditions
52 of 102
What is an alternative to the experimental method?
Correlational/Cross-sectional Research
53 of 102
When is Correlational/Cross-sectional Research used?
When it is difficult or inappropriate to manipulate variables
54 of 102
What happens in Correlational/Cross-sectional Research?
The researcher measures a number of variables/characteristics in a sample of participants simultaneously, without intervention, therefore no IV.
55 of 102
What is the aim of Correlational/Cross-sectional Research?
The aim is to identify a relationship between variables
56 of 102
What does Correlational/Cross-sectional Research not tell us?
About cause and effect relationships.
57 of 102
What does psychological research tend to be assessed on?
Having reliable and valid measures
58 of 102
For an experiment to be reliable should the measurement device or test be dependable?
Yes
59 of 102
For an experiment to be reliable, should there be different types of reliability?
Yes
60 of 102
If the measure yields consistent results when utilised repeatedly under similar conditions does this mean the test is reliable or valid?
Reliable
61 of 102
Name two different types of reliability
Split-half reliability, test-retest reliability.
62 of 102
For an experiment to be valid, should the measurement device or test measure what the psychologist claims?
Yes
63 of 102
For an experiment to be valid should there be different types of validity?
Yes
64 of 102
Name two different types of validity.
Construct validity, Concurrent validity
65 of 102
What are Operational definitions?
A precise description of how a psychological concept is understood in terms of how it is going to be measured
66 of 102
What do operational definitions tend to apply to?
The IV and DV
67 of 102
What is the advantage of operational definitions?
That the meaning of the concept is made explicit
68 of 102
What is the disadvantage of iperational definitions?
That the definitions become narrow and are removed from abstract and theoretical thinking
69 of 102
What is the underlying assumption of qualitative research?
That it is inappropriate to apply the scientific method to the study of human nature
70 of 102
What is the focus of qualitative research?
The focus is on meaning and human experince rather than objective, numerical measurement
71 of 102
Where is qualitative research conducted?
In a naturalistic setting rather than a laboratory
72 of 102
Are the data collection methods in qualitative research less or more structured than other methods?
Less
73 of 102
What are some data collection methods in qualitative research?
Semi-structured interviews, participant observation, focus groups
74 of 102
What research method adopts natural science as a model?
Quantitative
75 of 102
What research method rejects natural science as a model?
Qualitative
76 of 102
What research method is in a naturalistic setting?
Qualitative
77 of 102
What research method is in an artifical setting?
Quantitative
78 of 102
What research method focuses on behaviour?
Quantitative
79 of 102
What research method focuses on meaning?
Qualitative
80 of 102
What research method looks at numerical analysis?
Quantitative
81 of 102
What research method looks at verbal analysis?
Qualitative
82 of 102
What research method seeks scientific laws?
Quantitative
83 of 102
What research method values individual or specific group experiences?
Qualitative
84 of 102
Should you use Qualitative research when research questions are more interested in meaning than differences?
Yes
85 of 102
Should you use Qualitative research when the subject matter is not amenable to experimentation?
Yes
86 of 102
Should you use Qualitative research when participant numbers are small?
Yes
87 of 102
Should you use Qualitative research when exploring un-researched areas
Yes
88 of 102
What did the Nuremberg Code (1947) say about ethics?
That consent must be given and participants must be told of the reasons for the experiment
89 of 102
What did the declaration of Helsinki (1964) say about ethics?
That procedures must be reviewed by authorities before research begins
90 of 102
Who is responsible for promoting ethical behaviour in psychologists?
The BPS (British Psychological society)
91 of 102
What are the 4 main principles of the BPS code of ethics and conduct?
Respect, competence, responsibility and integrity
92 of 102
What does the BPS code of human research ethics make recommendations on?
Informed consent, deception, debriefing, withdrawal, confidentiality and protection of participants
93 of 102
Do all research institutions have an ethics committee?
Yes
94 of 102
What do the ethic committees decide?
Whether any proposed research within the institution meets their ethical criteria.
95 of 102
What do ethic committees draw on?
The BPS guidelines
96 of 102
What is informed consent? In relation to the ethical guidelines.
The researchers should inform participants of the nature of the experiment and ask for their written consent before the start of the experiment
97 of 102
What is deception? In relation to the ethical guidelines.
Occasionally the nature of the research requires a level of deceit. Any planned deceit must be made explicit to the ethics committee.
98 of 102
What is debriefing? In relation to the ethical guidelines.
On completion of testing the researcher has a duty to fully explain the experiment (including any deception) and answer any questions
99 of 102
What is Withdrawal? In relation to the ethical guidelines.
The participant has the right to withdraw from testing at any point in the experiment without penalty. Participant also has the right to request their data be discarded or destroyed
100 of 102
What is confidentiality? In relation to the ethical guidelines.
All data should be anonymised, stored securely and confidentiality respected
101 of 102
What is protection of participants? In relation to the ethical guidelines.
Researchers have a responsibility towards their participant's well-being. Participants should not experience any harm, whether physical or emotional, as a result of participating in psychological research.
102 of 102

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are the aims of Psychological research?

Back

Describe, Explain, Predict, Control. (DEPC)

Card 3

Front

How do researchers communicate their research?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the benefit of publication?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What format must a scientific article follow?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Research Methods resources »