Sedimentary rocks and processes

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Weathering definition
The in situ breakdown of rocks
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Chemical weathering
Rocks decompose when their chemical structure is broken down. All chemical weathering reactions involve water. Carbonation and hydrolysis affect calcite and feldspar.
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Carbonation
CO2 gas reacts with rainwater and pore water in soil to form carbonic acid. Carbonation most important in the weathering of limestone
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Carbonation equation
Calcite + carbonic acid = calcium + hydrogen carbonate ions in solution
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Hydrolysis
The reaction between water and silicate minerals. Hydrolysis is speeded up if the water contains carbonic acid.
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Mechanical weathering (Exfoliation)
curved sheets peel off from the rock. Common in hot deserts. Minerals expand and contract by different amounts during heating and cool
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Mechanical weathering (frost shattering)
Water enters cracks, joints etc. Water freezes and expands by 9%, exerting pressure.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Rocks decompose when their chemical structure is broken down. All chemical weathering reactions involve water. Carbonation and hydrolysis affect calcite and feldspar.

Back

Chemical weathering

Card 3

Front

CO2 gas reacts with rainwater and pore water in soil to form carbonic acid. Carbonation most important in the weathering of limestone

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Calcite + carbonic acid = calcium + hydrogen carbonate ions in solution

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The reaction between water and silicate minerals. Hydrolysis is speeded up if the water contains carbonic acid.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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