Social psychology

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  • Created on: 21-02-19 21:57
THE SELF
THE SELF
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What is the self?
Includes social roles (e.g. gender) and characterstics (friendly).
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What is self-construal?
Self-definition in relation to others. Can be independent or Interdependent view of self, represents self-other overlap.
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What is self other overlap?
The distinction between self and others is reduced; see others as being part of your self concept, see self in relation to others or important group memberships, characteristic of interdependent self-construal.
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Continued...
Can occur with independent self-construal,under certain conditions. Measured by thinking about themselves and another person and have to circle which one describes their relationship.
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Self other overlap & close relationships
Self-other distinction often reduced for close relationships. Aron et al. 1991 found slower RTs when asked to make "me/not me" decisions on traits that differ between self and spouse and Mashek et al 2003 found this amongst best friends.
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S-O Overlap & Face Perception. Ketay, Beck, Riela, Bailey & Aron (2018)
Aim: To examine if self-other overlap in close friendships would extend to face perception- perception of own face as less distinct from close friends face?
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Study 1?
24 female UG students (N.America) brought close friend (gender & age matched) photos taken of both. There was then computerized facial identification task: variant of me/not me task.
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What did they have to do?
They were shown faces (self/friend/celebrity age & race matched), they had to identify the face so is it you/friend/celebrity. Two sets of trials 1. self vs friend 2. self vs celebrity.
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Results?
Faster RTs to identify self in self vs celebrity (self-reference effect), preferential encoding/processing of self-related information.Same or slower RTs for self vs friend, no preferential treatment, longer to distinguish between themself and friend
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Limitations of study
Small sample, will the effects generalize beyond North America, will the effects generalize to males, morphing technique- results very similar to the first study.
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Benefits of S-O overlap?
Interpersonal benefits; increased satisfacation & decreased dissolution of close relationships. Intergroup benefits; self-other overlap with individuals from a racial outgroup associated with more positive intergroup attitudes.
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Cultural differences in self-construal- Independent self-construal?
Culture promotes focus on self as autonomous entity (separate from others), inward focus on self,Northwestern Europe, US, Canada,NZ.
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Cultural differences in self-construal- Interdependent self-construal?
Culture promotes focus on self as being cnnected to others (importance played on community),outward focus on situation, Asia,Eastern Europe, Africa, Latin America.
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Cultural differences- Cohen & Gunz 2002 study?
Student asked to tell stories about when they were the focus of attention, e.g. being embarassed. Canadian (Independent self-construal), Asian (interdependent self construal).
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Results?
Canadian students; first-person perspective: recall scene from own perspective, inward focus on self (looking from inside- out). Asian students: third-person perspective; recall scene from observers' perspective, outward focus on social situation.
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Cultural differences- Kuhn & McPartland 1954 study?
Who am I exercise, list 20 statements that describe who you are. People from independent cultures tend to focus on their identity or preferences in an absence of others or context "I am friendly", "I like camping".
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Interdependent culture?
People from interpendent focus on identity in relation to other people, groups or contexts, "I am Helen's friend", "I am serious at work but fun-loving with friends".
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Cultural differences- Ma & Shoeneman 1997 study?
Aim: Does Western Exposure induce an independent self-construal in interdependent cultures? Method: Administered "Who Am I?" test to American students, as well as various different groups of people living in Kenya.
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What were the different groups?
1. Kenyan students, greatest western exposure; exposed to western culture and educated in western tradition (Western orientation). 2. Workers in Nairobi; moderate exposure, exposed to western culture but no western orientation.
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Group 3?
Maasai Tribes people- least western exposure, minimal western influence.
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Results?
Westernisation associated with development of a more independent self-construal. Western orientation necessary for significant impact, not just exposure.
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Summary of results?
1. American & Kenyan students showed a similar level of independent self-construal, 2. Maasai tribes people showed the lowest level of independent self-construal, 3.Workers in Nairobi showed a low level of independent because no orientation.
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Continued...
Western exposure alone is not sufficient to induce an independent self-construal. You also need an orientation.
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Gender differences in self-construal?
In the US, women tend to hold more interdependent self-construals than men (Cross & Madson 1997), women more likely to characterise the self in terms of connections to others, while men more likely to prioritise differences and uniquenes.
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Continued...
Same pattern found accross cutlures, e.g. Japan (Kashima et al 1992). When selecting photos that are most revealing of who they are, women more likely than men to choose photos that include other people (Clancy & Dollinger 1993).
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Women traits?
More empathetic & better judges of other people's emotions. More attuned to situational cues, e.g. other people's reactions.
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Men traits?
More attuned to internal responses, such as increased heart-rate.
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Reasons for gender differences in self-construal?
The Media Men typically portrayed in positions of power and agency, and women in more nurturing roles (Gilovich et al., 2016) Parental style Parents tend to talk more with their daughters (vs. sons) about emotions and being sensitive to others.
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Friendship reason?
From an early age, girls and boys tend to play in gender-segregated groups that reinforce and amplify differences in self-construal (Maccoby, 1990).
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Continued...
Girls tend to focus on cooperative games orientated towards interpersonal relationships (e.g., families), whereas boys tend to emphasize competition (e.g., sport).
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What is self awareness?
The self is an essential aspect of every person, BUT we do not think about it all the time.
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Self- awareness theory (Duval & Wicklund 1972)?
Self-awareness: a psychological state in which we become aware of ourselves as objects (traits, feelings & behaviour) Objective self-awareness generated by circumstances that focus attention on self, e.g., in front of audience or mirror.
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Development of self-awareness?
We are not born with self-awareness it developes over time (around 18 months).
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Lewis & Brooks (1978) spot on nose and mirror test?
9-12 months- treated mirror image as other child- no recognition of spot on own nose (no self-awareness). 18 months- infant would curiously look at mirror and touch spot on nose (aware that person in the mirror is them).
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Types of self (Carver & Scheier 1981)?
Private self- private thoughts, feelings and attitudes. Public self- how others see you (public image).
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Public self-awareness?
Focus on how you are perceived by others, people become publicly self-aware when aspects of themselves can be seen & evaluated by others, e.g. giving a presentation, being photographed or filmed, being or feeling like the focus of others attention.
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What are the consequences of public self-awareness?
1. Fear of negative evaluation can lead to nervousness & reduced self-esteem, 2. behaviour aimed at presenting oneself in a positive light; adherence to social standards (conforming), presentation of idealized version of self.
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Private self?
Tendency to focus on internal states (private thoughts, feelings & attitudes), people become privately self-aware when...see face in mirror, experience physiological arousal leading to reflection on emotional state e.g. when happy, excited, angry.
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What are the consequences of private self-awareness?
1. Intensified emotional response. 2. experience clarification of knowledge. 3. more likely to adhere to personal standards or ideals.
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Scheier & Carver (1977) experiment? (Intensified emotional response).
Particiants read aloud either positive or negative statements (eliciting either elation or depression), participants who looked in mirror during task (ie privately self aware) displayed more extreme emotional responses (vs controls- no mirror).
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Results?
With mirror higher elation and less depression compared to with no mirror.
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Gibbons et al (1979) experiment? (clarification of knowledge).
Gave participants placebo (told it was drug to induce arousal & side-effects), participants with mirror reported less arousal & fewer-side effects than controls (no mirror).
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Results?
Not privately self-aware- base self-knowledge on perceptions of drug. Privately self-aware- focus on how really feel (more accurate).
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Scheier & Carver 1980 experiment? Adhering to personal standards.
Participants wrote counter-attitudinal essay, cognitive dissonance theory (Festinger, 1957), people feel negative arousal if their attitudes & behaviour are inconsistent- often addressed by changing attitudes to fit behaviour.
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Continued...
Should change attitudes to fit behaviour (writing essay). Participants who wrote essay in front of mirror displayed less attitude change than those without a mirror. Greater focus on true attitudes regardless of behaviour.
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What is self-esteem?
A person's overall self-evaluation of self-worth. Self-evaluation as intrisically positive or negative. (Sedikides & Gregg 2002). We tend to focus on self- evaluations in specific domains that enhance our feelings of self worth (Crocker & Knight 2005
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Overall?
Most people strive to feel good about themselves.
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Benefits of high self-esteem (Baumeister, Campbell, Krueger & Vohs 2003)?
Assumed that SE influences various aspects of our lives. High SE leads to interpersonal relationships, academic performance, job performance, health.
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Assumption (Baumeister et al 2003)?
High SE= better academic performance. Set higher aspirations? more resilient in face of failure? increased confidence to tackle different probems? Common belief: if raise students SE academic performance should improved, school based interventions.
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Describe school based interventions?
Expect SE to be higher with an intervention than not. However, Many school-based interventions but typically they are not successful- they do raise self-esteem but do not raise academic performance like expected.
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Reality?
Getting good grades leads to high self-esteem, high self-esteem does not necessarily lead to good grades.
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Explain...
Self-esteem appears to be the outcome rather than the cause. Interpersonal relationships, academic performance, job performance and health all lead to high SE.
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Development of self-esteem?
Parenting style of primary caregivers in childhood influences levels of SE later in life (Baumrind 1991). Two dimensions: demanding (controlling, imposing rules & punishments), responsive (warm and supportive).
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Different types of parenting?
Authoritative; high demanding, high responsive, high-self-esteem. Authoritarian parent; high demainding, low resposive, reduced self-esteem. Permissive parent; low demanding, high responsive, reduced self-esteem.
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Stability of self-esteem?
Chronic SE may be determined in childhood, but variations in low vs high SE throughout lifespan (Robins et al 2002 meta analysis).
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Robins et al 2002 meta analysis.
6-11 years; relatively unstable still developing self-concept, twenties most stable, mid-adulthood remains relatively stable (fully developed self concept, less affected by temporary change , 60+ decline in stablity; major life changes (retirement).
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Self-esteem scale (Rosenberg 1965)?
Indicate your level of agreement with each of the following statements (0 Strongly Disagree;1 Disagree; 2 Agree; 3 Strongly Agree).
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Trait self-esteem?
A person’s enduring level of self-regard across time Remains fairly stable across time in adults (although, see previous slide re. later in life).
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Continued...
People who report high trait self-esteem at one point in their life tend to report high trait self-esteem later (same for low trait self-esteem; Block & Robins, 1993).
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State self-esteem?
Dynamic, changeable self-evaluations which can be dependent on situational influences (Heatherton & Polivy, 1991) E.g., rejection by a love interest or low grade on an exam.
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Social media & self-esteem? (Vogel, Rose, Roberts & Eckles 2014).
According to social comparison theory (SCT; Festinger, 1954). We regularly compare ourselves to others, these comparisons can either boost or harm our SE.
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Upward social comparison?
Compare self with superior other, negative affect, poorer self-evaluations, reduced SE.
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Downward social comparison?
Compare self with inferior other, positive affect, improved self evaluations, heightened SE.
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Vogel et al (2014)
Social media provides numerous opportunites for social comparison. We might expect temporary exposure to impact upon our state SE (situatuinal influence), chronic exposure to impact upon our trait SE (more enduring).
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What type of Self-esteem is social media?
Social media is a trait SE. Even though it may be one event this is done very often and therefore would become a trait Se, not state.
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Vogel study 1?
RQ: is frequent facebook (chronic exposure) use associated with lower trait self-esteem? Correlational results. Facebook exposure & trait self-esteem. Only when greater exposure to upward social comparisons.
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Study 2?
RQ: What impact does temporary exposure to social media have on state self-esteem? Method: experimental (upward or downward profiles), reults: downward profiles improves state self-esteem. However, does not include control condition.
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Conclusion of study 2?
Conclusion: Social media reduces SE via exposure to upward social comparisons Differential effect of social media, depending on whether...
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Making upward vs downward social comparisons?
Upward (comparing to superior other): negative impact on SE Downward (comparing to inferior other): positive impact on SE.
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Chronic vs temporary exposure?
Temporary: impacts on state SE (self-evaluation ‘right now’) Chronic (enduring over time): related to trait SE.
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What is self-enhancement?
When our self esteem is threatened people tend to engage in a number of strategies to regain feelings of self-worth, e.g.: Self affirmation (Steele, 1988) Affirming oneself in a domain unrelated to the threatened domain.
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Comparing and reflecting?
Social comparison theory (Festinger, 1954) Self-evaluation maintenance theory (Tesser, 1988).
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Self-affirmation theory? (Steele, 1988)
Self-esteem threatened in one area (domain 1) rejection by love interest. Affirm valued aspect of self unrelated to threat (domain 2) focus on academic ability.
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Self-affirmation & social media- Toma & Hancock 2013? Study 1?
Manipulated self-affirmation and manipulated Facebook exposure. Participants who were exposed to Self affirming Facebook (own Facebook) they took more responsibility for negative feedback and were less likely to blame other people.
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Continued...
If they are less self affirmed they will be more ego defensive about it. Suggest this is because we present our best selves on Facebook.
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Study 2?
Asked students to engage in a public speaking task and were given either neutral feedback or negative feedback. Then given chouce of five unrelated studies, including browsing own facebook profile.
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Results?
When people have had a blow from their self esteem they are more likely to want to look at their own profile due to the self affirming aspect mentioned above. (People’s Facebook shows them at their best).
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Social comparison theory (Festinger, 1954)?
Not simply passive perceivers in social comparisons, sometiems the goal determines the comparison: self-improvement; upward social comparison, self-enhancement; downward social comparison, accurate self evaluation; combinaton or compare to others.
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Self-evaluation maintenance theory (Tesser 1988)?
The success of people close to us affects our self-esteem in one of two ways; social reflection- self-esteem is boosted by others accomplishments, social comparison; self-esteem is threatened by close others' accomplishments.
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What determines whether we will engae in social reflection or social comparison? Social reflection?
Relevance- other is successful in domain irrelevant to you or certainty- certainty in own ability in that domain= social reflection.
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Social comparison?
Relevance- other is successful in domain relevant to you and certainty- uncertainty of own ability in that domain= social comparison.
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Continued...
When a close other is successful in a domain that is relevant to us and we are uncertain of our own ability in that domain, we engage in social comparison Upward comparison (they are more successful) - threatens self-esteem.
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How to maintain self-concept with examples?
Exagarrate ability of successful target e.g. "Helen's a genious- no point in comparing her to normal people". Change the target of comparison- "Forget Helen, I did better than Jane, Tim and Helen".
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Continued...
Distance self from successful target e.g. "I have nothng in common with Helen- I think I'll sit somewhere else in class". Devalue dimension of comparison e.g. "Helen may get better grades, but I have a better social life, being popular is more import
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ATTITUDES
ATTITUDES
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What are attitudes?
Evaluations of people, objects and ideas, differ in valence (positive or negative) and strength. People are not neutral observers of the world. We evaluate what we encounter. We form attitudes. Mostly on a spectrum.
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Structure of attitudes?
Historical debate over number of components; unitary construct vs number of different components. One & Two- component models; attitude is affect towards or evaluation of attitude object, relatively private event, no behavioural component.
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Continued...
Three component models (e.g., Breckler, 1984): Inclusion of behavioural component.
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Three component (or ABC) models?
Affective; feelings or emotions about attitude object, Behavioural; past, present or future anticipated behaviours associated with attitude object. Cognitive; beliefs, thoughts and attributes people have about attitude object.
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Example of this model?
A- for example I like high heels B- for example I like high heels so next time I go shopping I will buy a pair. C- for example I like high heels so next time I go shopping I will buy a pair because I Iook good in them.
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Function of attitudes?
Knowledge: Attitudes enable us to know the world Instrumental: Attitudes as a means to an end goal – helping to gain reward & avoid punishment Ego-defensive: Protecting one’s self-esteem or justifying actions, e.g. not doing PE as not fast.
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Continued...
Value-expressive: Attitudes enable us to express who we are & what we believe in – important for self-identity, e.g. what do I feel strongly about?
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Attitude formation- direct exposure- mere exposure hypothesis?
Mere exposure hypothesis (Zajonc, 1968): Tendency to develop more positive feelings toward objects and individuals the more we are exposed to them. e.g. if a child doesn't like broccoli keep giving it to them and in the end they will.
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Moreland and Beach (1992)
Four different female confederates posed as college students & attended a different number of classes each (0 (no exposure), 5, 10, or 15(most amount of exposure) The women were ‘matched’ on appearance and did not interact with students (mere exposur
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Continued...
At the end of the term, students were shown pictures of the women & were asked to indicate their liking of them.
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Results?
Preference for confederates who more classes (greater exposure).
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Attitude formation- direct experience- Conditioning
You go to Grandmother’s house which has a smell of mothballs and you get pleasurable feelings from going to her house. Gradually the smell of mothballs will give you a pleasurable feeling because you associate them with Grandmother’s house.
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Corona example
on holiday drinking corona, when you get home and have corona it reminds you of holiday and makes you happy.
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Example of positive/negative
If a child is playing in a park and starts to play with a new child with a different race, it will depend on the parent’s feelings to this interaction to whether the child has positive or negative attitudes to this new child.
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Attitude formation- Indirect or vicarious experience- social learning
Social learning theory (Bandura, 1973): The behaviour of one individual is a template for another individual Process of observation, imitation & modelling Often witnessed between parent (or significant adult) & child.
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What the children did?
When the adults went in and hit the doll, children who were watching this behaviour would mimic this. Often seen in child/parent relationships.
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Continued...
Children may use ethnic slurs/ insults & claim to ‘hate’ a particular ethic group with no direct experience/ knowledge of that group (Allport, 1954) Modelling of parents’ attitude/ behaviour.
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Attitude formation- other sources of learning- media?
Atkin (1980): Belief about healthiness of sugar-coated sweets and cereals related to amount of TV watched Children who watched a lot of TV (vs. those who watched only a little) twice as likely to believe that sugar-coated sweets/cereals are healthy
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What is self-perception theory? (Bem, 1972)
Acquire self-knowledge by examining own behaviour Infer one’s attitude from own behaviour “Why did I do that?” Theory assumes that we form attitudes (and behave) without much deliberate thought “I behaved positively towards X, therefore I must like X
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Measurement of attitudes- traditional measures?
Self-report/explicit measures (likert scale), quick, cheap & easy to use, but not always reliable; does not account for intentional witholding of true attitude (social desirability), soome people may be biased without realising it.
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Measurement of attitudes- indirect measures?
Physiological Measures: Facial Electromyograph (EMG) records facial muscle activity associated with emotions and attitudes.
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Indirect measures- association measures?
Infers ‘automatic’ attitudes by examining associations Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald et al., 1998): Derives attitudes from the speed at which people respond to pairing of concepts.
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Example?
White + good and Black + bad vs. White + bad and Black + good.
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Implicit association test? (IAT)
Responding more quickly to one type of pairing suggests the perceiver associates those two concepts Someone who is racially prejudiced will be faster to press the same key for a Black face and a negative word compared to a Black face and a positive w
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Continued...
Approximately 2/3 of White respondents show moderate to strong intergroup bias when considering White and Black faces (Nosek et al., 2002) Quicker to respond to Black/ negative & White/ positive vs. Black/ positive & White/ negative.
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What is intergroup bias?
Preference for ingroup vs. outgroup. Does not mean you do not like the other group it just means you like your group better.
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Criticisms of implicit association test?
Indirect measures of attitudes are considered the most reliable way to measure socially undesirable attitudes (e.g., prejudice) Still under development and should not necessarily be considered a measure of ‘true attitudes’.
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Continued...Cognitive ability?
Individuals who are slower to process information show more biased responses (e.g., McFarland & Crouch, 2002) .
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Continued... are associations attitudes?
Associations could reflect cultural knowledge or exposure (e.g., to stereotypes within the media) that the person does not endorse themselves…
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Continued...
They are still under development, relatively new in social psychology, should not put too much confidence in these being reliable attitudes. People can cheat the IAT, get used to ignoring automatic attitude and just following the rules.
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Attitudes and behaviour- classic studies?
Classic studies suggest that attitudes do not predict behaviours well (LaPiere, 1934).
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LaPiere study?
Examined prejudice towards Chinese people (anti-Asian prejudice high amongst Americans in 1930s) Chinese couple visited 250 establishments – refused service only once.
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Six months later?
Six months later, questionnaire sent to each establishment asking “Will you accept members of the Chinese race as guests?” 128 responses: 92% said ‘No’ (only 1% said ‘Yes’; 7% ‘Uncertain’) Discrepancy between attitude and actual behaviour.
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What does this show?
Remember, when talking about prejudicial attitudes & behaviour, these are not socially desirable May hold the attitude, but not show the behaviour.
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What is attitude behaviour relationship?
Complex, certain conditions that promote or disrupt the correspondence, attitude more likely to predict behaviour if expressed publicly (vs questionnaire). Public attitude & public behaviour similar whereas private may differ.
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Theory of planned behaviour (TPB; Azjen 1991).
If we have a attentin to act a certain way then we will behave in that way. Look at slides for examples.
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MODE model (Fazio 1990)
Accessible attitudes: those attitudes that can be recalled from memory with ease (Eagly & Chaiken, 1998) Often automatically activated.
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What makes an attitude highly accessible?
Strength of attitude: stronger attitudes > more accessible Frequency of attitude expression or activation: greater frequency > more accessible.
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Attitude behaviour relationship with accessible attitudes?
strong for highly accessible attitudes (Fazio, 1986) Behaviour automatically guided by the attitude. People with strong positive attitudes towards Greenpeace more likely to make a donation vs. those with weak positive attitudes.
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Overall?
Stronger attitudes > more accessible > greater influence on behaviour.
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However?
But people can engage in deliberative and planned behaviour that is not in line with attitude, if sufficient:.
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Motivation?
Motivation to deliberate about available information & overcome influence of automatic attitude.
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Opportunity?
Time, energy, & ability to overcome impact of automatic attitude & engage in deliberative & planned behavior contrary to attitude.
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Do attitudes predict behaviour?
More likely if both relate to same concept, subjective norms are in line with attitude & have perceived control over behaviour, attitudes are highly accessible, low motivation or opportunity to control response to automatic attitude.
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Variability in attitudes?
If we have been to the gym for 2 hours we are more likely to have the negative attitudes of a burger at that point e.g. unhealthy.
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Variability in attitudes?
Context determines which aspect of an attitude is activated and accessible.
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Wittenbrink, Judd & Park (2001)?
: White participants shown white & black faces against different backgrounds Automatic positive attitude when presented with church background but negative attitude when background is more crime-associated.
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ATTITUDE CHANGE & PERSUASION
Efforts of an individual or group of individuals to influence us to think how they want us to think which will influence our behaviour.
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The Yale attitude approach (Hovland et al 1953)?
Persuasive communications involved; source, message, audience, differences in any of these three factors can affect persuasiveness of a message, well established approach to what is influential in persuasive messages.
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The source- credibilty?
Credible sources more persuasive. Credibility determined by; expertise- perceptions of knowledge, experience & competence. Trustworthiness; perceived motivation to communicate message or expertise without bias. E&T not always related.
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The source- likeability?
Likeable sources are more persuasive, likeability can be: physical appearance and similarity. Source likeability & perceived trustworthiness often related. Infer trustworthiness through likeability and vice versa.
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The message- fear?
Emotional appeal such as fear arousing messages commonly used in relation to pro-health or anti-risk taking attitudes and behaviours- e.g. anti drink-driving campaign.
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Does fear work?
Messages are most effective when they evoke a moderate amount of fear. Low fear isnt motivating and high fear is distracting so takes the message away. Moderate fear gets people motivated to attend to these messages and make changes without terrified
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The message- two-sided arguments?
Persuasive messages & arguments have two or more sides. Effectiveness of two-sided arguments depends on characteristics of the audience.
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Present both sides of argument when...
Intelligent audience initially against the argument.
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Present only one (desired) side of argument when...
Less intelligent audience initially for the argument.
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The message- order of presentation (Hovland, Campbell & Brock 1957)?
Primacy effect: individuals are most influenced by what they hear of see first, lays foundation. Recency effect: indivdauls are most influenced by what they hear or see last, better memory. Dependent on following factors.
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Experiment for this?
50 UG students presented with two opposing arguments regarding inclusion of exam as prerequiste for graduation.
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Variables in this?
IV1- message order (pro/con vs con/pro), IV2: message relevance (high affecting participants/low not affecting participants now).
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Results?
High relevance; primacy effect, when pro-argument presented first, most favourable attitude to implementation of exam. Primacy effect; when con- argument presented first, less favourable attitude to implementation of exam.
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Low relevance?
Recency effect; when pro-argument presented last, more favourable attitude to implementation of exam. recency effect when con-argument presented last, less favourable attitude to implementation of exam.
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Therefore?
Therefore, high relevance primacy effect, low relevance, recency effect. So if your argument is relevant better to present this first, but if it is not relevant better to present yours last.
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The audience and self-esteem?
Early research suggested that people with low SE are more easily persuaded, more recently acknowledged, people with high SE as easily persuaded just, less liely to admit it or deny or forget holding original attitude.
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The audience and gender- early research?
suggested that females were more easily persuaded than males (e.g., Crutchfield, 1955) Relates to similar finding with social influence: women more likely to succumb to normative influence – alter attitude to behaviour to fit group ‘norm’.
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Recent research?
that this is due to methodological bias in earlier research (Sistrunk & McDavid, 1971) Researchers usually male: male bias in design of experiments.
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Results?
When male-orientated topic – females more susceptible When female-orientated topic – males more susceptible Neutral topic – no gender difference.
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Two routes to persuasion? Elaboration- likelihood model ELM (Petty & Cacioppo 1986)?
Central route: Audience processes messages carefully – ‘deep thinking’. Persuasion best achieved by strong arguments and evidence. Best to achieve enduring attitude change.
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Continued...
Peripheral route: Audience does not process message in depth and is persuaded by superficial cues. (how pretty the toothpaste is).
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Which route do you choose?
Depends on… Ability - high when much time, no distraction, message repeated Motivation - high when high personal relevance, or when person has high ‘need for cognition’ (trait).
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Chaiken (1980 experiment)?
UG students at University of Toronto (UoT), brochure used to (try to) change attitudes towards a new term structure.
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Variables?
IV1: Relevance of Topic (high vs. low) High: Changing UoT term structure next year Low: Changing UoT term structure in 5 years IV2: Likeableness of Source (high vs. low) High: Author likes UoT & students there
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Continued...
IV3: Strength of Argument (No. of arguments - 1 vs 5) DV: Attitude Change.
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Results?
High relevance: No. of arguments more influential than likeability (central route – strength vs. superficial cues) Low relevance: Likeability more influential than no. of arguments (peripheral route – superficial cues vs. strength). i
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Overall?
AGAIN, relevance important factor when considering how to present argument or message.
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Chaiken (1980) & Haugtvedt & Wegener (1994)?
When framing an argument or message to maximise persuasiveness, must consider what relevance it has to audience.
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Low relevance?
Superficial cues most persuasive (peripheral route), recency effect: present argument last for easy recall.
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High relevance?
Strong arguments based on evidence most effective (central route), most enduring attitude change, primacy effect: present argument, first, to lay foundation.
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Cognitive dissonance theory (Festinger 1957)?
Negative arousal when our behaviour is not consistent with our attitude. External reward for behaviour reduces dissonance, justification for behaviour contradicting attitude. When insufficient reward, no justification for behaviour.
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Attempt to reduce dissonance by altering attitude to fit with or justify behaviour (or vice versa).
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Festinger & Calsmith (1959) experiment?
IV- How much money participants were paid for saying they enjoyed the task Levels of IV- 2 according to video, but there's actually 3 DV- Rating of task enjoyment to experimenter.
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Results?
Inclusion of control condition is key, we can confidently say that the people in the dissonance condition changed their attitude. As control condition shows that the task was boring. Cognition dissonance theory is best for explaining this experiment.
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Self-perception theory (SPT) (Bem 1972)?
Alternative to cognitive dissonance (CD) account CD: Change existing attitude to fit behaviour Bem argued that people could simply infer their attitudes from their behaviour “I behaved like X, therefore my attitude must be X”
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Attitude formed in response to behaviour (vs. changing attitude) We can assume that Festinger & Carlsmith’s (1959) participants found the task boring (controls rated as low enjoyment).
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Attitude formed before the behaviour (vs. in response) But sometimes, we may not have a strong attitude towards something….so attitude could be inferred by behaviour (SPT).
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Resistance to attitude change?
Attitude inoculation: ‘Immunising’ people by exposing them to small doses of contra-arguments ‘Weak attacks’ to individual’s attitude or position Easily refuted.
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Immunised’ people are better at resisting persuasion attempts. Why?
Prepares them for resisting stronger arguments Already considered some effective rebuttals against the (weak) persuasive argument Strengthens belief in existing attitude Strong attitudes are harder to change (Wood et al., 2003).
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Resistance theory (Brehm 1966)?
When freedom to perform a certain behaviour is threatened = unpleasant state of reactance Desire to restore sense of freedom and choice Higher likelihood to perform undesired behaviour.
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Pennebaker and Sanders (1976)?
IV: 2 signs on college bathroom walls: (A) ‘Do not write on these walls under any circumstances’ (B) ‘Please don’t write on these walls.’ DV: Amount of graffiti on walls.
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Result?
Result: More graffiti on walls with (A).
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Summary?
Success of persuasion attempt depends on: Various characteristics of the source, message & audience Current processing style of the audience Whether resistance is strong or reactance is evoked in the audience.
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Summary continued...
Cognitive dissonance theory & self-perception theory underline that people can also change (or form) their attitudes as a result of their own behaviour Even in absence of persuasion attempt.
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INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES
EMOTION AND MOOD
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What is an affect?
Defined as a broad range of feelings that people experience Affect can be experienced in the form of emotions or moods. Can be split into emotions and moods.
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What is an emotion?
Caused by specific event Very brief in duration Specific and numerous in nature Usually accompanied by distinct facial expressions Action-oriented in nature.
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What is a mood?
Cause is often general and unclear Last longer than emotions More general (positive/ negative) Generally not indicated by distinct expressions Cognitive in nature.
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Why do we have emotions?
Bodily arousal- emotions involve physiological activity, including hormones, brain structures and muscles. Social expressive- emotions are important for communication and help us navigate social interactions. Emotions are necessary.
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What is the James-Lange theory?
Arousal (snake)- heart pounding, sweating- fear, emotion. We feel emotion because biological changes caused by stress leads to the body changing and our mind recognises this feeling. Experience of emotion is awareness of physiological responses
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to emotion-arousing stimuli.
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What is the Cannon-Bard theory?
Arousal (snake) leads to either heart pounding, sweating or fear, emotion. Emotional-arousing stimuli simultaneously trigger physiological responses and subjective experience of emotion.
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What is the Schachter-SInger two factor theory?
Arousal- hear pounding, sweating or cognitive label- fear, emotion. Emotions are more complex than the other theories suggest. To experience emotion one must: be physically aroused, cognitively label the arousal.
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Biology and cognition interact with each other to increase the experience.
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Evolutionary perspective- Darwin (1872)?
Darwin (1872), in support of his theory of evolution studied whether the expressions of the emotions in man were analogous to those in animals.
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Evolutionary perspective- Silvan Tomkins (1962)?
Silvan Tomkins (1962) argued emotions have a shared biological heritage with what is called emotion in animals.
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Basic emotions?
Paul Ekman argued that emotion is genetically determined so that facial expressions of discrete emotions are interpreted in the same way across most cultures. 6 basic emotions- anger, fear, disgust, surprise, happiness, sadness.
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Distinct expressions to the 6 emotions?
Happiness- cheeks raised, lip corners pulled. Anger- brow lowered, lips tightened, Sadness- lip corners depressed, inner eyebrows raised. Fear- brows raised, lips stretched, jaw drop. Disgust- nose wrinkled, lower lips depressed.
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Surprised- eyes wide open, jaw drop. There is some evidence of contempt as an emotion. All these features of emotion are found acccross cultures in adults and children.
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Study to show basic emotions? Ekman and Friesen (1971)
Compared Western participants with participants from South East Highlands of New Guinea where there is little contact with Caucasians Participants were told a story and then shown a set of 3 faces.
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What were they asked to do and results?
They were asked to select the face which showed the emotion appropriate to the story. Results were replicated by reversing the situation.
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Cultural differences (Matsumoto et al 1988)?
Assessed experiences concerning joy, fear, anger, sadness, disgust, shame and guilt and asked multiple questions including questions about physiological and expressive reactions. Asked individualist (USA) and collectivist cultures. Qualitative study.
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Results?
Both cultures agreed which emotions produced the most reactions BUT Americans reported more bodily reactions (lump in throat; change in breathing) and expressive reactions (laughing, crying, screaming).
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Two views of emotion- evolutionary?
Emotions are biologically rooted, part of our evolutionary history, emotions serve specific functions, emotions are universal accross cultures.
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Two views of emotion- social constructivist?
Emotions are constructed by cultural values, institutions and language. Biology (brain, physiology), play little to no role emotions, emotions are open systems, can be constructed in many different ways.
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Dimensions of emotion?
Valence and Arousal.
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Affect circulumplex model?
Simple model of emotion.
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Sources of emotions and moods?
Personality – Extraversion is associated with positive affect Day of the week – Our mood improved on a Friday. Age - Negative emotions occur less as people get older. Sunnier weather does not necessarily make us happier.
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Individual differences- extraversion is correlated with positive affect?
Temperament models suggest that positive affect is the core of the Extraversion dimension Instrumental models posit that traits indirectly affect outcomes through choice of situations or other intervening processes (e.g. social activities).
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Summary?
Social activity is more likely to have a positive affect which is why there is a link to extraversion. Correlation is not causation.
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Individual differences- positivity offset and negativity bias?
Positive offset is the tendency to experience a mildly positive mood when nothing in particular is going on Negative bias is the opposite. Some people tend to feel negative even when nothing is happening.
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Link of these?
Individuals characterized by a large negativity bias rate very negative stimuli more extremely than individuals characterized by a small negativity bias.(Norris et al., 2011).
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Day of the week belief?
Blue Monday, Monday is a negative day. Some empirical evidence support for the general notion of a weekly mood cycle, mood improved on a Friday (e.g. Csikszentmihalyi & Hunter, 2003).
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However? (Stonea, Schneidera and Harterb 2012)
They found no blue Monday, and that people are better at the weekend and better on Friday. Also, no difference between a Saturday and Sunday like expected.
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Age?
Negative emotions seem to occur less as people get older (Castensen et al., 2000). Tested participants 18-65, most negative affect between 18-34, this goes down at 35-64 and slightly back down at 65-94.
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Weather?
Denissen, Butalid, Penke & van Aken 2008- The effect of: temperature, wind power, sunlight, precipitation and air pressure positive and negative mood.
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Results?
Some positive association with temperature and a negative association with wind power and sunlight. No significant main effect on positive mood BUT this differed between individuals.
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Facial feedback?
Emotional facial configurations produce different patterns of automatic arousal and subjective feelings consistent with the associated emotion Strack, Martin, and Stepper (1988).
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However?
BUT Wagenmakers et al. (2016 did not replicate results HOWEVER Noah, Schul, & Mayo (2018) show that this might be due to methodology.
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Postural feedback (Riskind and Gotay 1982 study 4)?
Participants placed in a hunched, threatened physical posture verbally reported self-perceptions of greater stress than subjects who were placed in a relaxed position.
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Postural feedback (Stepper and Strack 1993 study 1)?
Assessed whether the experience of pride was influenced by body posture. Participants felt prouder if the assumed an upright position.
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Summary?
There is a difference between emotions, mood and affect Emotions are important for your survival Commonly agreed that there are 6 basic emotions Expression of basic emotions are recognized across cultures although they might be experienced differ.
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Emotions can be understood in terms of valance and arousal Emotions can be influenced by personality, time of week, and age Bodily feedback can affect the way we experience emotions.
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EMOTION REGULATION AND WELLBEING
EMOTION REGULATION AND WELLBEING
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What is an emotion regulation?
Emotion regulation consists of the extrinsic and intrinsic processes responsible for monitoring, evaluating, and modifying emotional reactions, especially their intensive and temporal features, to accomplish one’s goals Thompson (1994).
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What is it concerned with?
It is concerned not only with the management of expression of emotions but also with the management of internal states. It includes not only the inhibition of emotional reactions but also maintenance and enhancement of emotional reactions.
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Examples?
Biting your lip at an innapropriate comment to stop you laughing out loud, forcing yourself to smile when feeling sad in a social interaction.
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What is the appraisal theory?
The modal model of emotion generation, describes in abstract and general terms the stages that constitute the formation of an emotional response. This model suggests that the emotion generation process occurs in a particular sequence over time.
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Process underlyin emotion regulation- James Gross's model?
Situation selection (keep away from situation)- situation modification (if not possible, change something about the situation)- attentional deplyment (change what to focus on without changing the physical environment).
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Sequence of this?
Situation,attention, appraisal, response.
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Cognitive change (change the way you appraise and interpret the meaning of a stimulus- resoinse modulation (change the way you express emotions).
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Situation selection?
 refers to the actions we take that make it more likely we’ll be in a situation we expect will give rise to the emotions we’d like to have (or less likely that we’ll be in a situation that will give rise to emotions we’d prefer not to have).
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Situation modification?
Situation modification refers to efforts to directly change a situation so as to modify its emotional impact.
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Attentional development?
Attentional deployment refers to influencing emotional responding by re-directing attention within a given situation.
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Cognitive change?
refers to changing one or more of one’s appraisals in a way that alters the situation’s emotional significance, by changing how one thinks either about the situation itself or about one’s capacity to manage the demands it poses.
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Response modulation?
refers to influencing experiential, behavioral, or physiological responses after response tendencies have already been initiated. For example, one may hide from another person the emotion one is feeling by inhibiting emotional behaviors.
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Appraisal theory steps?
Situation: the sequence begins with a situation (real or imagined) that is emotionally relevant. Attention: attention is directed towards the emotional situation. Appraisal: the emotional situation is evaluated and interpreted.
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Response: an emotional response is generated, giving rise to loosely coordinated changes in experiential, behavioral, and physiological response systems.
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Reappraisal- Winecoff et al (2011) study? fMRI?
Participants were presented with images and on each trial, participants viewed positive, negative or neutral pictures and either naturally experienced the image (‘Experience’ condition) or attempted to detach themselves from the image.
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Conditions??
(‘Reappraise’ condition – thought as themselves as detached and objective third party, dinstance yourself from the scene). Afterwards they had to rate their emotion on a 8 item likert scale.
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Results?
Across both age groups, cognitive reappraisal activated prefrontal regions similar to those reported in prior studies of emotion regulation, while emotional experience activated the bilateral amygdala.
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Reappraisal brain areas?
The contrast of reappraise > experience revealed that Activation in the d1PFC, dmPFC ad the IPL increased when participant They are able to recruitt PFC when asked to regulate their negative emotions by reappraisal.
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PFC and amygdala?
These results show that emotion regulation modulates the functional connectivity between the amygdala and the LIFG Their PFC will downregulate the amygdala and help emotion regulation. to engaged in reappraisal >>>> what that means is that…
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For both positive and negative stimuli, and for both younger and older adults, LIFG activation increased to ‘Reappraise’ trials compared to ‘Experience’ trials.
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Johnstone et al (2007)?
They looked at similar task but compared health individuals with individuals with depression. Shown negative stimuli and had to respond to this. They found during reappraisal the patients with depression were less able to change.More Pfc in controls.
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What does this show?
There is some interpretation in the stimuli. However, there is a distinct relationship with the amydgala. Activation dies down. Negative correlation in controls, positive in depression.Failure to down regulate the amygdala in depression.
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Depression and situation modification (Milgram et al. 2015)?
Participants were shown sad, positive or neutral images and then given two options: 1) seeing the same image or 2) seeing another image. Depressed participants chose to see sad images again. Differences in emotion regulation goals.
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Summary of healthy people?
They are able to recruit PFC when asked to regulate their negative emotions by reappraisal. Their PFC will downregulate the amygdala and help emotion regulation. They are also able to change situations to reduce negative emotions.
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Summary of depressed patients?
They are able to recruit PFC when asked to regulate their negative emotions by reappraisal. But their PFC won’t downregulate the amygdala. They do not try to change situations to feel better—possibly due to the lower emotion regulation goals.
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What is wellbeing?
Wellbeing refers to optimal psychological functioning and experience.
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Two views of wellbeing?
1. Hedonic well-being (subjective wellbeing)- consists of pleasure or happiness. 2. Eudaimonic well-being (psychological wellbeing)- is more than just happiness, consists of fulfilling one's potentials.
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Hedonic wellbeing (subjective) components?
Well-being consists of pleasure or happiness. Three components Life satisfaction Lack of negative emotions Presence of positive emotions.
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Happiness?
Too much happiness is not always good. A moderate level of hedonic wellbeing predicts one's success most (Oishi et al 2007). Success according to salary in this study.
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Eudaimonic wellbeing (psycholocial) components?
Purpose in life (e.g., has aims for living) Personal growth (e.g., feeling of continued development) Autonomy (e.g., is self-determined) Self-acceptance (e.g., positive attitudes toward the self) Positive relations with others.
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Environmental mastery (e.g., able to choose contexts suitable to personal needs). This type of well-being is more than just happiness, fulfils one's potentials in life.
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Habitual reappraisal?
Gross & John (2003)- those who habitually use reappraisal show better subjective and psychological wellbeing. People are better at reappraisal tend to score higher in both psychological and subjective wellbeing. This can be assessed through questionn
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Overall?
Repraissal is negatively linked with depression. People are low in using reappraisal strategies tend to score higher in measures of depression.
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Does emotion regulation always help well-being?
Expression/response- suppression. Does not necessarily help wellbeing.
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Supression of responses?
Response focused vs antecedent focused emotional regulations.
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Reppraisal vs suppression?
Reappraisal: E.g., I control my emotion by changing the way I think about the situation. Suppression E.g., I control my emotions by not expressing them. I keep my emotions to myself.
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Implications of reappraisal and supression?
People who habitually use suppression have reduced well-being, increased depression and reduced self-esteem. Not anytype of emotional regulation is good for your well-being.
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Thought suppression study? (Wenzleff et al., 1988)?
Two groups. Group A suppression- In the next five minutes, please verbalize your thoughts. This time, please try not to think of a white bear. Every time you have “white bear” come to mind, please ring the bell.
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Group A expression?
In the next five minutes, please think about a white bear and ring the bell whenever you think about “white bear.
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Group B?
Did the opposite, expression first then suppression. The more participants were told not to look at the white bear or talk about it the more they would.
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Wegner & Erber (1992) explanations? Automatic target search?
Looks for the unwanted thought all the time to monitor one’s thought and Tests whether one’s thought suppression attempts succeed or fail.
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Controlled distractor search?
Once the automatic target search finds the unwanted thought, we recruit controlled distractor search to find distractors (something else to think).
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Therefore...
Automatic target search makes the unwanted thought activated and highly accessible especially when it is difficult to use the effortful/controlled distractor search mechanisms. Difficult task under time pressure and with limited cognitive resources.
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Thought suppression and emotional regulation? (Pennebaker & Beal 1986)
Control condition: write about a different trivial topic each evening (4 nights; e.g., the shoes they were wearing). Expression condition: write about a traumatic event and their emotional feelings associated with the event each evening (4 nights).
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Results?
Participants in the expression condition showed increased thoughts about what they have written but made a fewer visits to the health centres than did those in the.control condition.
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Overall and writing?
Writing helps reduce negative effects due to thought suppression and expression suppression. Writing also helps change cognitive reappraisal about the events.
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Example?
“Although I have not talked with anyone about what I wrote, I was finally able to deal with it, work through the pain instead of trying to block it out. Now it doesn't hurt to think about it.”
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Summary?
Several strategies in emotion regulation. Some strategies (e.g., reappraisal; expression) appear to help hedonic and eudaimonic wellbeing, while other (e.g., suppression) do not necessarily help one’s wellbeing.
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Summary- individual differences?
Individual differences in The effects of each emotion regulation strategy The tendency to use each emotion regulation strategy.
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INTELLIGENCE
INTELLIGENCE
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What is intelligence?
General mental capability, that involces the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas, learn from experience (Gottfredson, 1997).
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History of intelligence- Francis Galton (1986)?
Individual differences and euginics, movement that argued for selective reproduction and immigration laws based on IQ.
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Jensen (2002) view on Galton?
It seemed obvious and even unarguable to Galton that, from a eugenic viewpoint, superior mental and behavioural capacities, as well as physical health, are advantageous, not only to an individual but for the well-being of society as a whole”.
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History of intelligence- Alfred Binet (1905, 1916)?
Created the first intelligence scale, Binet-Simon scale to come up with something that was not subjetcive. Focused on attention, memory, and problem solving. He used his scale to put people into different categories to see if they could pass the task
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Problems with the scale?
Uses words like "idiot" which would not be used now.
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History of intelligence- William Stern (1912)?
Developed the idea of intelligence quotien. IQ= mental age/chronical age multiplied by 100.
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History of intelligence- Lewis Terman (1916)?
Revised the Binet-Simon test; Stanford-Binet test. Tested a wide variety of children, looked to see if this criteria was widely applicable, found he changed the test quite a bit due to new criteria. Average IQ should be 100.
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How should the tests be conducted?
In a standardised way to understand how children perform in terms of an average.
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History of intelligence- David Wechsler (1955)?
WAIS-IV (Wechsler adult intelligence scale). 10 subtests with 5 supplemetary tests, 4 areas: verbal comprehension index, perceptual reasoning ndex, working memory index, processing speed index and general ability index.
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Comparisons?
Compares scores of test-taker to those of others in his/her general age group (standardised)- average is 100. Two thirds of all scores fall within 85-115 (normal scores)- normal distribution.
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Overall?
Has a multitude of tests, enables us to measure intelligence in a global way. Can be administered to a wide range of ages. Between the ages of 16-90. Idea is to compare individuals.
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Generall intelligence (g)- Spearman?
Positive manifold- a variety of test scores all correlate positively together. Underlying all of the positively correlated IQ subtests is a general factor of intelligence or a g-factor.
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Tyeps of intelligence (Raymond Cattell 1966)?
1) Fluid intelligence (Gf)- capacity to reason and solve novel problems, independent of any knowledge from the past, e.g. puzzles. Does not rely on knowledge in the past.
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Ability to use skills, knowledge and experience- uses knowledge that we know from the past.
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Intelligence accross the lifespan?
When we age- being more physically active can preserve fluid intelligence (Lovden, Xu & Wang 2013). Biggest predicter of being smarter in old age is being smarter in childhood (Deary, Pattie & Starr 2013).
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Why intelligence matters?- Education
IQ scores are strongly and unambiguously correlated with two measures of education; achievement (exam results) and duration (how long you stay at school, university?)/
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Limitations to this idea?
Having a high IQ doesn't ensure educational success, other characteristics like conscientiousness, motivation, self-control and social skills could have an impact. Education might improve intelligences, findings do not apply to peoplewithdifficulties
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Why intelligence matters?- Jobs
Intelligence are predictive or performance in the workplace; monetary worth of a person's output, efficiency, managers' ratings. Better job performance = higher income.
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Why intelligence matters?- Social class
Income is one of the most important indicators of social class, smarter people tend to end up in higher social class. IQ causes better job performance vs higher social class caused both better job performance and higher IQ.
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Why intelligence matters?- Health
Smarter people do healthier things, are less likely to have medical conditions (Gottfredson 2004) and less likely to be hospitalised for psychiatric conditions (Gale, Batty).
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Why intelligence matters?- Mortality
IQ-death connection (Deary, 2008), lower intellience not a cause, but an indicator of pooer health, genes that give people healthier bodies than others give them healthier brains (genetic correlation), higher IQ people are better at noticing risks.
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Limitations?
Most studies are cottrlational so there is a need to look at cause and effect and there is a model that looks at the causes of intelligent differences and consequences of these.
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Why intelligence matters?- other variables
Creativity- 'alternative uses' task, more patents and artistic prizes (Wai 2005), political and religious beliefs; higher intelligence scorers more socially (Deary) and economically (Carl 2014) liberal. Smarter people less religious. Lifesatisfaction
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When is having a high IQ worse?
Social skills- no clear evidence for a negative relationship between intelligence and social skills (Wolf & Ackerman 2005), short-sightedness- smarter people are more likely to need glasses as glasses links to reading more as a child (Teasdale 1988.
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Continued... bipolar disorder?
Extremely intelligent people are more prone to bipolar disorder (Gale 2013), variables that affect the bipolar link, for example it is more observable in men.
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The biology of intelligence?
Evolution- intellgence is an adaption, we have adapted to it in problem solving. Behavioural genertics; quantitative genetics (genes and intelligence differences), molecular genetics (genes that cause intelligence differences).
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Are there genetic effects on intelligence?-Twin studies
Identical twins IQs are more similar than fraternal twins (Plomin & Spinath, 2004). Only 50% of variance of intelligence is shared in genetics. Perhaps the reason why identical twins are more similar (IQ) is because their treated same.
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Are there genetic effects on intelligence?- Adoption studies
Siblings reared together in the same home have IQs that are more similar than those of adopted children raised together in the same environment (McGue 1992). Longitudinal study tested parenting influence on IQ, weak, non-significant *** (Beaver 2014)
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Parents that are more intelligent are likely to have more of an positive influence with their child which would mask this association... will develop the child into a healthy individual giving the best chance to succeed.
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Genes vs environment
Twin studied showed that the shared environment appears to have a very small effect on intelligence (Harris, 2009). Almost all variance is explained by a combination of genes and the non-shared environment.
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Intelligence and the brain?
Brain size is related to intelligence (Pietschnig 2014). A predominantly negative correlation between intelligence and cortical thickness in early childhood to a postive correlation in late childhood and beyond (Shaw et al. 2004).
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Can we raise IQ scores?- "The Mozart effect"
Rauscher, Shaw & Ky (1993). spatial IQ task, students were 8 or 9 points higher when listening to Mozart. Neither robust nor reliable though, as has not been replicated (Pietschnig, Voracek & Formann 2010). Control condition was no music.
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Can we raise IQ scores? Brain training
n-back task- participants who spend one month training on a version of the n-back that improved their scores on matrix reasoning test of fluid intelligence (Jaeggi 2008), produce short-term effects that do not generalise (Melby 2013).
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Might be a useful tool for cognitive interventon in at least normal age (Karbach & Verhaghen 2014). Did not produce good results in younger adults.
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Can we raise IQ scores?- nutrition
Level of iodine plays a crucial role in the intellectual development of children (Qian et al., 2005) Omega-3 fish oils supplement do not seem to have any beneficial effect on brain function (Kennedy et al., 2013).
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Can we raise IQ scores?- Toxic substances
Prenatal or early postnatal (alcohol, drugs, cigarettes, radiation, lead-based paint dust/petrol fumes) affect IQ (Huang et al., 2012; Neisser et al., 1996). Bi-directional view, this was done in children who were already malnourished.
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Can we raise IQ scores?- breastfeeding
Breast-fed (>6 months), 3-6 IQ points higher on vocabulary intelligence test than not breast fed (Oddy 2013), higher scores in maths, reading and spelling in 10 year olds, adjusted for socio-demographics of mother and father+ earlystimulation @home.
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Confounding variables?
Walfisch, Sermer, Cressman & Koren.
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Can we raise IQ scores?- education
Education occurring even as late as in the middle teenage years can indeed have a statistically significant and sizeable effect on IQ scores (Brinch & Galloway, 2012)
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What’s happening in school that might cause these improvements?
Intensive educational projects for disadvantage children? (e.g., Perry Preschool Project, Abecedarian Project) Early childhood education produce persistent effects on achievement and academic success, but not on IQ (Barnett, 1998).
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Can we raise IQ scores?- Flynn effect
Observed rise in IQ scores over time, can be seen on a variety of tasks, average IQ score increases decade by decase. Developed countried higher IQ than developing, but developing increases more.
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What needs to be done?
We need to ocntinually renorm intelligence tests because it can differ year by year, e.g. if someone gives death penalty.
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Controversies- sex differences in intelligence?
The average IQ scores of girls and boys were exactly the same (Johnson 2008), but there are differences in more specific abilities (Miller & Halpern 2014).
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Women do better than men on verbal measures, men do better that women on spatial ability. Also, males tends to be over-represented at the very high and very low levels of intelligence.
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Controversies- race differences in intelligence?
Black children IQ scores were 1 SD lower than those of white children on WPPSI test (Duncan 1966), adjustments of differences in poverty, reduced difference by 28%, adjustment in home environment- reduced by 28%.
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Adjustments for economic and social differences → eliminated differences.
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Summary?
There are intelligence differences among people; these differences are measurable and might be influenced in part by biology. All mental abilities are correlated. Having high IQ has real-life consequences – many of them positive.
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Although intelligence is not immutable, it is unlikely to be infinitely malleable. Tools for raising intelligence – which might partly have caused the Flynn effect – seem to be in the form of education.
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EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
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First view of intelligence- Catell (1966)?
1. catell: fluid and crystallised intelligence. Fluid intelligence is the ability to think and reason abstractly and solve problems. Crystallised is rooted in experience and based on knowledge.
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Both increase throughout childhood and adolescence, fluid declines from age 30 or 40- crystallise continues to grow (differes in ages). Crystallised specific to experience.
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Second view of intelligence- Gardener (1983)?
Theory of multiple intelligences- 8 different. Visual/Spatial – recognizes patterns easily; enjoys drawing/painting/visual arts.
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Verbal-linguistic - able to use words well, both when writing and speaking. These individuals are typically very good at writing stories, memorizing information and reading. Logical/mathematical - good at reasoning, recognizing patterns and logically
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Body/Kinesthetic - good at body movement, performing actions and physical control. People who are strong in this area tend to have excellent hand-eye coordination and dexterity. Musical intelligence - good and thinking in patterns, rhythms, and sound
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They have a strong appreciation for music and are often good at musical composition and performance.
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Interpersonal - understanding and interacting with other people. These individuals are skilled at assessing the emotions, motivations, desires and intentions of those around them.
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Intrapersonal - good at being aware of their own emotional states, feelings, and motivations. They tend to enjoy self-reflection and analysis, including daydreaming, exploring relationships with others and assessing their personal strengths.
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Naturalistic - has been met with more resistance than his original seven ​intelligences. According to Gardner, individuals who are high in this type of intelligence are more in tune with nature and are often interested in nurturing.
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exploring the environment and learning about other species. These individuals are said to be highly aware of even subtle changes to their environments.
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Third view of intelligence- Robert Sternberg (1985)
Triarchic theory of intelligence. Analytic- problem solving, creative- apply past experience, practical- adapting to environment.
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What is emotional intelligence?
The ability to understand your own emotions and those of people around you. Represents a set of competencies for identifying, processing and managing emotion.
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What was the definition heavily influenced by?
Early work focused on describing, defining and assessing socially competent behaviour such as social intelligence (Thorndike, 1920).
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What is the four branch model? (Mayer & Salovey 1997)
Both intelligence and emotion had equal weight in the model. We assign cognitive labels to emotion.
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What are the four components of this?
Perceiving- expression of emotions, using- facilitating emotions, understanding- social side, how we understand emotions in ourselves and with others and managing- promoting growth in ourselves.
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Mayer-Salovey-Caruso emotional intelligence test?
Test to emotional intelligence based on the four branch model from the previous slide. They need the ability to identify emotion (first task- image and have to identify the emotion), and ability to use (facilitate emotion), what mood to use when task
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They were also tested on the ability to understand emotion by finishing scenarios with an emotion and the ability to manage emotions by saying how effective something would be in a scenario. Overall score as well as a score for the different emotions
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What is Goleman's model of emotional intelligence? (1995)
Personal- self-awareness and self-management, social- social awareness and relationship management. Self-awareness leads to social awareness or self management. Social awareness leads to relationship management. Self- management leads to RM.
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What is self awareness?
Emotional awareness, accurate self-assessment, self-confidence.
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What is self-management?
Emotional self-control, transparency, adaptability, achievement, initiative,optimism.
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What is social awareness?
Empathy, organisational awareness, service orientation.
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What is relationship management?
Developing others, inspirational leadership, change catalyst, influence, conflict management, teamwork & collaboration.
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Bar-on's model of emotional-social intelligence (1997;2005)?
Consider emotional intelligence as a mixture of traits, competences and abilities; intrapersonal, adaptability, interpersonal, stress-management, general mood.
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What is intrapersonal?
Self-regard, emotional-self awareness, assertiveness/emotional self-expression, independence, self-actualisation.
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What is adaptability and interpersonal?
Adaptability: Problem-solving, reality-testing, flexibility. Interpersonal: interpersonal relationship, social, responsibility, empathy.
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What is stress-management and general mood?
Stress management: Stress tolerance and impulse control, General mood: happiness/well-being and optimism.
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What is trait emotional intelligence?
Petrides and Furnham (2001; 2003) proposed a theoretical distinction between trait EI (‘emotional self-efficacy’) and ability EI (‘cognitive-emotional ability’).
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Trait EI?
Emotion-related self-perceptions and dispositions, self-report questionnaires.
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Ability EI?
Emotion-related cognitive abilities, maximum performance tests.
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Trait EI study on emotion recognition? Petrides and Furnham (2003)?
Study 1 hypothesis: high trait EI participants would perform better on emotion recognition task than low trait EI participants. Would see a picture of different emotions on the same individual.
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Trait EI study on reactivity to mood induction? Same researcher as above.
Stimuli; disturbing clip and cheerful clip. Study 2 hypothesis: high trait EI participants would be more sensitive to mood induction procedures than low trait EI participants.
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Trait emotional intelligence- helping behaviour? (Agnoli et al 2015)
During the experimental task you will be asked be to move the mouse pointer on the screen and click on the exact point where you will see appearing the picture of a child.
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Based on your speed and accuracy you will have the opportunity to gain an amount of money by means of which you could save the life of 5 children.
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In particular, you will be able to gain money to help each child only if you will respond with accuracy and in less than 500ms. You will be informed on your performance after each block of trials.
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Helping behaviour conditions and results?
Conditions: positive vs negative feedback. Results: negative feedback induces a progressive increase of negative affective states, "drop in the bucket" effect, low trait EI participants progressively decreased their performance across blocks.
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High trait EI participants were able to better manage the affective reactions than low trait EI participants.
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Trait emotional intelligence- cognitive appraisal of stressful events.
Mikolajczak & Luminent (2008): importance of the appraisal of the situation, 2 neutral vs stressful and 2 high vs low trait EI, self-efficacy (belief in their capability).
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Ability emotional intelligence- angry rumination?
EI and aggressive behaviour are negatively associated (García-Sancho, Salguero, & Fernández-Berrocal, 2014) Angry rumination is negatively related to ability EI (García-Sancho, Salguero, & Fernández-Berrocal, 2016).
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Angry rumination mediated the relationship between AEI and aggression.Angry rumination is perseverative thinking about a personally meaningful anger-inducing event and is a risk factor for aggression.
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Who looks at the effects of age on ability emotional intelligence?
Cabello, Sorrel, Fernández-Pinto, Extremera, & Fernández-Berrocal (2016).
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Gender difference in emotional intelligence?
Females tend to score high on the Neuroticism measure (e.g., Furnham & Buchanan, 2005) Emotional stability is positively linked to various dimensions of trait and ability-based EI constructs.
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Females scored higher than males on all dimensions of the MSCEIT except for Managing Emotions. On the EQi, men scored higher on Intrapersonal Skills (McIntyre, 2010).
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scores on one emotional intelligence test largely reflected emotional stability. Yet it is well established that women score higher on Neuroticism suggesting that whilst they maybe more sensitive to emotional cues in themselves and others.
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They tend to be made more anxious and stressed by this.
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Mandell and Perwani (2003) and gender differences?
Transformational leadership style of managers could be predicted from their emotional intelligence scores. BUT no difference in the relationship between transformational leadership style and emotional intelligence for male and female managers.
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Mediating effects (Fernandez-Berrocal et al 2012)?
Results showed that the gender differences initially reported for EI are mediated completely by age These findings indicate the need for caution when concluding that gender affects EI.
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Emotional intelligence and individuals with ASD?
Gokcen et al (2013) did a reading the mind in the eyes test and found those with EI performed lower in test scores than those without.
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Emotional intelligence and decision making?
Yip and Côté (2013) examined how EI facilitates decision-making.
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Stdy 1?
Group-testing: measure emotion-understanding ability Conditions: incidental-anxiety vs neutral Risk-taking measures.
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Results?
Not difference in neutral condition really, but in other condition, those with lower emotional understanding did not choose the risky option as much as those with higher understanding.
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Study 2?
Manipulated awareness of half of the participants in each emotion condition. See powerpoint for results.
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Can we improve EI?
EI Intervention: 4 sessions of 2 and a half hours over four weeks, based on the four branch model, all positive changes remained significant 6 months after intervention, some aspects like emotional understanding was not improved. (Nelis et al 2009).
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Improved EI is associated with significant improvement of life satisfaction and decrease in perceived and objective stress (Kotsou, Nelis, Grégoire, & Mikolajczak, 2011).
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Dark side of EI?
Ali, Amorim, & Chamorro-Premuzic (2009) Empathy image using the self-assessment manikin (SAM).
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Primary psychopathy and Machiavellianism positively correlated experience of positive affect from sad stimuli.
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Secondary psychopathy and Machiavellianism positively associated with experience of negative affect from neutral.
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Summary...
There are three main theories of emotional intelligence: Salovey and Mayer’s four-branch model, Goleman’s model, and Bar-On’s model.
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Two different emotional intelligence constructs can be differentiated on the basis of the method of measurement used to operationalise them: self-report, as in personality questionnaires, or maximum performance, as in IQ tests.
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There has been irrational enthusiasm surrounding the practical utility of emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence appears related (albeit weakly) to performance outcomes in a variety of applied settings.
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Card 3

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What is self-construal?

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Card 4

Front

What is self other overlap?

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