Sociologists - Families & Households

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Parsons (Fun)
Two conjugal roles: instrumental role (male) & expressive role (female). Gender division is functional for family, members & society. Division is biologically based.
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Bott (March of progress view)
Two types of CR: segregated CR (sharp division of labour between m&f) and joint conjugal roles (sharing domestic tasks & leisure)
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Oakley (Fem)
Housewife role is a result of: industrialisation & factory production in 19th century. Women were excluded from workforce & housewife role is socially constructed.
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Women in low-income families denied their own needs to make ends meet
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Pahl & Vogler (control over family income)
1.Allowance system (men work & give non-working wives allowance) 2.Pooling (partners work & have joint responsibility for spending)
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Yearnshire (domestic violence)
On average a woman suffers 35 assaults before reporting abuse
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Dobash & Dobash (Radical fem)
Violence was triggered when husbands felt authority was being challenged. Marriage legitimates violence by giving men power.
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Wilkinson (domestic violence & inequality)
Families that lack resources (e.g.low income, poor housing) suffer more stress & this increases risk of violence.
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Benedict (cross-cultural differences)
Children in simpler, non-industrial societies are treated differently from their modern western counterparts (more responsibility; less value on obedience to adult authority; children's sexual behaviour viewed differently)
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Cunningham (childhood in the West)
Children are seen as the opposite of adults, with the right to happiness
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Aries (historical differences)
In medieval Europe, the idea of childhood did not exist
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Shorter (historical differences)
Parental attitudes to children were very different (e.g.high child death rates encouraged indifference & neglect)
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Aries (modern notion of childhood)
The 20th century was 'the century of the child'
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Firestone (inequalities between children & adults)
Extensive care & protection are just new forms of oppression (e.g.being banned from paid work is not benefit but form of inequality)
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Gittins (age patriarchy)
Age patriarchy of adult dominance that keeps children subordinate (adults exercise control over children's time, space & bodies)
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Postman (future of childhood)
Childhood as we know it is disappearing. Children are becoming more like adults (gaining similar rights & acting in similar ways)
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Postman (reason for childhood disappearing)
Result of television culture replacing print culture. Print culture=children lacked literacy skills needed to access info, so adults kept 'adult' matters secret. Television culture=makes info available to adults & children alike (boundary is broken)
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Opie (future of childhood)
Childhood is not disappearing
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Palmer ('toxic childhood')
Rapid technology & cultural changes are damaging children's development (e.g.junk food, computer games). As a result, children are deprived from genuine childhood
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Lee (change or continuity?)
Childhood has not disappeared but has become more complex & contradictory
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Murdock (Fun)
Four functions of family: 1.Educational 2.Reproductive 3.Sexual 4.Economic
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Parsons (Fun)
Functions that the family performs depend on type of society. Also determines type of structure family will have: 1.three-generational extended family (pre-industrial) 2.two-generational nuclear family (modern industrial)
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Engels (M)
Passing on wealth. Private property more important=monogamous marriage
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Zaretsky (M)
Ideological functions. Only gain fulfillment from family like (distracts attention from exploitation)
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McKeown (fall in death rate)
Better diet accounted for half the reduction in death rate, by increasing people's resistance to infection
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Hirsch (ageing population)
We will need new policies to finance a longer old age (paying more taxes or raising retirement age)
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Wilson (secularisation)
Religious institutions & ideas are losing influence
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Fletcher (Fun)
Higher expectations of marriage are leading to higher divorce rates. Linked to ideology of romantic love=marriage is now based purely on love, not duty or economic factors as it was in the past
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Weeks (civil partnership & sam-sex relationships)
Acceptance is leading to more stable relationships among gays
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Neo-conventional family. Although there is some increased diversity, the nuclear family remains dominant.
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Rapoport & Rapoport (five types of diversity)
Diversity is central to the family today. 1.Organisational 2.Cultural 3.Class 4.Life cycle differences 5.Generational differences
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Contraception & women's independence have brought greater choice & equality to relationships
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Beck (risk society)
People have more choice, so they are more aware of risks - because making choices involves calculating risks of different courses of action
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Murray (NR)
Benefits are 'perverse incentives' that reward irresponsible behaviour (e.g.state provides benefits to lone mothers, fathers will abandon families)
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Land (Fem)
Policies often assume the patriarchal family to be the norm. As a result, policies act as a self-fulfilling prophecy
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Card 2


Bott (March of progress view)


Two types of CR: segregated CR (sharp division of labour between m&f) and joint conjugal roles (sharing domestic tasks & leisure)

Card 3


Oakley (Fem)


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Card 4




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Card 5


Pahl & Vogler (control over family income)


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