Sociology

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  • Created by: JessC2001
  • Created on: 31-01-20 12:44
What are the 5 agents of socialisation
Peer group, education, media, religion, workplace
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Who said that boys called girls 'slags' whereas promiscuous boys are congratulated
Sue Lees
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How influential are peer groups?
Often more influential than parents (hierarchies)
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What allows people to resist norms/values of mainstream society?
Peer groups
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What allows youth subcultures?
Peer groups
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Education has
Formal and hidden curriculum
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What represents different social groups (CAGE) in ways to influence views
Media
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Male gaze - camera eyes up from male perspective
Mulvey
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What did Mulvey say
Male gaze - camera eyes up female characters, encouraging viewers to assess their bodies from a male perspective
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What we're told to buy (i.e. celeb endorsements) through media is
Consumer culture
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Violence in media can lead to
Copycat acts
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The UK is becoming more
secular
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Norms, values, laws in UK are based on
Christianity
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Study for religion
In a multi-faith society, religion may influence some groups more than others. Modood & Berthoud surveyed young people, 67% Pakistani and Bangladeshi saw religion as very important compared to only 5% white British youth
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Study for Workplace
Canteen culture - norms and values that people who work are socialised to accept - negatively used to describe institutionalised racism in the police
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Canteen culture name
Waddington
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Nature
Bouchard's twin studies, Bruce Reimer
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Nurture
Feral children: Isabel chicken girl, Kamala & Amala (wolf children), Genie (no human contact until age 13)
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Agents of social control are
Mechanisms for controlling behaviour, controlled and reinforced by sanctions
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Types of agents of social control
Formal (CJS, government) and informal (agents of socialisation)
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Identity can be
Hybrid (i.e. Brasian)
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Study for identity
Hybrid identities: White Wannabees (Nayak) - white British males who dress, act, speak in a way influenced by hip hop culture
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Subculture
Culture within a culture
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Anderson
A nation is an imagined community (members will never meet all fellow members - therefore national identity is socially constructed through flags, anthems. etc.)
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Nationality theorists
Anderson, Kumar, Sardar
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Kumar
Unlike Irish, Welsh, Scottish, English have difficulty differentiating themselves
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Hybrid identity
Someone's identity is a mixture of 2 or more influences i.e. Brasian. Influence of global culture: Nayak
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Identity
How you see yourself. It is social AND personal. CAGE but also from experiences through socialisation.
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Sardar
The world is in the middle of a 'global identity crisis'.
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Cultural homogenisation
When people accept a global culture, all countries become more similar
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Cultural hybridity
Taking parts of a global culture alongside their traditional culture and developing a new but individual culture
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Cultural resistance
Resisting global culture, protecting cultural heritage - increases tradition and nationalism
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Two models of understand disability
Medical and social model
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Medical model belief
Disability is a medical problem, defines people by their impairment. -> Victim blaming - problem is with the disabled, not society.
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Medical model theorist
Shakespeare - disabled are socialised to see themselves as VICTIMS. "An investment with their own incapacity, it can become a rationale for their own failure"
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Social model belief
Social and physical barriers to inclusion. Discriminatory attitudes/practice makes society the disabling factor. It is socially constructed as it assumes what is (ab)normal
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Social model theorist
Shakespeare - socialisation makes disabled see themselves as INFERIOR. Isolated, lack of role models, pity & awkwardness
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Disability theorists
Zola, Shakespeare
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Zola
We use language from a discriminatory, able-bodied society: DEformed, DISabled - different from normal.
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5 age categories
Childhood, youth, young adulthood, middle age, old age
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Childhood age
Birth-12
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Childhood theorist
Postman 'innocent childhood' emerged when we were able to shield children from aspects of society, media may reverse
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Youth age
12-25
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Youth theorist
Mead: 'storm and stress' is culturally specific
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Young adulthood age
25-40, career and family, independence
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Middle age ages
40s and 50s
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MIddle age theorist
Bradley - higher status, running country, power at work
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Negative ideas middle age
Empty nest syndrome, mid-life crisis
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Old age ages
65+
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Old age theorist
Corner: negative self image due to socialisation: ageing bodies represent ugliness/degeneration Concerns of being a burden.
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Class
A group who shares the same economic and social situation
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Bordieu defines class
on the different amounts of social, economic and cultural capital someone has.
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Ruling class has the ability to
shape what attributes are valued and can pass this capital to their children
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Althusser
capitalist societies have survived because of ISA and RSA - transmits ideas that justify capitalist system.
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ISA creates
false class consciousness - WC cannot see any alternatives to existing system. ISA (media, education. etc) draws attention away from real inequalities in society
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Issues of capitalism according to Marx which would lead to its downfall
1. Polarisation of social classes . 2. Alienation 3. Economic crisis
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Marxist criticism
Idea that WC are 'brainwashed' into false consciousness, suggests people are not conscious of their own interests.
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Interactionist (labelling theory) criticism
Deterministic - assumes people will passively live up to label. Also, what comes first? Label or action?
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Gender biological view
Wilson: the need to reproduce requires men to be more promiscuous 'spreading the seed'. Women need to nurture child and stay faithful to father to ensure his help in its upbringing.
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Gender functionalist view
Parsons - women have a natural expressive role (reinforced by socialisation), based on childbearing role. Men 'instrumental' role - breadwinner, protector. Natural, based on strength, reinforced by socialisation.
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Gender is
socially constructed
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Feminists argue that gender is
socially constructed by a patriarchal society - male dominated society create/reinforces gender stereotypes.
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Hey
studied the power the female peer group has over girls' behaviour, the norms of the female peer group are rooted in patriarchy and expectations of how girls should be.
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Mac an Ghaill
Boys learn to be men in peer groups. Gender power based on hypermasculinity was main source of identity for 'macho lads' - valued 3Fs
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Changing identities theorists
Jackson, Denscombe, Connell, Mac an Ghaill, Canaan
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Jackson
Rise of the ladette (changing identity)
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Denscombe
increase in female risk taking behaviour, similar to men (changing identity)
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Connell
Hegemonic masculinity: macho dominant breadwinner most common masculine identity, strongly reinforced.
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Mac an Ghaill
3Fs. + Crisis of masculinity - insecurity faced by WC men, loss of breadwinner identity with decline in traditional male industries (mining, manufacturing.etc)
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Canalisation
Results in boys and girls having different childhood experiences.Channelling child's interests into toys, activities considered the norm for their gender.
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Canaan
WC men: most important thing about being a man? Employed: fighting, drinking, sex. Unemployed: having a job - felt emasculated.
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Rich
Heteronormative society: women's sexuality oppressed by men in a patriarchal society, enforced through marriage, sexual violence. etc. Lesbians a threat to male dominance and power over women.
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Weeks
Some who identify as gay do not participate in the sexual activity and vice versa i.e. rent boys. + Sexual identity is more significant to those who aren't straight, no one comes out as straight
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Plummer
The homosexual career - homosexuality is a process: seeking subcultures, acceptance, internalising the label
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McIntosh
We change our behaviour to live up to the identity we have adopted i.e. gay men mannerisms
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When same sex marriage legalised UK
2014
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Ethnicity
Made of religion, language, where we live, skin colour
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Modood
Asians category - it is a whole continent not just China
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Gilroy
Argued for the use of the term 'Black Atlantic' to remove stigma of location for BEM. Shared experiences of racism can transcend differences of background to create black identity
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Hewitt
white 'backlash' against multiculturalism - positive discrimination in favour of minorities 'unfair'
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Culture
The way of life for a group of people, fluid and adaptable
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High culture
Products/services with high status, represents highest achievements in society (i.e. Shakespeare plays ,opera - associated with those who have a high level of upbringing/education).
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Popular (mass) culture
Cultural products enjoyed by the majority of the population i.e. football, TV. Argued to be inferior.
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Consumer culture
Increase in the availability of consumer goods and services. Excessive consumption/debt is normal + enforced by media.
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Global culture
Cultural products/activities becoming universal. Brands (McDonaldisation) identical around the world. Distinction of national cultures around the world is smaller, a global village (McLuhan)
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McLuhan
Distinction of national cultures around the world is smaller, the world is becoming smaller, a global village.
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Bouchard twin study
+Nature. Twins separated at birth, raised separately in different countries. Similarities in behaviour, likes, dislikes, personality.
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Isabel chicken girl
+Nurture. Found aged 10, left in chicken coop with hens since birth. Couldn't speak, wasn't toilet trained, expressed emotion by beating arms and drumming feet
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Genie
+Nurture. Almost no human contact until aged 13. Shut in a room alone, strapped to potty chair. Never learned to speak fluently, spent life in institutional care.
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Bordieu
The distinction between high and popular culture is decided by the group who access them, therefore high culture is the culture of the higher economic class.
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It is argued that the distinction between high and popular cultures is
breaking down, high culture is more accessible i.e. Shakespeare movies
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Types of culture
High, popular, consumer, global
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Subcultures
Culture within a culture, has their own norms and values, often based on age, ethnicity, music. etc
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Cultural hybridity
Cross/merging or 2 or more cultures i.e. Brasian. 2nd/3rd generation immigrants adopt hybrid identities.
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Interactionism
People interpret the world and are influenced by the ways we interact with eachother. We are not puppets shaped by structures and institutions.
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Labelling theory
(Becker). We have an influence over other's sense concept and therefore their identity and behaviour. They internalise the label + it becomes them -> self fulfilling prophecy. If it overrides other labels, it becomes a master status.
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Functionalism
Everything in society has a function
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Parsons
Society is like a human body
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Functionalism: society is a
meritocracy (work hard=achieve). Class. etc. has no effect on what can be achieved
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Davis and Moore (functionalism)
Education is the bridge between family and the workplace
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Durkheim argued
members of a society need a sense of social solidarity - a feeling of belonging to a larger community and shared identity. In large societies, people lose their sense of belonging, uncertain of how to behave/what their roles are -> anomie
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Anomie
Durkheim - normlessness, chaos
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Functionalism: positions are determined as important through
Functional uniqueness, degree of dependence of others
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New Right
blames the individual for being poor. Murray: dependency culture (on welfare state) lead to emergence of Underclass
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New Right criticism
Not based on clear sociological evidence. I.e. Murray's view that the poor are irresponsible is contradicted by studies that reveal unemployed mostly aspire for same things as others (i.e. economic security), dependent on benefits not through choice
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Weberian theories
Conflict theory. Weber argued that differences of status and power were important + not always linked to economic/class inequalities. Class, status, party (3 dimensions of stratification)
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Values
Beliefs and ideas that society sees as important
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Norms
Expected patterns of behaviour based on values of a culture
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