SOCIOLOGY TOPIC 1

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2 mechanisms to achieve social solidarity according to functionalists?
1.Socialisation - Instilling shared culture into members 2.Social control - Rewards for conformity & punishments for deviance
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2 reasons why crime & deviance are found in all societies?
1.Not everyone is equally effectively socialised into shared norms & values 2.Diversity of lifestyles & values, subcultures with 'deviant' norms & values develop
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Summary of Durkheims theory?
Modern societies have tendency towards anomie or normlessness. Division of labour causes individuals becoming different. Diversity = Weak collective conscience
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2 positive functions of crime?
1.Boundary maintenance 2.Adaptation & change
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Boundary maintenance?
Crime produces reaction from society, uniting members in condemnation of offender, reinforces commitment to shared norms & values. Through courtroom dramatics & media 'folk devils'
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Adaptation & change?
Starts with act of deviance. Individuals with new ideas challenge existing norms/values will appear deviant. If new ideas are suppressed, society will stagnate & be unable to make necessary changes
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2 signals of too much/too little crime?
1.Too much = Threatens to tear bonds of society 2.Too little = Society is repressing & preventing change
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Davis on crime?
Prostitution acts as safety valve for release of mens sexual frustration without threatening nuclear family
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Polsky function of crime?
**** safely channels a variety of sexual desires away from adultery
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Evaluation of functionalism theory on crime?
Useful in showing ways deviance is integral to society. Provides important analysis that directs attention to ways in which deviance can have hidden or latent functions for society
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3 criticisms of functionalism theory?
1. Doesnt mean society actually creates crime with intention of strengthening society. 2.Ignores how it might affect groups/individuals. Doesnt ask 'functional for who?' 3.Doesnt always promote solidarity, may have opposite effect = women staying in
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2 elements of Mertons strain theory?
1.Structural factors = unequal opportunity structure 2.Cultural factors = emphasis on success goals & the weaker emphasis on using legit means
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2 things the strain is between?
1.Goals that a culture encourage individuals to achieve 2.What the institutional structure of society allows them to achieve legitimately
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American dream?
Americans expected to pursue goal by legit means, ideology of meritocratic society. Reality = Poverty, poor schooling & discrimination. Strain between goal of money & lack of legit opportunities causes frustration = crime & deviance/strain to anomie
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5 types of adaptations to strain?
1.Conformity 2.Innovation 3.Ritualism 4.Retreatism 5.Rebellion
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Conformity?
Individuals accept culturally approved goals & strive to achieve legitimately. Commonly middle class, typical response of Americans
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Innovation?
Individuals accept goal of money success but use 'new' illegitimate' means like theft & fraud. Commonly lower class
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Ritualism?
Individuals give up trying to achieve goals, but have internalise legit means so follow rules for own sake. Commonly lower middle class in routine jobs
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Retreatism?
Individuals reject both goals & legit means & become drop-outs. EG. Psychotics, tramps & drug addicts
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Rebellion?
Individuals reject existing society's goals but replace with new ones in desire to bring revolutionary change. Includes political radicals & hipies
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Evaluation of Merton?
Shows patterns shown in official crime stats. Most crime is property crime as americans value material wealth. L/C crime is higher as they have least opportunity to obtain wealth legitimately
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4 criticisms of Mertons strain theory?
1.Over represent w/c crime due to off stats = deterministic 2.Marxists - ignores power of borgeiosie to create laws that criminalise poor 3.Assumes value consensus & everyone wants money success 4.Focuses on utilitarian crime & ignores group deviance
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2 criticisms Cohen makes of Mertons strain theory?
1.Merton sees deviance as individual response to strain, ignoring deviance committed in/by groups 2.Focuses on utilitarian crime committed for material gain EG. Theft/fraud. Ignores assault with no eco motive
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Cohens status frustration?
Focuses on deviance on w/c boys. Argues they face anomie in m/c school system. Suffer cultural deprivation & skills. Bottom of official status hierarchy = status frustration. Resolve by rejecting mainstream m/c values & form delinquent subcultures
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Alternative status heirarchy?
Subcultures values are characterised by spite, malice & hostility. Inverts mainstream society. Subculture offers alternative status hierarchy which they can achieve. Create own legit opportunity structure
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Evaluation of Cohens theory?
Offers explanation of non utilitarian deviance among w/c. Help to explain non economic delinquency like vandalism, fighting & truancy
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Criticism of Cohen?
Assumes w/c boys start off sharing m/c success goals, only to reject them when they fail. Ignores possibility they didnt share them in the first place & never see themselves as failures
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3 subcultures of Cloward and Ohlin?
1.Criminal 2.Conflict 3.Retreatest
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Criminal subcultures?
Provide youths with apprenticeship for career in utilitarian crime. Only in neighbourhoods with longstanding & stable local criminal culture. Allows young to associate with adult criminals & get abilities & training
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Conflict subcultures?
Areas of high population turnover. High levels of social disorganisation & prevents stable professional criminal network. Absence means only illegit opportunities within loosely organised gangs. Violence=release for frustration at blocked opportunity
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Retreatest subcultures?
Any neighbourhood, 'double failures' who fail in both legit & illegit opportunity strucutres. Turn to retreatest subculture based on illegal drug use.
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Evaluation of Cloward & Ohlin?
Agree with Merton & Cohen that most crime's w/c, ignoring crime of rich. Too deterministic & over predicts extent of w/c crime. Ignores wider power structure. Provide explanation for different types of w/c deviance
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Criticisms of Cloward and Ohlin?
Draws boundaries too sharply between different types. Wouldn't be possible to belong to more than one. Assume everyone starts off sharing same mainstream success goals
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South's criticisms of Cloward & Ohlin?
Found drug trade is mixture of 'disorganised' crime like conflict subculture & professional 'mafia' style criminal subcultures. Some 'retreatest' users also professional dealers. Not possible in this theory
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Miller's criticisms of Cloward & Ohlin?
W/C has own dependent subculture separate from mainstream with own values. Doesnt value success in 1st place so members arent frustrated by failure. Argues deviance in w/c arises out of attempt to achieve own goals not mainstream ones=focal concerns
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Overview of Cloward & Ohlin?
Agree w/c youths denied legit opportunities & their deviance stems from response to this. Different subcultures respond differently to lack of legit opportunities. Key reason not just unequal access to legit structure but illegit structure
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3 contributions made from Chicago school study of crime & deviance?
1.Cultural Transmission Theory 2.Differential Association Theory 3.Social Disorganisation Theory
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Cultural transmission theory?
Noted some neighbourhoods develop criminal tradition or culture that's transmitted from generation
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Differential association theory?
Argued deviance was behaviour learned through social interaction with others who are deviant
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Social disorganisation theory?
Deviance is product of social disorganisation. Rapid population turnover & migration creates instability, disrupting family & community structures. Becomes unable to exercise social control = deviance
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Institutional anomie theory?
Messner & Rosenfeld focus on American Dream. Argue obsession with individual money success/winner takes all encourages anomic culture = anything goes in pursuit of wealth. Societies with free market/lacking welfare have higher crime rates
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Downes & Hansen?
Support institutional anomie theory. Survey of crime rates & welfare spending in 18 countries, found societies that spent more on welfare had lower rates of imprisonment
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Research method link with Merton?
Correct in claiming blocked access to legit opportunities leads to crime, then unemployment & crime may link. Off stats found they rose steadily together. But it doesnt prove one causes the other as doesnt show if they're the same people
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

1.Not everyone is equally effectively socialised into shared norms & values 2.Diversity of lifestyles & values, subcultures with 'deviant' norms & values develop

Back

2 reasons why crime & deviance are found in all societies?

Card 3

Front

Modern societies have tendency towards anomie or normlessness. Division of labour causes individuals becoming different. Diversity = Weak collective conscience

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

1.Boundary maintenance 2.Adaptation & change

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Crime produces reaction from society, uniting members in condemnation of offender, reinforces commitment to shared norms & values. Through courtroom dramatics & media 'folk devils'

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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