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Clarkes 3 features of measures aimed at situational crime prevention?
1.They are directed at specific times 2.Involve managing or altering immediate enviro of the crime 3.Aim at increasing the effect & risks of committing crime & reducing rewards
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Underlying situational crime prevention?
Is opportunity/rational choice theory of crime. View criminals as rational, weighing up costs/benefits of opportunity before deciding whether to commit. Contrasts with theories that stress 'root causes' =criminals early socialisation/capitalist expl
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Felson on situational crime prevention?
Part authority bus terminal in New York poorly designed=Opportunities for deviant conduct EG Toilets were setting for luggage thefts, rough sleeping, drug dealing. Large sinks used for bathing were replaced by small hand basins
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5 forms of displacement by Chaiken et al?
1.Spatial-Moving elsewhere to commit 2.Temporal-Committing at different time 3.Target-Choosing different victims 4.Tactical-Using different method 5.Functional-Committing different type of crime
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5 evaluative points of situational crime prevention?
1.Works to extent in reducing certain crimes 2.Focuses on opportunistic petty street/Ignore white=most harmful 3.Assumes criminals are rational. Unlikely in violent crimes 4.Ignores root causes=Poverty/socialisation 5.CCTV criticised focuses on young
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Wilson & Kelling on zero tolerance policing?
Disorder/absence of controls leads to crime. Crack down on disorder using twofold strategy:Any broken window repaired immediately. 2ndly police must adopt 0 tolerance strategy. Instead of reacting to crime, must proactively tackle slight disorder
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Evidence of zero tolerance policing?
New York='Clean car program' on subway where cars taken out of service if gratified. Crackdown on 'squeegee merchants' found many had outstanding warrants for violent/property crimes. Saw fall in crime & 50% drop in homicide rate
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5 points suggesting unclear how far zero tolerance was cause of improvements?
1.NYPD benefited from 7K extra officers 2.General decline in crime rates even where police didnt adopt 0 tolerance 3.Early 90's=major recession/high unemployment but 94 new jobs 4.Decline in availability of cocaine 5.Attempted homicides still high
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Social & community crime prevention?
Place emphasis on potential offender & their social context. Aim to remove conditions that predispose individuals to crime in first place. Longer term attempting to tackle root causes of offending
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Perry Pre school project?
Experimental group of 3/4 year olds was offered 2 year intellectual enrichment programme. Longitudinal study followed progress. Striking differences with control group. By age of 40, significantly fewer lifetime arrests & more graduates/employed
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Criticisms of this approach?
Focus on low level crimes/disregards crimes of powerful and environmental crimes
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3 methods of 'reduction' punishment?
1.Deterrence 2.Rehabilitation 3.Incapacitation
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'Retribution' punishment?
'Paying back'. Justification for punishing crimes already been committed rather than preventing future crimes. Based on offenders deserved to be punished. Is an expressive rather than instrumental view of punishment-expresses society's outrage
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Durkheim-functionalist perspective?
Argue function of punishment is to uphold social solidarity & reinforce shared values. Punishment=expressive. Rituals of order like public trial reaffirm society's shared values
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2 types of justice according to Durkheim?
1.Retributive 2.Restitutive
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Retributive Justice?
Traditional society, has little specialisation & solidarity is based on similarity to each other. Produces strong collective conscience which, when offended, responds with vengeful passion to repress wrongdoer. Punishment=cruel/severe
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Restitutive Justice?
Modern Society, extensive specialisation, solidarity based on resulting interdependence between individuals. Crime damages this so has to be repaired via compensation=restitutive justice as aims to restore things. Motivation instrumental
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Marxism, capitalism & punishment?
Function=maintain existing social order. Part of 'repressive state apparatus' is means of defending ruling class property against lower. Under capitalism, imprisonment becomes dominant punishment as capitalist eco based on exploitation of wage labour
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2 ways Melossi & Pavarini see imprisonment as reflecting capitalist relations of production?
1.Capitalism puts price on workers time;so too prisoners do 'time' to 'pay' for their crime (or repay debt to society) 2.Prison & capitalist factory both have similar strict disciplinary style involving subordination & loss of liberty
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Foucault on sovereign & disciplinary power?
Sovereign=Monarch had power over people & their bodies. Inflicting punishment on body was means of asserting control. Disciplinary=Seek to govern not just body but mind/soul through surveillance
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How does Foucault illustrate disciplinary power?
Panopticon = Design for prison where all cells visible to guards. Dont know if being watched, just they might be. Surveillance turns to self surveillance/discipline = self discipline. Instead of public spectacle, control occurs 'inside' prisoner
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3 criticisms of Foucault?
1.Shift from corporal punishment to imprisonment is less clear that suggested 2.Unlike Durkheim, neglects expressive aspects of punishment 3.Exaggerates extent of control EG Goffman shows inmates able to resist control institutions=Mental hospital
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Era of mass incarceration?
May have ideological function. Downes argues US prisons soak up 30-40% of unemployed, making capitalism look more successful
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Idea individuals become locked into cycle of control, shifting between different carceral agencies EG Brought up in care, sent to young offenders, adult prison. Product of blurring boundaries between criminal justice & welfare agencies
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United Nations definitions of victims?
Those suffered harm (including mental, physical or emotional suffering, eco loss & impairments of basic rights)
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Christie's approach to victims?
Highlights notion a 'victim' is socially constructed. Stereotype of the 'ideal victim' favoured by media, public & criminal justice system is weak, innocent & blameless individual = small child or old woman
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Miers defines positivist victimology as having which 3 features?
1.Aims to identify factors producing patterns in victimisation-especially those making people more likely to be victims 2.Focuses on interpersonal crimes of violence 3.Aims to identify victims who have contributed to own victimisation
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Example of positivist victimology?
Marvin Wolfgang's study of 588 homicides in Philadelphia. Found 26% involved victim precipitation-victim triggered events leading to homicide EG first to use violence
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2 evaluative points of positivist victimology?
1.Brookman=Wolfgang shows importance of victim/offender relationship & many homicides matter of chance 2.Identifies certain patterns of interpersonal victimisation but ignores wider structural factors influencing victimisation = poverty/patriarchy
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2 more evaluative points of positivist victimology?
1.Easily tip over into victim blaming = **** 2.Ignore situations where victims are unaware of their victimisation = Environmental crime
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2 elements of critical criminology?
1.Structural factors-patriarchy/poverty which place powerless groups like women/poor at greater risk 2.States power to apply/deny label of victim='victim' is social construct
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Tombs & Whyte?
Show 'safety crimes' where employers violations of law lead to death/injury to workers='accident prone'. **** cases denies victim official victim status. Note ideological function of 'failure to label'. Hides crimes of powerful
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2 evaluative points of critical criminology?
1.Disregards victimisation on themselves through own choices 2.Valuable in drawing attention to way 'victim' status is constructed by power & how this benefits powerful at expense of powerless
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Class & victimisation?
Poorest more likely to be victimised EG Crime rates highest in aread of high unemployment & deprivation. Marginalised groups 12 times more likely to have experienced violence in survey by Newburn & Rock
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Age & Victimisation?
Younger more at risk. Most at risk of being murdered are infants under 1. Teens more vulnerable to assault & sexual harassment. Old risk of abuse in nursing homes=victimisation less visible
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Ethnicity & Victimisation?
Minorities greater risk of being victims in general. More likely to report feeling under protected yet over controlled
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Gender & victimisation?
Males more at risk of being victims of violent attacks. Women more likely to be victims of domestic violence, stalking & harrassment
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Repeat victimisation?
If you've been victim once, more likely to be one again. BCS said 60% of population havent been victims of any kind, whereas 4% of pop are victims of 44% of all crimes
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Methods Link - Using Interviews?
Ditton et al= Qualitative with o/e questions to explore feelings on crime. Previous quantitative attempts imposed researchers concerns on respondents. Poduce valid data as explore feelings/meanings, but small sample=less representative
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Secondary victimisation?
Idea in addition to impact of crime itself, individuals may suffer further victimisation at hands of criminal justice system. Feminists-**** victims often poorly treated by police it amounts to double violation
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Fear of victimisation?
Crime may create fear of becoming victim. Surveys show fear irrational EG Women more afraid of going out for fear of attack, yet men victims of violence from strangers. Feminists attach emphasis on 'fear of crime', focuses on passivity/psycho state
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Underlying situational crime prevention?


Is opportunity/rational choice theory of crime. View criminals as rational, weighing up costs/benefits of opportunity before deciding whether to commit. Contrasts with theories that stress 'root causes' =criminals early socialisation/capitalist expl

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Felson on situational crime prevention?


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5 forms of displacement by Chaiken et al?


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5 evaluative points of situational crime prevention?


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