Revision:Latin indirect statement

An indirect statement is where it is written that something has been stated, but the statement is not directly said.

All indirect statements contain an "introductory verb", a noun in the accusative case and a verb in the infinitive.

audio mercatorem ad urbem appropinquare

I hear that the merchant is aproaching the city.

When translated into English, all indirect statements must contain the word "that".

Common introductory verbs

  • audio, audire, audivi, auditum - to hear
  • credo, credere, credidi, creditum - to believe
  • dico, dicere, dixi, dictum - to say
  • nescio, nescire, nescivi, nescitum - not to know
  • puto, putare, putavi, putatum - to think
  • scio, scire, scivi, scitum - to know

The Tenses of the Verbs

The tense of the verb in the infinitive can drastically change the meaning of a sentence and the time frame in which is takes place.

Present Infinitive

  • When the introductory verb is in the present tense, the present infinitive is translated in the present tense.

dicit puellam portare

He says that the girl carries (is carrying)

  • When the introductory verb is in the perfect tense, the present infinitive is translated in the imperfect tense.

dixit puellam portare

He said that the girl was carrying

Perfect Infinitive

  • When the introductory verb is in the present tense, the perfect infinitive is translated in the perfect tense.

scio servos cenam splendidam paravisse

I know that the slaves have prepared a splendid dinner.

  • When the introductory verb is in the perfect tense, the perfect infinitive is translated in the pluperfect tense.

scivi servos cenam splendidam paravisse

I knew that the slaves had prepared a splendid dinner.

Perfect Passive Infinitive

  • When the introductory verb is in the present tense, the perfect passive infinitive is translated in the perfect passive tense.

scio naves deletas esse

I know that the ships have been destroyed.

  • When the introductory verb is in the perfect tense, the perfect passive infinitive is translated in the pluperfect passive tense.

scio naves deletas esse

I knew that the ships had been destroyed.

Future Infinitive

  • When the introductory verb is in the present tense, the future infinitive is translated in the future tense.

mercator sperat se magnas divitas comparaturum esse.

The merchant hopes that he is going to obtain/will obtain great riches for himself.

  • When the introductory verb is in the perfect tense, the future infinitive is translated in the imperfect tense.

mercator sperat se magnas divitas comparaturum esse.

The merchant hoped that he was going to obtain great riches for himself.