- Most people read by sounding out graphemes and forming phonemes.
- Yacht – strange words
- Dual method – 2 processes when reading
- Direct access – pronounce each word e.g. det, cat, bat
- Grapheme, phoneme conversion
- Use previous experience to help with new words.
- Look at the words more sophisticatedly
- The frequency of the word and the neighbouring words affect the way we pronounce each word.
Theory 1: FRITH 1985
3 Stages to a child’s development of reading.
Stage 1: LOGOGRAPHAPIC STAGE
- Pronounce individual letters
- Letters are connected with sounds
- Child can only link words to one phoneme
Stage 2: ALPHABETIC STAGE
- Child is more comfortable with the alphabet
- Can combine graphemes to make longer phonemes. E.g. ‘th’
Stage 3: ORTHOGRAPHIC STAGE
- Recognise a string of graphemes without having to decode them
- Greater phonological awareness – recognise more sound patterns
- Analogy – compare and apply patterns and rules.
Theory 2: CHALL 1983
6 stages to child’s development of reading.
Stage 0: PRE READING (birth to 6 years old)
- Children pretend to read, turn pages pf books and repeat what they have previously had read to them.
- Rely on images to determine what the text is saying.
- Use logographic info to guess the words.
- Realise words are made up of sounds
- Recognise rhyme and alliteration
Stage 1: INITIAL READING/ DECODING STAGE (6-7 years old)
- Able to read simple texts.
- Relies heavily on text and focuses on visual images.
- Realise letter combinations represent sounds.
- Become aware of vowels and vowel sounds.
Stage 2: CONFIRMATION & GLUING STAGE (7-8 years old)
- A child can automatically decode words.
- High levels of comprehension and reading
- Ability to become more fluent
- Can control pace and are comfortable with reading situations
Stage 3: READING TO LEARN (8-14 years old)
- Reading to learn and acquire new knowledge
- Before this child relied on environment and speech
- Words mean a lot more to them
- Able to bring previous experiences and knowledge to the reading.
- Learn facts from a singular view point
- They need direct reconstruction
- Learn to read narrative texts.
Stage 4: MULTIPLE VIEW POINTS (14-18 years old)
- Begin reading and dealing with multiple view points
- Analyse and react critically to different view points
- Able to deal with layers of facts and able to edit them
- Able to deal with complex texts.
Stage 5: CONSTRUCTION & RECONSTRUCTION (18+)
- Read in detail and completeness to fulfil purpose (education)
- Aware of relevant and irrelevant information
- Can form their own opinions and ideas from what they read
- More interest shown = more info that is remembered
- Ability to criticise and question texts.
What a child’s text tends to contain
- Use of repetition- enables child to be able to pick up structure
- Simple sentences used
- Large picture – explaining what is being read.
- Use of imaginative sentences- i.e. dog talking and shows feeling
- Visual representation of texts
- Cohesive structure- beginning, middle and end, repetition and grammatical structure.
- Good punctuation and grammar skills
- Thick pages- easier for child to handle
These notes are aimed at A Level English students at A2 level.
Originally written by BlondKelly18 on TSR Forums.