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PoorLoser
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#2381
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#2381
(Original post by PoorLoser)
can someone help me on June 2010 Question 5d please (both parts)

thanks!
someone help please!!
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Paulineuh
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#2382
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#2382
(Original post by Dinvan)
Could some explain how artioles are adapted to their function?

Also what is tissue fluid and how does it return to the circulatory system?


Would greatly appreciate the help!!


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Arterioles
THICKER MUSCLE LAYER THAN ARTERIES: So when they contract, they can control and restrict the blood flow into the capillaries.
THINNER ELASTIC LAYER THAN THE ARTERIES: Because blood pressure is lower.

Tissue fluid is liquid that contains glucose, amino acids, fatty acids, salts and oxygen.

At the arteriole end, blood pumps into the arterioles then capillaries, this creates Hydrostatic pressure which forces Tissue Fluid out of the capillary and into the cells. Only small molecules are forced out so leaves large proteins in the capillary, this lowers the water potential in the capillary.

Once the blood has reached the venule end, the hydrostatic pressure in the cells is higher than the hydrostatic pressure in the capillaries thus it forces the tissue fluid back into the capillary. Also, the lower water potential created by the proteins create a water potential gradient so since, there's higher water potential in the cells, water moves by osmosis into the capillary.

Any excess returns via the lymphatic system.

Hope this helps! Good luck
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WheezyT
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#2383
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So my friend just text me this on the apoplastic pathway shizzle

Apoplastic pathway is the movement of water through the cell walls of the root cells, crossing the cortex, until it reaches the casparian strip. The casparian strip is impermeable and made from Suberin, giving the plant more control over what enters it or not. It then merges with the symplastic pathway.
The symplastic pathway is the movement of water when it moves by osmosis into the cells by osmosis until it reaches the xylem, moving through the plasmodesmata. In both cases water moves from a high to low water potential. The concentration gradient is maintained by pumping minerals into the xylem.

I think it's worth a share
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EmilyC96
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(Original post by Bixel)
The lumen of the artery is surrounded by a layer of cells known as the endothelium. The endothelium is a thin layer and it simply reduces the friction of blood flow!
It's definitely smooth and not folded!
I don't think we'll ever be asked about how it can be smooth but also stretch, because I hope they're not expecting us to be cardiovascular surgeons :P
Haha. Oh dear now i've had two people say it is smooth and one person say its both :L
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A Peppers
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#2385
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#2385
Is the stuff on transpiration and water loss less likely to come up because it was in the ISA?
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alice.o123
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#2386
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does anyone have any predictions as to what could be on the paper tomorrow???
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Goldn
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'im going to get full marks with no effort' - everyone on TSR ever
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Sorro10
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If anyone needs help on any of the 2 pathways, here you go.

Basically water wants to get from the soil into the xylem vessels. It can do this by 2 methods or 'pathways' called the SYMPLAST PATHWAY or APOPLAST PATHWAY. (Might be useful if you get a labelled diagram showing xylem/root hair cell etc whilst reading this).

Symplast Pathway

In the Symplast pathway, water moves through the CYTOPLASMS of the cells.
Water diffuses along a water potential gradient through PORES between the cells of the Cortex called plasmodesmata. The Cortex is simply all the cells between the Root hair cell and the Xylem vessel.

Apoplast Pathway

In the Apoplast pathway, water moves through the CELL WALLS of the cells.
Water stops at the ENDODERMIS as there is a CASPARIAN STRIP which prevents the water from passing further, making the water pass through a membrane by osmosis down a water potential gradient INTO THE SYMPLAST PATHWAY, which is useful as it prevents harmful substances such as toxins or viruses from entering the xylem vessels as the membrane would not let them past.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

EXTRA

- Water potential in the root hair cell is lowered by the active transport of mineral ions from the soil, hence water can move from the soil into them down a water potential gradient.

Watch this, if you need more help:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TWNtXw-MWtE
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studentindistres
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What are your theories on what the 6 markers are likely to be on?
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science-oliver
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If they asked a six marker on the mass transport system what would be the points you need to put in? Since I have a feeling it may come up as the question!
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Goldn
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(Original post by studentindistres)
What are your theories on what the 6 markers are likely to be on?
According to my calculations it will be on circular and linear plasmids and resistance.
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Substitution
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#2392
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does anyone know the page of the post with mark scheme 6 markers
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Jimmy20002012
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#2393
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In immunological comparison do you mix the serum produced from one species and mix it with the protein of the other species?


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harrym96
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Would anybody be able to give me a quick summary on what the spec says about twin studies?
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Sorro10
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This is an excellent document showing each individual Topic on every single paper from 2009-2013, showing you clearly which topics are likely to come up, must see!
Attached files
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science-oliver
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Can someone tell me please what points to include in a six marker on the mass transport system in mammals!? Please I'm struggling?
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Simran Mars Foster
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(Original post by Sorro10)
This is an excellent document showing each individual Topic on every single paper from 2009-2013, showing you clearly which topics are likely to come up, must see!


Thanks for this. Looks like we may have root pressure..
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EmilyC96
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(Original post by Sorro10)
This is an excellent document showing each individual Topic on every single paper from 2009-2013, showing you clearly which topics are likely to come up, must see!
Is Independent assortment the same as independent segregation (the arrangement of the pairs of homologous chromosomes on the equator of the spindle fibers being random)
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Simran Mars Foster
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(Original post by science-oliver)
Can someone tell me please what points to include in a six marker on the mass transport system in mammals!? Please I'm struggling?
It is a mass transport system that transports raw materials to exchange organs.
- Heart = pulmonary artery/vein, Liver = hepatic artery/vein, Kidney = renal artery/vein
- Arteries have thick muscular tissue that can stretch and recoil to cope with increased pressure. They transport blood away from the heart (except the pulmonary artery)
- Veins have valves to prevent backflow of blood, and are surrounded by body muscles which contract to control blood flow. They transport blood to the heart (except the pulmonary vein)
- Arterioles are small vessels. Blood is directed to different areas of demand by muscles contracting to restrict blood flow, and relaxing to allow it.
- Substances are exchanged at the capillaries:
---- Short diffusion pathway achieved by the capillary being near the tissue and being only one cell thick.
---- Large surface area has lots of them form a network.
- Tissue fluid is made of substances that leave the blood at the venal end of the capillary due to hydrostatic pressure.
- Cells take in nutrients from it, and release metabolic waste into it.
- Water from tissue fluid moves back into the blood down a water potential gradient at the arterial end by osmosis
- Excess tissue fluid is drained by the lymph, and is transported and released back into the circulatory system
THIS WASN'T POSTED BY ME. So no credit.It seems like a good answer.
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Bixel
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(Original post by science-oliver)
Can someone tell me please what points to include in a six marker on the mass transport system in mammals!? Please I'm struggling?
If anything it's likely to be about the blood vessels or tissue fluid, isn't enough content to have a 6 marker just on the mammalian circulatory system! Unless you were to consider valves, etc etc, but I've only ever seen a 2/3 marker for that, along the lines of "What adaptions do veins have to stop the back flow of blood"
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