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    (Original post by xabsx)
    anyone know a definition of stress? never been taught it at it seems pretty simple to know!
    I learnt it as:
    When a person's perceived environmental, social, and physical demands exceed their perceived ability to cope
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    (Original post by Nisr123)
    Does anyone have really good concise notes on Social Influence? I literally feel lost with the whole topic.
    Hey, don't know if you'll find this useful as they only contain a little bit of the Social Influence unit so I made notes on things I wanted to consolidate but I guess you could ask me questions if you have any.

    Resisting Pressures to conform AO1:Asch – The Role of Allies. The introduction of another dissident gavesocial support to an individual and caused a dramatic decrease in conformityrates. Allen and Levine (1971) – an ally is helpful in resisting conformity,but more so if they are perceived as offering valid social support.AO2: Peopleare more likely to resist conformity when the cost to one’s personal integrityis great. People may be more willing to maintain independence if making amoral rather than physical judgment as the psychological cost associated withabandoning a personal preference is greater than the interpersonal benefit of‘fitting in’. Hornsey et. Al (2003). People were lesslikely to move toward majority on attitudes that had moral significance for theindividual, even when this involved public behaviours
    Individualdifferences;Gender differencesin nonconformity. Men are more likely to show nonconformist behaviour whenseeking a partner, when it appears to make them 'unique' and is therefore attractive and thus a positive characteristic.
    Resisting Pressuresto obey Milgram AO1: In Milgram’sstudy of obedience, he found that being made aware of the effects of youractions (removal of buffers) and having social support (other confederatespresent) are means of increasing resistance to obedience.
    People are morelikely to disobey when status of the authority is low. AO2: Differences inmoral reasoning. Lawrence Kohlberg(1969) Moral dilemmas determined the reason why people behave as they do insituations of social pressure.
    Conclusion: Peoplewho based their decisions on more general principles were more defiant in theMilgram study. Most of those at a more restricted level of moral developmentobeyed the experimenter completely. Locus of control High internals perceivethemselves as having a high level of personal control over their behaviouyr andare therefore more likely to take personal responsibility for it. They are:1. Active seekers of information usefulto them, so less likely to rely on the opinion of others, and and ‘blindyobey’, and more likely to question authority.2. More achievement-oriented, - leadingpersonality, less likely to follow.3. Better able to resist coercion fromothers.Twenge et al (2004)– There is a historical trend showingyoung American to have an increasingly external locus of control.AO2: Twenge et al(2004) Implications of this trend are almost uniformly negative as externalityis correlated with decreased self-control and depression. There has been anincrease in the incidence of violent crime and suicide, Twenge et. Al suggestan increase in these social factors has seen a corresponding increase Iexternality, as young people see many aspects of their lives as beyond theircontrol. Individual DifferencesLinz and Semykina(2005) Significant gender differences in Locus of control. Men, internal with aneed for challenge. Women, external with a need for affiliation.
    Understanding social change.Social change occurs when asociety as a whole adopts a new belief or way of behaving which then becomeswidely accepted as the ‘norm’.Minority influence leads to social change, this is known as social cryptoamnesia. Conversionis a necessary prerequisite for social change. Moscovici, 1976, defined conversionas:
    Ifan individual is exposed to a persuasive argument under certain conditions,they may change their own views to match those of the minority.
    Conditionsnecessary for social change :Augmentation ConsistencyConflictAttention Augmentation: Because themembers of the minority appear willing to make sacrifices for their views, theimpact of their beliefs on other group members is augmented. Consistency: If members of aminority are consistent in their views over time and express this positionconsistently, then they are taken more seriously.Conflict : When you cannotdismiss a minority as ‘odd’ or ‘abnormal’ and resultantly, examine theirargument more closely.Attention: Drawing attention to an issue. Publicexposure to the minority position e.g. activism through publicity stunts. Evaluation Use an example of successfulsocial change and apply to a real-life example. e.g. civil rights movement (MLK, Rosa Parks)BUT Social change doesn’t alwayshappen. Especially if minority group is seen as ‘deviant’
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    If one of the body responses to stress (SAM or PAS) is a 8/12 marker how would I evaluate that?? Please help any ideas would be so appreciated!


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    (Original post by Sadiariya)
    I would talk about supporting evidence. For example with allies, in one of Asch's variations conformity dropped to 5% when another confederate went against the majority


    Thank you. Now that you mention that variation, I suppose Moscovici could also be used.
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    (Original post by Katieee98)
    If one of the body responses to stress (SAM or PAS) is a 8/12 marker how would I evaluate that?? Please help any ideas would be so appreciated!


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    You won't be asked to evaluate the body's responses to stress.
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    (Original post by tuttu97)
    If stress and the immune system comes up, would trying to expand a lot on Kiecolt Glaser alone for 6 marks be enough? I don't know any other studies
    When the perceived demands of a situation are greater than the perceived ability to cope.

    To me, that also explains why different people have different stress thresholds because it is based on 'perception', it is therefore subjective, hence why different people have different stressors.
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    You would never be asked to evaluate the body response to stress according to the spec as it is factual not research.
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    (Original post by Sadiariya)
    You won't be asked to evaluate the body's responses to stress.
    Oh my bad, that's such a relief thank you xxx


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    (Original post by DMaster1)
    Thank you. Now that you mention that variation, I suppose Moscovici could also be used.
    Be careful, Moscovici is minority influence NOT conformity. Another point you could use is the size of the majority (look up Asch's other variations where he changed the size of the majority group).
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    (Original post by Lilabong)
    People are more likely to resist conformity when the costto one’s personal integrity is great. People may bemore willing to maintain independence if making a moral rather than physicaljudgment as the psychological cost associated with abandoning a personalpreference is greater than the interpersonal benefit of ‘fitting in’. Hornsey et. Al (2003). People were lesslikely to move toward majority on attitudes that had moral significance for theindividual, even when this involved public behavioursIndividualdifferences; Gender differencesin nonconformity. Men are more likely to show nonconformist behaviour whenseeking a partner, when being unique is a positive. Z��l�׋�)��
    Thank you. I hadn't thought of that. When you say cost to one's personal integrity it made me also think about those with very strong moral or religious beliefs.
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    (Original post by Katieee98)
    If one of the body responses to stress (SAM or PAS) is a 8/12 marker how would I evaluate that?? Please help any ideas would be so appreciated!


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    I believe it can only ever be a 6 marker? That's what I got told anyway. Has it come up as an 8/12 marker in any past papers at all?
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    (Original post by Sadiariya)
    Be careful, Moscovici is minority influence NOT conformity. Another point you could use is the size of the majority (look up Asch's other variations where he changed the size of the majority group).

    Oh yes, thanks for pointing that out. I'll check out Asch.
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    A few definitions, if anyone's wondering, (although it's very unlikely for them to be so specific) could include:

    Immune system: Structures and mechanisms that allow the body to resist and fight off infection by bacteria and viruses

    Workplace stressor: Any stimulus in the workplace or any aspect of a job which produces the stress response

    Any other words that could be asked as definitions in stress or the other topics?
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    Can someone summarise ellis' ABC model please
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    Hi everyone!

    I am doing AQA psychology and i just found this thread. We have unit 2 exam tomorrow. Can i ask you all a question...

    What do u guys think will be the 12/8 markers this year? I was going through past papers just want your opnion. I doubt stress because stress questions have come before (in 2014 and 2013).

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    (Original post by Mo_Jo.)
    Can someone summarise ellis' ABC model please
    Activating event brings about a
    Belief which can be irrational or rational. This brings about a
    Consequence. (Irrational belief = abnormal consequence, rational belief=Healthy consequences.

    Any irrational belief brings about abnormal behaviour.
    Negative thoughts about your self (I'm not brainy enough for this exam)
    Negative thoughts about the future (I'm never going to get a job)
    Negative thoughts about the world (Everybody hates me)
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    (Original post by Wajeeha Qureshi)
    Hi everyone!

    I am doing AQA psychology and i just found this thread. We have unit 2 exam tomorrow. Can i ask you all a question...

    What do u guys think will be the 12/8 markers this year? I was going through past papers just want your opnion. I doubt stress because stress questions have come before (in 2014 and 2013).

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    I think for 12 markers, they might go for stress and immune system to throw us off because like you said, we won't be expecting it to be on stress again; or it'll be abnormality, and my best bet is biological but there's a chance of cognitive too. I guess we'll find out tomorrow! Good luck everyone
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    How would you write an essay on social influence and social change?
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    Hi, is it possible for there to be a 12 mark on types of conformity; including internalisation and compliance? If so, can someone please help with what to write for ao1 and ao2, thanks.
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    can someone please explained what Moscovici did for social influence - minority please
 
 
 
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