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F1's Finest
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#2521
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#2521
(Original post by MLogan)
What factors influence blood glucose concentration? Is this asking for factors such as diet and exercise?
Yeah, factors are things you can control, so diet of course being a big factor. Exercise too because it uses up glucose for respiration.

Those are the only two I can think of!

In general, your body needs glucose to provide energy for basic metabolic processes, but the hormones are able to respond quite quickly to blood glucose changes!
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MLogan
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#2522
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#2522
(Original post by James A)
Yeah, factors are things you can control, so diet of course being a big factor. Exercise too because it uses up glucose for respiration.

Those are the only two I can think of!

In general, your body needs glucose to provide energy for basic metabolic processes, but the hormones are able to respond quite quickly to blood glucose changes!
Great thanks! It was mentioned in the spec that's why i asked it
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gingerandice
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#2523
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#2523
Shapes fitting together.

Shapes fitting together is a very important concept in biology that affects how metabolic activity is conducted within the cells of an organism and the interaction of different systems.
One role of shapes in biology is the activation of the transcription of a gene, a long sequence of bases that makes a section on the DNA of an organism. The transcription of each gene on DNA is stimulated by the binding of a specific transcriptional factor which is complementary to a specific section of DNA. Once this complex is formed, the synthesis of pre mrna is stimulated which leads to protein synthesis by translation, after pre mrna is sliced to remove none coding introns. For the transcriptional factor to stimulate this process, the inhibitor molecule that is attached to its dna binding site must be released. Oestrogen, a lipd solouble molecule and hormone, diffuses through the phospholipid bilayer of the plasma membrane into the cytoplasm of a cell, where it binds to receptor molecules on the transcriptional factor, to which its shape is complementary to, causing the receptor molecule to change shape and causes the release of the inhibitor molecule from the dna binding site of the transcriptional factor. In this way, transcription of a gene is activated, which leads to protein synthesis, as controlled on the bases of complementary shapes fitting.
Another role of shapes fitting is the homeostatic control of blood glucose concentration, which involves the hormones glucagon and insulin, which are secreted from the cells that make the islets of langerhans located in the pancreas. When blood glucose concentration rises above the set point, the secretion of insulin stimulates a response that leads to a fall in blood glucose concentration by binding to glycoprotein receptors on the cell surface membrane of body cells. As the shape of insulin, a globular protein, is complementary to the shape of the receptor, a complex forms that causes the glucose transport protein channels to open and become more permeable to glucose, increasing the rate at which glucose in removed from the blood. When blood glucose concentration falls below its set point, glucagon is released from the alpha cells, which stimulates the response of the activation of enzymes that convert glycogen to glucose by first binding to receptor molecules that are only present on liver cells. In this way, because this complex is only formed between glucagon and receptors on the membrane of liver cells due to complementary shapes, the response is localised to the liver only.
Furthermore, the concept of shapes fitting plays a fundamental role in the synthesis of hexose sugars during the Calvin cycle stage of photosynthesis. 5 carbon molecule Rubp combines with carbon dioxide, as catalysed by enzyme Rubisco. As the shape of the active site of this enzyme is complementary to these substrate, it catalysed the formation of GP, which can then be reduced to TP by reduced NADP, using energy form the hydrolysis of ATP by ATPase. TP molecules can thus combine to form hexose sugars, such as glucose, which can then be respired .
Shapes fitting together is also important in muscle contraction by the sliding filament mechanism. By stimulation by the arrival of an action potential in the post synaptic membrane of a neuromuscular junction, calcium ions are released from channel ion channels of the sacroplasmic reticulum. These calcium ions bind to tropomyosin that occupies the binding site of the actin filament when the muscle is relaxed, freeing the binding site thus allowing myosin heads to attach unto these binding sites to form cross bridges. If the shape of myosin was not complementary to that of the binding site, this formation could not be formed. At the attachment of the myosin head, ADP causes the myosin head to change angle, which results in it pulling the actin filament along, resulting in muscle contraction.
Shapes fitting together can build the basis of cellular activity that can lead to protein synthesis, homeostatic control, carbohydrate synthesis and muscle contraction. All these activities determine the survival and development of an organism.
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Mocking_bird
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#2524
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#2524
(Original post by JoshL123)
Does anyone have any ideas for the transfer of energy from unit 1? Maybe active transport but any others?
Digestion and absorption
Extracellular digestion maybe?
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MLogan
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#2525
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#2525
Is glucose phosphate the same as glycogen? Cause in the philip allen guide insulin converts glucose to glucose phosphate, but we learnt it as conversion to glycogen?

EDIT: Oh sorry in the guide it says it initially converts glucose to glucose phosphate which is then converted to glycogen via glycogenesis.
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kingster123
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#2526
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#2526
(Original post by Mocking_bird)
Sure!
Oestrous cycle:

- Pituitary gland releases FSH into blood -> Stimulates follicles to grow which contain egg
- Follicles secrete oestrogen into the blood and inhibit the release of FSH and LH (negative feedback)
- Follicles continue to grow and produce more oestrogen until day 10 -> reaches critical point which stimulates a sudden surge in LH and FSH (positive feedback)
-Surge in LH causes follicle to release an egg. This is ovulation.
- LH stimulates follicles to develop into corpus luteum which secretes progesterone.
- Progesterone maintains the uterus lining and inhibits FSH/LH
- If the egg isn’t fertilised the corpus luteum degenerates and no longer produces progesterone so lining no longer maintains and breaks down causing bleeding.
- FSH is now no longer inhibited by the progesterone so the cycle can start again.
(This is if fertilisation does not occur).

If fertilisation occurs:

- Embryo will implant in the endometrium which must not break down
- Human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) is released to prevent the corpus luteum breaking down
- Placenta gradually takes over the corpus luteum when it begins to secrete most of the progesterone/oestrogen essential for a normal pregnancy.
(HCG is detected in the urine and this forms the basis of a pregnancy test).

i admire you thank you ever soo much .. if you have free time could you explain the body temp regulation and glucose regulation
that would be greatfull
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F1's Finest
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#2527
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#2527
(Original post by gingerandice)
Shapes fitting together.

Shapes fitting together is a very important concept in biology that affects how metabolic activity is conducted within the cells of an organism and the interaction of different systems.
One role of shapes in biology is the activation of the transcription of a gene, a long sequence of bases that makes a section on the DNA of an organism. The transcription of each gene on DNA is stimulated by the binding of a specific transcriptional factor which is complementary to a specific section of DNA. Once this complex is formed, the synthesis of pre mrna is stimulated which leads to protein synthesis by translation, after pre mrna is sliced to remove none coding introns. For the transcriptional factor to stimulate this process, the inhibitor molecule that is attached to its dna binding site must be released. Oestrogen, a lipd solouble molecule and hormone, diffuses through the phospholipid bilayer of the plasma membrane into the cytoplasm of a cell, where it binds to receptor molecules on the transcriptional factor, to which its shape is complementary to, causing the receptor molecule to change shape and causes the release of the inhibitor molecule from the dna binding site of the transcriptional factor. In this way, transcription of a gene is activated, which leads to protein synthesis, as controlled on the bases of complementary shapes fitting.
Another role of shapes fitting is the homeostatic control of blood glucose concentration, which involves the hormones glucagon and insulin, which are secreted from the cells that make the islets of langerhans located in the pancreas. When blood glucose concentration rises above the set point, the secretion of insulin stimulates a response that leads to a fall in blood glucose concentration by binding to glycoprotein receptors on the cell surface membrane of body cells. As the shape of insulin, a globular protein, is complementary to the shape of the receptor, a complex forms that causes the glucose transport protein channels to open and become more permeable to glucose, increasing the rate at which glucose in removed from the blood. When blood glucose concentration falls below its set point, glucagon is released from the alpha cells, which stimulates the response of the activation of enzymes that convert glycogen to glucose by first binding to receptor molecules that are only present on liver cells. In this way, because this complex is only formed between glucagon and receptors on the membrane of liver cells due to complementary shapes, the response is localised to the liver only.
Furthermore, the concept of shapes fitting plays a fundamental role in the synthesis of hexose sugars during the Calvin cycle stage of photosynthesis. 5 carbon molecule Rubp combines with carbon dioxide, as catalysed by enzyme Rubisco. As the shape of the active site of this enzyme is complementary to these substrate, it catalysed the formation of GP, which can then be reduced to TP by reduced NADP, using energy form the hydrolysis of ATP by ATPase. TP molecules can thus combine to form hexose sugars, such as glucose, which can then be respired .
Shapes fitting together is also important in muscle contraction by the sliding filament mechanism. By stimulation by the arrival of an action potential in the post synaptic membrane of a neuromuscular junction, calcium ions are released from channel ion channels of the sacroplasmic reticulum. These calcium ions bind to tropomyosin that occupies the binding site of the actin filament when the muscle is relaxed, freeing the binding site thus allowing myosin heads to attach unto these binding sites to form cross bridges. If the shape of myosin was not complementary to that of the binding site, this formation could not be formed. At the attachment of the myosin head, ADP causes the myosin head to change angle, which results in it pulling the actin filament along, resulting in muscle contraction.
Shapes fitting together can build the basis of cellular activity that can lead to protein synthesis, homeostatic control, carbohydrate synthesis and muscle contraction. All these activities determine the survival and development of an organism.
Ideally you want to be covering more topics, the more topics you can cover, the more marks. I did this paper last year and attempted the same question. Our essays are more or less similar in terms of the number of different topics we include.

Spoiler:
Show
I did the 2012 paper (for real :rofl: ) and I have my script here.

I got 16/25 for the essay and this was purely because I ran out of time. I would have got 20+ otherwise. Also I wrote this in a space of under 20 minutes, my hands were killing afterwards. Make sure you plan your work folkes, because it helps!


a)

Shapes are very important in allowing molecules to combine. In this essay I will discuss the different shapes and the biological meaning behind them.

Firstly, as we are aware of, enzymes are highly specific, macromolecules that catalyse and control metabolic pathways and reactions. They compromise of proteins, which are ultimately made from amino acids. It is generally the sequence of the primary structure that affects the tertiary structure of the enzyme and hence the reactions it can catalyse. A small changes in the bases of the amino acids, result in a non-functional enzyme. The tertiary structure is held together by a mixture and variety of bonds, such as hydrogen bonds, which form from adjacent chains of the polypeptide. Disulphide bridges form between adjacent sulphur atoms. An example of an amino acid containing a sulphur atom is methionine, a very common amino acid in the human body. The last type of bond is ionic bonds, which form between adjacent -NH2 (amino groups) and -COOH (carboxyl groups).

Enzymes are specific as previously mentioned. This action can be demonstrated through enzyme inhibition. For instance, in the electron transport chain, the enzyme, cytochrome C oxidase is present which allows ATP to be formed by the passing down of electrons in the electron transport chain. The very prominent, Cyanide, is toxic and acts as a competitive inhibitor which means it fits the enzyme active site and prevents electrons from passing down. In aerobic respiration, oxygen acts as the terminal acceptor of electrons, which would form water, however is cytochrome C oxidase is being inhibited, respiration stops. This is why cyanide must be carefully handled and used in laboratories.

Proteins are present on the phospholipid bi-layer. This allows for various modes of transport to occur across it. In particular, facilitated diffusion which uses the inbuilt motion of molecules (kinetic energy), allowing for molecules to travel down a diffusion gradient. The molecules collide with the intrinsic protein carrier and by doing so, they change the shape of the protein, which closes on one end and opens on the other end. This simple yet intuitive form of transport allows for the uptake of glucose from the lumen of the small intestine. Once in the epithelial cells of the body (by using sodium and co-transport channels), they then use facilitated diffusion to enter the blood.

Antibodies are highly specific proteins that are involved in the immune response (the body's natural defence mechanism against invading foreign material and pathogens). The antibodies bind to foreign material (antigens) and isolate them. It is estimated that around 13*10^8 different antigens are present in the body, which shows how specific they are. They consist of a light and heavy chain (two separate polypeptides). They also contain a variable region and a constant region. The variable region determines which antigen it can bind to. The variable region therefore has a unique and highly specific tertiary structure and once it binds with the antigen, it forms an antigen-antibody complex.

However, in sickle cell anaemia, the four polypeptide chains that make up the quaternary structure of the haemoglobin molecule, stick together and hence leads to serious consequences because blood vessels can become blocked which could reduce the amount of oxygen reaching cells and tissues. Serious implications arise, including, shortness of breath and short periods of exercise.

[B]I had more points in my plan but couldn't include them because I was out of time

Scientific content : 8/16
Breath : 2/3
Relevance: 3/3
QWC : 3/3





This is effectively an accurate reference point for anyone wishing to see roughly what they got for their practice essays.

I would give you 16/25
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F1's Finest
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#2528
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#2528
(Original post by MLogan)
Is glucose phosphate the same as glycogen? Cause in the philip allen guide insulin converts glucose to glucose phosphate, but we learnt it as conversion to glycogen?

EDIT: Oh sorry in the guide it says it initially converts glucose to glucose phosphate which is then converted to glycogen via glycogenesis.
glucose phosphate (glucose-6-phosphate) is completely different to glycogen.



When a cell first takes up glucose, it's phosphorylated by an enzyme called hexokinase. This phosphorylation prevent the glucose from 'leaking' out of the cell back into the blood. This stuff is additional info you could use for an essay. We don't need to know about glucose-6-phosphate.


Glycogen is a much larger molecule. Think of it as many glucose molecules joined together. So glycogen is a storage compound. When the cell needs glucose, some of the glycogen is hydrolysed back into glucose which is used by the cell.
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gingerandice
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#2529
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#2529
(Original post by James A)
Ideally you want to be covering more topics, the more topics you can cover, the more marks. I did this paper last year and attempted the same question. Our essays are more or less similar in terms of the number of different topics we include.

Spoiler:
Show
I did the 2012 paper (for real :rofl: ) and I have my script here.

I got 16/25 for the essay and this was purely because I ran out of time. I would have got 20+ otherwise. Also I wrote this in a space of under 20 minutes, my hands were killing afterwards. Make sure you plan your work folkes, because it helps!


a)

Shapes are very important in allowing molecules to combine. In this essay I will discuss the different shapes and the biological meaning behind them.

Firstly, as we are aware of, enzymes are highly specific, macromolecules that catalyse and control metabolic pathways and reactions. They compromise of proteins, which are ultimately made from amino acids. It is generally the sequence of the primary structure that affects the tertiary structure of the enzyme and hence the reactions it can catalyse. A small changes in the bases of the amino acids, result in a non-functional enzyme. The tertiary structure is held together by a mixture and variety of bonds, such as hydrogen bonds, which form from adjacent chains of the polypeptide. Disulphide bridges form between adjacent sulphur atoms. An example of an amino acid containing a sulphur atom is methionine, a very common amino acid in the human body. The last type of bond is ionic bonds, which form between adjacent -NH2 (amino groups) and -COOH (carboxyl groups).

Enzymes are specific as previously mentioned. This action can be demonstrated through enzyme inhibition. For instance, in the electron transport chain, the enzyme, cytochrome C oxidase is present which allows ATP to be formed by the passing down of electrons in the electron transport chain. The very prominent, Cyanide, is toxic and acts as a competitive inhibitor which means it fits the enzyme active site and prevents electrons from passing down. In aerobic respiration, oxygen acts as the terminal acceptor of electrons, which would form water, however is cytochrome C oxidase is being inhibited, respiration stops. This is why cyanide must be carefully handled and used in laboratories.

Proteins are present on the phospholipid bi-layer. This allows for various modes of transport to occur across it. In particular, facilitated diffusion which uses the inbuilt motion of molecules (kinetic energy), allowing for molecules to travel down a diffusion gradient. The molecules collide with the intrinsic protein carrier and by doing so, they change the shape of the protein, which closes on one end and opens on the other end. This simple yet intuitive form of transport allows for the uptake of glucose from the lumen of the small intestine. Once in the epithelial cells of the body (by using sodium and co-transport channels), they then use facilitated diffusion to enter the blood.

Antibodies are highly specific proteins that are involved in the immune response (the body's natural defence mechanism against invading foreign material and pathogens). The antibodies bind to foreign material (antigens) and isolate them. It is estimated that around 13*10^8 different antigens are present in the body, which shows how specific they are. They consist of a light and heavy chain (two separate polypeptides). They also contain a variable region and a constant region. The variable region determines which antigen it can bind to. The variable region therefore has a unique and highly specific tertiary structure and once it binds with the antigen, it forms an antigen-antibody complex.

However, in sickle cell anaemia, the four polypeptide chains that make up the quaternary structure of the haemoglobin molecule, stick together and hence leads to serious consequences because blood vessels can become blocked which could reduce the amount of oxygen reaching cells and tissues. Serious implications arise, including, shortness of breath and short periods of exercise.

[B]I had more points in my plan but couldn't include them because I was out of time

Scientific content : 8/16
Breath : 2/3
Relevance: 3/3
QWC : 3/3





This is effectively an accurate reference point for anyone wishing to see roughly what they got for their practice essays.

I would give you 16/25
so if I included more topic it would bump it up? so how many topics exactly?
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Andrewjames6
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#2530
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#2530
Has anyone done Chapter 14 exam style questions? Question 4 doesnt make sense to me? Is it possible they made a mistake in the base sequence of the mRNA?
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F1's Finest
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#2531
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#2531
(Original post by gingerandice)
so if I included more topic it would bump it up? so how many topics exactly?
Aim for around 6 topics. Make sure your paragraphs are straight to the point too. I guess getting my script back has helped me to see where I went wrong in the essay.


Also, the more you can cover of the syllabus, the better. The purpose of the synoptic paper is to see how much information you can relate and recall in an essay structure.
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gingerandice
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#2532
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#2532
(Original post by James A)
Aim for around 6 topics. Make sure your paragraphs are straight to the point too. I guess getting my script back has helped me to see where I went wrong in the essay.


Also, the more you can cover of the syllabus, the better. The purpose of the synoptic paper is to see how much information you can relate and recall in an essay structure.
did you see my paragraphs as straight to the point or waffle?
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gingerandice
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#2533
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#2533
(Original post by Andrewjames6)
Has anyone done Chapter 14 exam style questions? Question 4 doesnt make sense to me? Is it possible they made a mistake in the base sequence of the mRNA?
yh they made a mistake I think.
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F1's Finest
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#2534
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#2534
(Original post by gingerandice)
did you see my paragraphs as straight to the point or waffle?
Your paragraphs were detailed, but the hardest thing I found about the essay (my experience of doing the exam) is trying to balance the amount of detail, with the amount of different topics you can bring in.
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iPthreefifthteen
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#2535
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#2535
Hey, can someone help me find some likely essays to come up, and any examples of full/close to full mark examples, I'm quite worried about the essay :/
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JoshL123
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#2536
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#2536
(Original post by Mocking_bird)
Digestion and absorption
Extracellular digestion maybe?
Thank you . Extracellular digestion . Was that in unit one?
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JoshL123
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#2537
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#2537
(Original post by James A)
Aim for around 6 topics. Make sure your paragraphs are straight to the point too. I guess getting my script back has helped me to see where I went wrong in the essay.


Also, the more you can cover of the syllabus, the better. The purpose of the synoptic paper is to see how much information you can relate and recall in an essay structure.
I've been told different advice man :/ I was told to go for 3 topics from each of unit 1,2,3 and 4 and then write about them in detail
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Andrewjames6
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#2538
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#2538
(Original post by gingerandice)
yh they made a mistake I think.
thanks, thought i was losing it lol..
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DELETED ACCOUNT
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#2539
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#2539
(Original post by JoshL123)
I've been told different advice man :/ I was told to go for 3 topics from each of unit 1,2,3 and 4 and then write about them in detail
3 topics as in 3 points in detail? Remember you also get awarded marks for breadth/content. I wouldn't advise talking about the same point in detail. Why? Because you're talking about the same point!!! 6 topics minimum is what I would go for. The more valid points you have that go straight to the point (in enough detail), the more marks you will gain.

EDIT: apologies for the repetition of the words "points and "detail" :rolleyes:
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lifeisgood2012
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#2540
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#2540
Is it me or was the 2012 paper considerably easier than the other two papers? questionswere straight forward
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