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lifeisgood2012
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#2721
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#2721
What to write on an essay about inorganic/ organic ions?
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DELETED ACCOUNT
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#2722
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#2722
(Original post by lifeisgood2012)
Page 158 mate???? we havent even got to that yet :rolleyes:
ha! Should have clarified that I was on about the Nelson thornes book. :cool:
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F1's Finest
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#2723
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#2723
If I were to tell you about these inorganic ions, you would immediately have loads of ideas spring to mind.

Ca2+
Na+
K+
Cl-
NH4+/NO2-/NO3-

It's a really good essay title, very good infact.
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medlou
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#2724
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#2724
(Original post by medlou)
I am very confused with the relationship between body temperature and respiration, I know its simple but it doesn't make sense to me!

I thought that when the body is cold, it increases respiration in order to generate heat
But in one of the exam papers, it shows an increase in body temp along with an increase in oxygen consumption and asks why.
The mark scheme says :
increased temp leads to increased kinetic energy/rate of reactions/increases metabolism
More energy/ATP
Oxygen consumption linked to respiration

This is saying that increased body temp increases respiration, whereas I thought that it was respiration which increased body temp?

I am also confused where it says more ATP, does that mean more ATP is needed or more ATP is generated? I cant quite see how it all links together.
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alevel123
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#2725
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#2725
(Original post by Beth_L_G)
How many UMS is everyone aiming for in this exam to get the grade they need?

I'm aiming for 115, and have been getting an average of 140/140 in practice papers so fingers crossed!
How do you revise so that you remember it? I've done so much work for it but then look at past papers and some questions I don't know!
how is everyone revising for the synoptic essay?
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DoeADeer
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#2726
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#2726
Could someone help me with the question please? It's from the specimen paper and not sure how the answer is 3. Also, what is partial digest? !?!?!

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Beth_L_G
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#2727
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#2727
(Original post by alevel123)
How do you revise so that you remember it? I've done so much work for it but then look at past papers and some questions I don't know!
how is everyone revising for the synoptic essay?
I just read it over and over. I have a massive mind map on my wall (8 A3 sheets) with everything we need to know plus synoptic and off spec stuff, linking different topics together, I have the whole course in note for on 3 double sided bits of A4 paper, 50 flashcards, I have about 15 essays written out, plus essay plans for them I'm currently learning by heart, and I have a recording of myself reading them out that I listen to while on revision breaks

Like I said, I've worked my arse off :P
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F1's Finest
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#2728
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#2728
(Original post by DoeADeer)
Could someone help me with the question please? It's from the specimen paper and not sure how the answer is 3. Also, what is partial digest? !?!?!

Posted from TSR Mobile
Look under the total digest.

You obtain four fragments, so that means there was three recognition sites.

You might be getting confused with restriction mapping of a linear single strand of DNA and plasmids, which are circular. The question clearly shows a linear DNA strand at the top of the page.

A partial digest is when the restriction enzymes are not left for long enough to digest at all the recognition sites, therefore getting many different lengths of fragments.

Hope this helped
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gingerandice
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#2729
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#2729
(Original post by Beth_L_G)
I just read it over and over. I have a massive mind map on my wall (8 A3 sheets) with everything we need to know plus synoptic and off spec stuff, linking different topics together, I have the whole course in note for on 3 double sided bits of A4 paper, 50 flashcards, I have about 15 essays written out, plus essay plans for them I'm currently learning by heart, and I have a recording of myself reading them out that I listen to while on revision breaks

Like I said, I've worked my arse off :P
bloody hell, I love that kind of dedication. I plan on going that crazy in uni.
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#2730
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#2730
(Original post by lifeisgood2012)
What to write on an essay about inorganic/ organic ions?
The role of Cl- ions in cholera
The role pf polyatomic ions (phosphate and sulphate ions during an action potential)
The diffusion of Na+/ K+ ions action/resting potential -sodium potassium pump
Refractory period (inhibitory synapses, Cl- carrier proteins which carry Cl- ions into neurones)
Uptake of inorganic ions in plants
Nitrates in the nitrogen cycle
.i.e. How ammonium-containing compounds are converted in nitrates by nitrification using nitrifying bacteria
Co-transport (sodium-glucose pump in the uptake of glucose)
Fe 2+ ions in haemoglobin and how this attaches to oxygen
Calcium ions in muscle contraction (discuss how they are released by the ER of Actin)
The role of calcium ions in synapses/action potentials (causing vesicles containing acetylcholine to fuse with the membrane of the presynaptic neurone)


There are more I think
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F1's Finest
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#2731
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#2731
(Original post by frogs r everywhere)
The role of Cl- ions in cholera
The role pf polyatomic ions (phosphate and sulphate ions during an action potential)
The diffusion of Na+/ K+ ions action/resting potential -sodium potassium pump
Refractory period (inhibitory synapses, Cl- carrier proteins which carry Cl- ions into neurones)
Uptake of inorganic ions in plants
Nitrates in the nitrogen cycle
.i.e. How ammonium-containing compounds are converted in nitrates by nitrification using nitrifying bacteria
Co-transport (sodium-glucose pump in the uptake of glucose)
Fe 2+ ions in haemoglobin and how this attaches to oxygen
Calcium ions in muscle contraction (discuss how they are released by the ER of Actin)
The role of calcium ions in synapses/action potentials (causing vesicles containing acetylcholine to fuse with the membrane of the presynaptic neurone)


There are more but I need to think of them
Fe2+ in Haemaglobin, how could I forget of that! haha

:five:
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DoeADeer
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#2732
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#2732
(Original post by James A)
Look under the total digest.

You obtain four fragments, so that means there was three recognition sites.

You might be getting confused with restriction mapping of a linear single strand of DNA and plasmids, which are circular. The question clearly shows a linear DNA strand at the top of the page.

A partial digest is when the restriction enzymes are not left for long enough to digest at all the recognition sites, therefore getting many different lengths of fragments.

Hope this helped
Thank you!
If the restriction endonucleases weren't left long enough then why have there been more cuts? I thought there'd be fewer cuts as not all the recognition sites have been cut...

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gingerandice
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#2733
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#2733
seeing how you guys have done such indepth work, I hope I haven't underestimated this exam???
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DoeADeer
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#2734
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(Original post by James A)
Look under the total digest.

You obtain four fragments, so that means there was three recognition sites.

You might be getting confused with restriction mapping of a linear single strand of DNA and plasmids, which are circular. The question clearly shows a linear DNA strand at the top of the page.

A partial digest is when the restriction enzymes are not left for long enough to digest at all the recognition sites, therefore getting many different lengths of fragments.

Hope this helped
Sorry again.
But why are there four lines corresponding to the radioactive fragments when there's only one radioactive nucleotide?
I'm really weak at this topic if you couldn't tell D:

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DELETED ACCOUNT
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#2735
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#2735
(Original post by Beth_L_G)
I just read it over and over. I have a massive mind map on my wall (8 A3 sheets) with everything we need to know plus synoptic and off spec stuff, linking different topics together, I have the whole course in note for on 3 double sided bits of A4 paper, 50 flashcards, I have about 15 essays written out, plus essay plans for them I'm currently learning by heart, and I have a recording of myself reading them out that I listen to while on revision breaks

Like I said, I've worked my arse off :P
Now that is what I call ndsiijdnfvddf. You deserve that A*. You're my new competition.
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iop horray
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#2736
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(Original post by James A)
If it was on either ATP or inorganic ions :mmm: I hope so :yy: fingers crossed
I personally believe that the essay question will be on inorganic ions or cycles and if its on inorganic ions I will just copy your plan of - sodium + potassium ions involved in creating an action potential and resting potential, chloride ions involved in in inhibition synapse , calcium ions involved in muscle contraction , calcium ions involved in the transformation of bacteria, nitrate + nitrite+ ammonium ions and ATP/ADP. I would talk about how ATP/ADP provides energy and how it is created. If I have missed anything just inform me.
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F1's Finest
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(Original post by DoeADeer)
Thank you!
If the restriction endonucleases weren't left long enough then why have there been more cuts? I thought there'd be fewer cuts as not all the recognition sites have been cut...

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There weren't more cuts.

You get different sized fragments.

For instance.

Take a strip of paper.

Let's just assume that it has 2 recognition sites and that the piece of paper is 10 bases long.

It's hard to describe here, but assume that 'B' represent a base and ' / ' represents a restriction site.


B B B B / B B B B / B B


When we refer to partial digest, we refer to the restriction enzymes not having enough time to cut at all sites. So for our partial digest, the restriction enzyme only cuts at the site (nearest to the right hand side).

So that means you're left with two fragments produced. One which is eight bases long and the other fragment is two bases long. This is why you get an unexpected number of bases with a partial digest.

Also, the same process happens, but this time, only the other restriction site (nearest to the left, gets cut). So you're left with a fragment that is four bases long and another fragment that is six bases long.

So in total, you have these fragments produced in the 'partial digest'.

8 bases long
2 bases long
4 bases long
6 bases long

as well as the normal bases that were produced from the complete digest.

If the restriction enzymes were left for long, then you would have a complete digest of both restriction sites at the same time. So in our example, only a fragment of four bases long and two bases long would be present. hope this helped!
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marleyxd
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#2738
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#2738
(Original post by DoeADeer)
Could someone help me with the question please? It's from the specimen paper and not sure how the answer is 3. Also, what is partial digest? !?!?!

Posted from TSR Mobile
There are 4 fragments shown in the Total Digest. Think of a straight line, if you cut it in 3 random places, you will always end up with 4 fragments.

Partial Digest is where a restriction endonuclease has failed to cut through the DNA recognition site. Say there is a 10kb fragment that has recognition sites at 3kb 5kb and 7kb, if the restriction endonuclease failed to cut at 7kb, there would only be a 3kb fragment and a 7kb fragment (instead of 3kb, 2kb, and 5kb)

Its hard to explain but try visualising it.
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#2739
I would laugh if the essay was on about DNA technology knowing that many students hate it.
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DavidYorkshireFTW
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#2740
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#2740
(Original post by frogs r everywhere)
The role of Cl- ions in cholera
The role pf polyatomic ions (phosphate and sulphate ions during an action potential)
The diffusion of Na+/ K+ ions action/resting potential -sodium potassium pump
Refractory period (inhibitory synapses, Cl- carrier proteins which carry Cl- ions into neurones)
Uptake of inorganic ions in plants
Nitrates in the nitrogen cycle
.i.e. How ammonium-containing compounds are converted in nitrates by nitrification using nitrifying bacteria
Co-transport (sodium-glucose pump in the uptake of glucose)
Fe 2+ ions in haemoglobin and how this attaches to oxygen
Calcium ions in muscle contraction (discuss how they are released by the ER of Actin)
The role of calcium ions in synapses/action potentials (causing vesicles containing acetylcholine to fuse with the membrane of the presynaptic neurone)


There are more I think
I haven't come across these yet for some reason, could you please explain ?
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