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Edexcel: From kaiser to fuhrer 1900-1945, his03/d exam friday 10th june 2016 Watch

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    (Original post by eddso)
    Severity of opposition
    Strength of morale
    Successful or failing war economy
    Evolution of the final solution
    Thank you. Would it be useful to know an overview of the second world war?
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    For those asking about the Golden Years, here is a plan I made for the following question:

    'How far do you agree that the period 1924-1929 can be described as one of economic and political stability?'

    Political and economic stability:

    -Stresemann's foreign policy: (shows improved foreign political stability)

    Dawes plan 1924 which was significant in getting the republic out of hyperinflation, the Dawes plan consisted of three major points- acceptance of German reorganization of the German currency, the new Rentenmark was introduced and printing was strictly limited in order to prevent the type of hyperinflation that happened prior with the Reichsmark. Hjalmar Schacht was to be currency commissioner and the new currency was tied to mortgage bonds and agricultural assets in order to increase stability. The Reichsbank was also set up, under Allied supervision and finally the reparations payments were now to be made annually at a fixed price, over a longer period.

    Locarno pact 1925 - Stresemann feared that the Anglo-French friendship could lead to a military alliance. In order to counter this concern,he proposed an international security pact for Germany's western frontiers.Both Britain and the USA backed the idea. The main points of the Locarno pact were: a mutual guarantee agreement accepted the Franco-German and Belgian-German borders. These terms were guaranteed by Britain and Italy, the demilitarization of the Rhineland was recognized as permanent and the arbitration treaties between Germany, Poland and Czechoslovakia agreed to settle future disputes peacefully.

    Entrance into the League of Nations 1926 - Germany had originally been excluded from the League of Nations but was invited to join in 1926 following their improved relationship with the allies, the Locarno pact had a significant impact in their entrance into the league.

    The Treaty of Berlin 1926 agreement with the Soviet Union to remain neutral in the event of an attack by a third party.

    The Young Plan 1929 Stresemann's final diplomatic success -a further revision of the scheme of reparation payments, Germany now agreed to continue to pay reparations until 1988 and the total sum was reduced to £1850 million.

    Evidence for domestic political stability:

    Support for the extreme left and right parties decreased -the DNVP peaked in 1924 with 103 seats but decreased to 73 in 1928. The Nazis lost ground in both elections and were reduced to only 12 seats by 1928. The KPD remained below their performance of May 1924.

    Support for the parties sympathetic to the Republic maintained their share of the vote - the SPD made substantial gains, winning 153 seats in 1928. Following the 1928 election a 'Grand Coalition' of the SPD,DDP DVP AND Centre parties was formed under Hermann Muller, the leader of the SPD. Over 60% of the Reichstag supported this coalition - finally the start of a stable democracy?

    Social welfare policies - In 1927, a compulsory unemployment insurance covering 17 million workers was created, which was the largest scheme of its kind in the world.

    Hindenburg Presidency 1925 - controversial as he had anti-socialist views (also used in argument against) or in-between argument. He remained loyal to the constitution and carried out his presidential duties with correctness. Those nationalists who had hoped that his election might lead to the restoration of the monarchy or the creation of a military-type regime were disappointed. It is argued that Hindenburg acted as a true substitute kaiser /Ersatz-kaiser seen by monarchists as fulfilling the role of sovereign. In this sense, Hindenburg gave Weimar some respectability in Conservative circles.

    Evidence for economic stability during the 'Golden Years':

    as mentioned under Stresemann's foreign policy - a new currency managed by Schacht was introduced, as well as the setting up of the Reichsbank greatly improved the prior issue of hyperinflation, finally having a currency that was relatively stable.

    by 1928 pre-war production levels were reached - this was the result of the use of more efficient methods of production, particularly in coal-mining and steel manufacture and also because of increased investment.

    Between 1925 and 1929, German exports rose by 40%, such economic progress brought social benefits as well. Hourly wage rates rose every year from 1924 to 1930 and by as much as 5-10% in 1927 and 1928.

    The years 1924-1929 were not economically and politically stable:

    evidence for political instability:

    The coalition governments were evidently not stable, there had been 7 different governments in 7 years (1923-1930). This was due to the fact that no party had the majority of the vote meaning parties with conflicting ideology and political goals had to work together.

    There was never any possibility of a coalition including both the SPD and the DNVP because the SPD believed in parliamentary democracy whereas the DNVP fundamentally rejected the Weimar political system. The Communists, KPD, remained totally isolated. A right-centre coalition of Centre,DVP and DNVP created a situation in which the parties tended to agree on domestic issues but disagree on foreign affairs. A broad coalition of SPD, DDP,DVP and Centre meant that these parties agreed on foreign policy, but differed on domestic issues.

    Therefore, it was impossible to create a coalition with a parliamentary majority that could also consistently agree on both domestic and foreign policy.

    As a result, towards the end of this period people were getting cynical of the political system and there was a rise in fringe parties.The KPD also began gaining votes towards the end.

    The DNVP was in government in 1925 and 1927-1928 despite being a far right party with strong anti-Semitic orientation. Really a democratic government?

    The Young Plan in particular, but other foreign policy would have created some political instability - the far right were opposed to this as well as the Locarno, Berlin treaty as they would have weakened Germany's strength as a nation. The Versailles Treaty and war guilt was still an issue.

    Very important evidence to show this was the referendum held in Germany on 22 December 1929. It was a failed attempt to introduce a 'Law against the Enslavement of the German People'. The legislation, proposed by German nationalists, would formally renounce the Treaty of Versailles and make it a criminal offence for German officials to co-operate in the collecting of reparations. Although it was approved by 94.5% of those who voted, voter turnout was just 14.9%, well below the 50% necessary for it to pass.

    Hindenburg Presidency 1925 - It is believed Hindenburg had no real sympathy for the Republic or its values. Those around him were mainly made up of anti-republican figures, many of them from the military. He preferred to include the DNVP in government and, if possible, to exclude the SPD. From the start, Hindenburg's view was that the government should move towards the right, although it was really only after 1929 that the serious implications of his outlook became fully apparent for Weimar democracy.

    evidence for economic instability:

    The Dawes plan - loans from the US provided short term economic benefits but were never ideal - as seen in the Wall Street Crash that occurred in 1929.

    Unemployment never fell below 1.3 million in this period.And even before the effects of America's financial crisis began to be felt, the number of unemployed workers averaged 1.9 million in 1929.

    Economic growth was uneven - in 1926 production actually declined. In overseas trade, the value of imports always exceeded that of exports.

    Agriculture - grain production was still only 3/4 of its 1913 figure, and farmers, many of whom were in debt, faced falling incomes.

    Germany also faced fundamental economic problems - they relied on its ability to export to achieve growth but world trade had declined and the loss of valuable resources in Alsace-Lorraine and Silesia due to the Treaty of Versailles proved significant. Fall in world prices affected agriculture. Changing population meant there were more school leavers, meaning unemployment was naturally likely to increase. Savings and investment were discouraged,savers had lost a great deal of money in the Great Inflation acting as a disincentive for future investment.Government budget deficit also increasing - unstable long term economic growth due to the level of government expenditure.

    Conclusion: When looking at the golden years in isolation it is clear that it is not economically or politically stable, it just appeared to be the case when comparing this period to the previous 5 years and next 5 years in which instability was extreme. Deceptively stable?
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    (Original post by Annie.humair)
    Sorry I can't open it would you mind copying and pasting it?
    It's in a format I can't copy and paste. Why cant you open .docx files? It will open with any version of word.
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    (Original post by sixschmidt)
    It's in a format I can't copy and paste. Why cant you open .docx files? It will open with any version of word.
    I'm on my tablet and even though I have word on it sometimes it doesn't open. Don't worry about it though
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    (Original post by Mowerharvey)
    Thank you. Would it be useful to know an overview of the second world war?
    Yes because that will help with your chronology which is important so that you really understand the content ie if you're arguing the war caused the evolution of the final solution then you'll need to understand what happened when in order to argue that it was a contributing factor

    However they won't ask a question on the actual war so this does only need to be brief; when you look at the overview of it, try to link different events to developments in the different topics. The economy for example was rubbish to start with but as this was during the phoney war the problems weren't too apparent - during the blitzkrieg though the economic problems started to emerge etc etc
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    I have highly marked essays for WW2 if anyone wants them. One for war production which got 29/30 and one for wartime opposition which got 28/30.
    Attached Files
  1. File Type: docx Nazi war production in the years 1939.docx (18.3 KB, 102 views)
  2. File Type: docx To what extent did the Nazi Regime face serious opposition within Germany during the years 1939.docx (18.1 KB, 120 views)
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    (Original post by Annie.humair)
    I'm on my tablet and even though I have word on it sometimes it doesn't open. Don't worry about it though
    How far do you agree with the view that, in the years 1919-1929, the democratic experiment in Germany must be seen as a success?

    Credit to sixschmidt for the content

    Paragraph 1: Agree: Golden Years:

    Fulfillment > Progress was made with the revision of some articles of Versailles > unjust and unworkable > Young Plan reworked the reparations, however, 5.8 million Germans voted against the Young Plan > limitation on the success of fulfillment

    Locarno treaties/pact > Guaranteeing the Franco-German borders, increasing diplomatic ties with France.

    Acceptance of Germany into the League of Nations in 1926 > increasing diplomatic influence of Germany

    Treaty of Berlin > non-aggression pact with Soviet Union for 5 years

    Paragraph 2: Agree: Economic success:

    Dawes plan > Strengthened German industrial base > developed relations with the USA as well as trade > Delay of reparation payments increased national income 12% higher than in 1913.

    However, there were agricultural problems > collapse of food prices in 1922 led to rural poverty

    Hyperinflation was dealt with quickly > introduction of the Rentenmark as well as the implementation of the Dawes plan.

    Young plan 1929 > Settled reparation payments until 1988 > manageable payments

    However, there was industrial unrest 1924-1929 > 15% of the workforce was unemployed > Union demands for higher wages resisted by employers > 210,000 workers locked out by Ruhr ironworks rather than accepting new wages.

    Paragraph 3: Disagree: Opposition movements

    Threats from the left > Spartacist uprising, Red Bavaria

    Threats from the right > Kapp Putsch, Munich Putsch, entrenched conservatism in the institutions of government as President Hindenburg favored conservative governments over ones that included the SPD.

    Paragraph 4: Disagree: Nature of the Weimar Constitution

    Failure in the proportional representation article of the Weimar Constitution > fragmented the Reichstag more than it is, making a majority even more difficult to reach > governments never lasted more than 2 years.

    Article 48 > excessive executive powers which could be abused, however, during 1919-1929 the provision was used properly by Ebert in 1923, by giving the army power to suppress the Munich Putsch.

    However, the constitution was seen as a compromise > For it to succeed, it had to be seen as legitimate by the majority of the population > carried over elements of the Second Reich's system (Länder).

    Conclusion: Agree to an extent - Serious strides forward in diplomatic and economic management. However, the weakness of the Constitution shines in the rise of opposition movements and interest groups.
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    (Original post by AJC1997)
    How far do you agree with the view that, in the years 1919-1929, the democratic experiment in Germany must be seen as a success?

    Credit to sixschmidt for the content

    Paragraph 1: Agree: Golden Years:

    Fulfillment > Progress was made with the revision of some articles of Versailles > unjust and unworkable > Young Plan reworked the reparations, however, 5.8 million Germans voted against the Young Plan > limitation on the success of fulfillment

    Locarno treaties/pact > Guaranteeing the Franco-German borders, increasing diplomatic ties with France.

    Acceptance of Germany into the League of Nations in 1926 > increasing diplomatic influence of Germany

    Treaty of Berlin > non-aggression pact with Soviet Union for 5 years

    Paragraph 2: Agree: Economic success:

    Dawes plan > Strengthened German industrial base > developed relations with the USA as well as trade > Delay of reparation payments increased national income 12% higher than in 1913.

    However, there were agricultural problems > collapse of food prices in 1922 led to rural poverty

    Hyperinflation was dealt with quickly > introduction of the Rentenmark as well as the implementation of the Dawes plan.

    Young plan 1929 > Settled reparation payments until 1988 > manageable payments

    However, there was industrial unrest 1924-1929 > 15% of the workforce was unemployed > Union demands for higher wages resisted by employers > 210,000 workers locked out by Ruhr ironworks rather than accepting new wages.

    Paragraph 3: Disagree: Opposition movements

    Threats from the left > Spartacist uprising, Red Bavaria

    Threats from the right > Kapp Putsch, Munich Putsch, entrenched conservatism in the institutions of government as President Hindenburg favored conservative governments over ones that included the SPD.

    Paragraph 4: Disagree: Nature of the Weimar Constitution

    Failure in the proportional representation article of the Weimar Constitution > fragmented the Reichstag more than it is, making a majority even more difficult to reach > governments never lasted more than 2 years.

    Article 48 > excessive executive powers which could be abused, however, during 1919-1929 the provision was used properly by Ebert in 1923, by giving the army power to suppress the Munich Putsch.

    However, the constitution was seen as a compromise > For it to succeed, it had to be seen as legitimate by the majority of the population > carried over elements of the Second Reich's system (Länder).

    Conclusion: Agree to an extent - Serious strides forward in diplomatic and economic management. However, the weakness of the Constitution shines in the rise of opposition movements and interest groups.
    Note that these are guides to the actual question rather than a full plan of the question. It misses out the evaluation aspect of the mark scheme and focuses on the actual events that are related to the question. Don't forget to evaluate each individual aspect that you use in relation to the question. What was seen as a democratic success? How far? Was is limited to the time period or did it span all of Weimar? What detracted from it? Make sure to evaluate, that's the key to higher marks.
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    (Original post by AJC1997)
    How far do you agree with the view that, in the years 1919-1929, the democratic experiment in Germany must be seen as a success?

    Credit to sixschmidt for the content

    Paragraph 1: Agree: Golden Years:

    Fulfillment > Progress was made with the revision of some articles of Versailles > unjust and unworkable > Young Plan reworked the reparations, however, 5.8 million Germans voted against the Young Plan > limitation on the success of fulfillment

    Locarno treaties/pact > Guaranteeing the Franco-German borders, increasing diplomatic ties with France.

    Acceptance of Germany into the League of Nations in 1926 > increasing diplomatic influence of Germany

    Treaty of Berlin > non-aggression pact with Soviet Union for 5 years

    Paragraph 2: Agree: Economic success:

    Dawes plan > Strengthened German industrial base > developed relations with the USA as well as trade > Delay of reparation payments increased national income 12% higher than in 1913.

    However, there were agricultural problems > collapse of food prices in 1922 led to rural poverty

    Hyperinflation was dealt with quickly > introduction of the Rentenmark as well as the implementation of the Dawes plan.

    Young plan 1929 > Settled reparation payments until 1988 > manageable payments

    However, there was industrial unrest 1924-1929 > 15% of the workforce was unemployed > Union demands for higher wages resisted by employers > 210,000 workers locked out by Ruhr ironworks rather than accepting new wages.

    Paragraph 3: Disagree: Opposition movements

    Threats from the left > Spartacist uprising, Red Bavaria

    Threats from the right > Kapp Putsch, Munich Putsch, entrenched conservatism in the institutions of government as President Hindenburg favored conservative governments over ones that included the SPD.

    Paragraph 4: Disagree: Nature of the Weimar Constitution

    Failure in the proportional representation article of the Weimar Constitution > fragmented the Reichstag more than it is, making a majority even more difficult to reach > governments never lasted more than 2 years.

    Article 48 > excessive executive powers which could be abused, however, during 1919-1929 the provision was used properly by Ebert in 1923, by giving the army power to suppress the Munich Putsch.

    However, the constitution was seen as a compromise > For it to succeed, it had to be seen as legitimate by the majority of the population > carried over elements of the Second Reich's system (Länder).

    Conclusion: Agree to an extent - Serious strides forward in diplomatic and economic management. However, the weakness of the Constitution shines in the rise of opposition movements and interest groups.
    Thank you 😘
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    So what other questions can they ask about the period 1919-1929?

    There's the golden year 1924-29
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    (Original post by sixschmidt)
    Note that these are guides to the actual question rather than a full plan of the question. It misses out the evaluation aspect of the mark scheme and focuses on the actual events that are related to the question. Don't forget to evaluate each individual aspect that you use in relation to the question. What was seen as a democratic success? How far? Was is limited to the time period or did it span all of Weimar? What detracted from it? Make sure to evaluate, that's the key to higher marks.
    This question does not require economic success - it's about success in political terms. You can only write about economic success/failures if you link it to politics
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    (Original post by Annie.humair)
    So what other questions can they ask about the period 1919-1929?

    There's the golden year 1924-29
    The two main questions I think will be centred around the threats to Weimar in its early years and the causes of the political and economic tensions, and the golden years. They may ask a broad one about the successes of Weimar as a whole
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    Does anyone have an exemplar A/A* essay for this question: ‘How far do you agree that the new Weimar Republic was seriously threatened by political extremists in the years 1919–24?' (June 2013)
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    (Original post by louise.18)
    This question does not require economic success - it's about success in political terms. You can only write about economic success/failures if you link it to politics
    I agree with you. I would probably still write the essay like that, however, but I use things like the Dawes/Young Plan as examples of good economic policy of the democratic government, showing how the democratic government were able to improve relations with the USA, reduce reparations, end the Ruhr occupation etc., leading to greater prosperity. These economic developments were all the result of the Weimar government, rather than anything outside it, therefore, the democratic experiment was a success.
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    Could someone please post the Part A and B questions from 2014 and 2015? Also, does anyone have any ideas about what the question might be for the 2nd controversy in part B? thanks
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    Can there be a factorial question for the Weimar Republic encaustic I can't see there being one??
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    (Original post by Annie.humair)
    Can there be a factorial question for the Weimar Republic encaustic I can't see there being one??
    What do you mean?

    They can give you a stated factor and ask you to assess its significance in regards to something ie what the Treaty of Versailles (factor) the main cause of economic and political problems in the early years of the Weimar Republic
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    (Original post by eddso)
    What do you mean?

    They can give you a stated factor and ask you to assess its significance in regards to something ie what the Treaty of Versailles (factor) the main cause of economic and political problems in the early years of the Weimar Republic
    Yep this is what I was looking for.
    So the factors could include the treaty of Versailles, the extreme right, the extreme left
    Anything else?
    Thanks
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    (Original post by Annie.humair)
    Yep this is what I was looking for.
    So the factors could include the treaty of Versailles, the extreme right, the extreme left
    Anything else?
    Thanks

    Constitution itself
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    (Original post by Annie.humair)
    Yep this is what I was looking for.
    So the factors could include the treaty of Versailles, the extreme right, the extreme left
    Anything else?
    Thanks
    Remnants of the old Imperial System carried on with the new German state, ensuring conservative Junkers populated the judiciary and civil service. This undermined Weimar as often the legislative will of the Reichstag was often not communicated by the judiciary, leading to reduced sentences for right wing extremists like Hitler.
 
 
 
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