Hey there! Sign in to join this conversationNew here? Join for free
    Offline

    6
    ReputationRep:
    Explain the theory of contential drift?
    Offline

    2
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by Obnox)
    gcse june 2012 aqa c1 exam past paper watchThe link was from this forum
    Many thanks, good luck and night :P
    Offline

    2
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by ASSISTER)
    Many thanks, good luck and night :P
    Same for you
    Offline

    1
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by t10r)
    Compare extracting metals using reduction and extracting metals using electrolysis.

    Compare purifying metals using electrolysis and purifying metals using displacement.

    Reduction using carbon is one method of extracting copper. Describe two alternative methods of extracting copper from its ore.

    Why are metals soft but alloys hard?
    Right mark me as harsh as possible please.

    1. Extracting metals using reduction requires less energy than electrolysis as electrolysis requires large amounts of electricity, whereas extracting metals using reduction ie using carbon in a blast furnace requires less energy. The metal extracted from reduction is also brittle and metals extracted from electrolysis are more pure than reduction process.

    2. Electrolysis produces much more pure metal - idk what else to write lol
    3. Bioleaching - using bacteria , Phytoming? or blast furnace reduction with scrap iron.
    4. metal atoms are arranged in layers which can slide(all atoms are same), however in an alloy, the layers become distorted, making it hard for the atoms to slide, making the alloy harder ( due to different size atoms from different elements added)
    • Thread Starter
    Offline

    4
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by Love123443)
    Explain the theory of contential drift?
    Was the idea proposed by Wegener that suggested all continents were moving apart, and were once a supercontinent called a pangea
    there is evidence in the form of:

    coasts of south america and africa fitting together like a 'jigsaw'
    fossils found on the coast of south america matching the fossils found on the coast of africa (and rocks)

    however his idea wasnt widely accepted at first because there was not enough evidence and some other idiot suggested a land bridge
    Offline

    5
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by t10r)
    Compare extracting metals using reduction and extracting metals using electrolysis.

    Compare purifying metals using electrolysis and purifying metals using displacement.

    Reduction using carbon is one method of extracting copper. Describe two alternative methods of extracting copper from its ore.

    Why are metals soft but alloys hard?
    Purifying metals with electroylsis is more expensive due to the amount of energy required.
    Reduction, for example the reduction of iron often doesn't remove all the impurities. Iron is usually left about 96% pure after reduction. But it is cheaper than electroylsis as it doesn't require as much energy.

    Purifying metals by displacement uses scrap iron which is cheaper. You can only purify metals below iron in the table of reactivity.
    Purifying metals by electroylsis is more expensive as it requires a lot of energy and the substance has to be in molten form so the ions can move freely around.

    Phytomining- growing plants on low grade copper ores. Plants take up copper in body tissue. Burn plants. Extract copper from ash by displacement or electrolysis.
    Bioleaching- growing bacteria on low grade copper ores. Bacteria produce a solution that contains copper. Solution can go through electroylsis or displacement.

    Metals are arranged in neat rows and columns with same size atoms that can easily slide past each other.
    Alloys have different size atoms thoughout so it is harder for the rows to slide past eachother, hence making the alloy harder than the metal.
    Offline

    6
    ReputationRep:
    thankyou so much i was so stuck on that

    (Original post by IAmAnTroll)
    Was the idea proposed by Wegener that suggested all continents were moving apart, and were once a supercontinent called a pangea
    there is evidence in the form of:

    coasts of south america and africa fitting together like a 'jigsaw'
    fossils found on the coast of south america matching the fossils found on the coast of africa (and rocks)

    however his idea wasnt widely accepted at first because there was not enough evidence and some other idiot suggested a land bridge
    Offline

    18
    ReputationRep:
    Explain miller and ureys theory.

    Include why theory only provided weak evidence
    Offline

    5
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by Love123443)
    Give the uses of polymers?
    Food packaging as they let gases diffuse in and out for food lasts longer.

    Hydrogels. This is very absorbant so good for wound dressings ans nappies

    Fabric coating-> if something falls on your clothes you'll have a protective coating layer.

    Breathable fabrics-> lets sweat evaporate out but doesn't let rainwater in

    Shape memory polymers -> car bumpers and some glasses. Heat them and they return back to its original shape.
    Offline

    1
    ReputationRep:
    what is the lime cycle?
    Offline

    11
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by whyaqawhy)
    Right mark me as harsh as possible please.

    1. Extracting metals using reduction requires less energy than electrolysis as electrolysis requires large amounts of electricity, whereas extracting metals using reduction ie using carbon in a blast furnace requires less energy. The metal extracted from reduction is also brittle and metals extracted from electrolysis are more pure than reduction process.

    2. Electrolysis produces much more pure metal - idk what else to write lol
    3. Bioleaching - using bacteria , Phytoming? or blast furnace reduction with scrap iron.
    4. metal atoms are arranged in layers which can slide(all atoms are same), however in an alloy, the layers become distorted, making it hard for the atoms to slide, making the alloy harder ( due to different size atoms from different elements added)
    1 - A very good answer from what I can see. I'm not quite sure about the metals from reduction always being brittle as that isn't always the case, I think.

    2- Electrolysis uses electricity - expensive. Also, electrolysis often needs the metal to be molten which is also expensive as you need fossil fuels and it isn't environmentally friendly. However, electrolysis purifies the metal in a much shorter time.

    On the other hand, displacement is cheap as you often use scrap iron which would otherwise go to waste. - Idk anything to say about the displacement LOL - I expected you to give me some so that I could revise this xD. Can anyone else help?

    3- You have to describe the methods in depth. Not just state them. Probably would get 1/2 marks if this came up as a 6 marker. Instead, you should describe the methods so: Bioleaching is when we use bacteria to get copper from lowgrade ores as opposed to the traditional method being reduction with carbon from high grade ores as the copper is running out.
    The bacteria is grown on lowgrade ores and it gets energy from the bond between copper and sulfur in copper sulfide, it then uses that energy to separate the copper into a copper sulfate solution. This copper sulfate solution can then be purified using scrap iron to displace the copper or electrolysis.
    On the other hand, phytomining is when plants are grown in soil containing lowgrade copper ores. The plants take the copper in and store it. They can then be harvested, dried and burnt. From the ashes, you can get the copper by purifying it using electrolysis or using scrap iron once you make a solution of copper sulfate.

    4- Perfect answer. Good work!
    Offline

    11
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by tamanna___)
    Explain miller and ureys theory.

    Include why theory only provided weak evidence
    Miller and Urey's theory was that, in the early atmosphere, the substances present called primate gases being ammonia, methane, hydrogen, water vapour and nitrogen formed life.

    The theory provided weak evidence as, when they did the experiment, the amount of amino acids was too little for it to have created life. So, Miller and Urey were on the right lines but the question of how exactly do you create life from the amino acids still remains till this day.
    Offline

    6
    ReputationRep:
    Hey how was the earths early atmosphere formed?
    Online

    12
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by jackbarry1999)
    how are hydrocarbons cracked
    A long-chain hydrocarbon is too long to be of any significant use, so we need to break it down in the process of 'cracking'. We heat the long-chain hydrocarbon and this creates shorter chained hydrocarbons, which can be used for fuel and an alkene.
    Offline

    5
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by Dxua)
    what is the lime cycle?
    Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) thermally decomposes to give you Calcium oxide + water.

    CaCO3 ----- (HEAT) -----> CaO +CO2

    Calcium oxide reacts with water to produces calcium hydroxide

    CaO +H2O -> Ca(OH)

    Both calcium hydroxide and calcium oxide are alkali so can be used to neutralise acidic soils and lakes

    Calcium hydroxide added with more water gives you calcium hydroxide (aqueous). Also known as limewater.

    Limewater + Carbon dioxide gives you Calcium carbonate. This is actually the test for carbon dioxide as the limewater turns cloudy. The cloudy colour is made because the calcium hydroxide (limewater) reacting with the carbon dioxide to give little solid pieces of calcium carbonate which is white in colour.

    The equation for that is:

    Ca(OH) + CO2 -> CaCO3 + H20
    Online

    12
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by MaxHSloan)
    What are the conditions needed to harden vegetable oils?
    - Nickel catalyst
    - 60 degrees celsius
    - An alkene (unsaturated) mixed with hydrogen
    Online

    12
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by Love123443)
    Explain the theory of contential drift?
    This was a theory brought about by Wegener. It suggested that over millions of years, the continents have drifted from being one large land space to the formation we know today.
    Offline

    11
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by RubiksNinja)
    Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) thermally decomposes to give you Calcium oxide + water.

    CaCO3 ----- (HEAT) -----> CaO +CO2

    Calcium oxide reacts with water to produces calcium hydroxide

    CaO +H2O -> Ca(OH)

    Both calcium hydroxide and calcium oxide are alkali so can be used to neutralise acidic soils and lakes

    Calcium hydroxide added with more water gives you calcium hydroxide (aqueous). Also known as limewater.

    Limewater + Carbon dioxide gives you Calcium carbonate. This is actually the test for carbon dioxide as the limewater turns cloudy. The cloudy colour is made because the calcium hydroxide (limewater) reacting with the carbon dioxide to give little solid pieces of calcium carbonate which is white in colour.

    The equation for that is:

    Ca(OH) + CO2 -> CaCO3 + H20
    Calcium hydroxide is Ca(OH) with a small 2 after the (OH). You would potentially lose a mark if you wrote down Ca(OH)
    Offline

    11
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by NoahSwinden)
    - Nickel catalyst
    - 60 degrees celsius
    - An alkene (unsaturated) mixed with hydrogen
    is vegetable oil an alkene?
    Online

    12
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by IAmAnTroll)
    What are the two ways ethanol can be produced?
    Fermentation - Sugar (glucose) + Yeast ------> Ethanol + Carbon Dioxide

    Hydration - Ethane + Steam --------> Ethanol

    Q) Name an advantage and a disadvantage of both fermentation and hydration. (4)
 
 
 
  • See more of what you like on The Student Room

    You can personalise what you see on TSR. Tell us a little about yourself to get started.

  • Poll
    Brexit voters: Do you stand by your vote?
  • See more of what you like on The Student Room

    You can personalise what you see on TSR. Tell us a little about yourself to get started.

  • The Student Room, Get Revising and Marked by Teachers are trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd.

    Register Number: 04666380 (England and Wales), VAT No. 806 8067 22 Registered Office: International House, Queens Road, Brighton, BN1 3XE

    Write a reply...
    Reply
    Hide
    Reputation gems: You get these gems as you gain rep from other members for making good contributions and giving helpful advice.