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    (Original post by dopeyangel101)
    can anyone help, i have a question with no mark scheme

    (c) Nitrogenase is an enzyme found in some bacteria that converts nitrogen gas into ammonia in a process known as nitrogen fixation. The enzyme is inactivated when exposed to oxygen. Commercial methods of fixing nitrogen are being developed but whole cells rather than the isolated enzyme are immobilised.
    Suggest advantages of immobilising the whole cell rather than the enzyme.

    would you mention that it prevents the enzyme from being inactivated by the air, and its easier to do?????

    any help is very much welcomed
    no need to extract the enzyme - could be expensive and difficult
    cell naturally produces the enzyme
    prevents oxygen getting near the enzyme so keeps working

    thats all i got :P
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    (Original post by nofishing)
    'Distinguish between the terms conservation and preservation'
    Anyone know the difference?
    Conservation is the maintenance of biodiversity and a range of habitats and ecosystems.

    Preservation is protection of areas that humans have yet to use.
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    OMG, you are all coming up with terms I haven't even thought of or heard of before...
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    (Original post by Sakujo)
    I would say the opposite, increased sensitivity increased pleasure leading to addiction.
    Wouldn't there be more DRD4 receptors, as a result of addiction? Therefore, the person needing to increase the amount of activity to produce dopamine to bind onto more of these DRD4 receptors.
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    (Original post by The TSR Star.)
    Is that the agrobacterium tumafaciens stuff? How would you extract the gene?
    Yeah its that stuff. You use restriction enzymes to isolate the psy gene and crtl gene. And the same rest. enzyme is used on the plasmid (which is removed from the agrobacterium umefaciens) then along with marker genes and psy/crtl the plasmid is put back into the same bacteirum A.T.

    Then rice plant cells are incubated with the transformed bacteria ^^ ...and the bacteria vector infects the plant cell so the plant dna takes up the bacterial dna, hence transformed rice cells, which you then use marker genes (antibiotic resistance on a medium) to identify the transformed rice cells.
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    (Original post by HumanNature1992)
    You can talk about how transformed plants are "made"

    Psy gene (dafodill)
    ctrl gene (bacterium)

    Then all the restriciton enzymes/plasmid/marker genes all apply aas they do in genetic engineering.

    Golden rice is just genetic engineering rice to produce beta carotene, so just talk about genetic engineering! ...i could see a big mark question on it coming up:yep:
    I hope not :facepalm2:

    explain, with examples, the terms interspecific and intraspecific competition;

    Anyone got examples?
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    (Original post by Sakujo)
    I would say the opposite, increased sensitivity increased pleasure leading to addiction.
    thanks
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    (Original post by nofishing)
    'Distinguish between the terms conservation and preservation'
    Anyone know the difference?
    conservation - through maintaining and management of species

    preservation - keeping things the way they are at the moment, protecting them
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    (Original post by DCalfine)
    Wouldn't there be more DRD4 receptors, as a result of addiction? Therefore, the person needing to increase the amount of activity to produce dopamine to bind onto more of these DRD4 receptors.
    More DRD4 receptors would result in increased sensitivity no? Any amount of dopamine not matter how little would be taken up with a large number of receptors.
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    (Original post by Sakujo)
    I hope not :facepalm2:

    explain, with examples, the terms interspecific and intraspecific competition;

    Anyone got examples?
    Interspecific - the introduction of the grey squirell to the UK, the native red squirell has to compete but is outcompeted as the grey squirell has a better chance of survival since its larger and can store more fat.

    Intraspecific - can be anything of the same species, e.g. an increase in rabbit population, then food and space decrease so rabbit population also decreases.
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    (Original post by Sakujo)
    I hope not :facepalm2:

    explain, with examples, the terms interspecific and intraspecific competition;

    Anyone got examples?
    Wtf @ Psy and ctrl genes. Erm wat, they are called phytoene synthetase from the daffodil, and Ctr-1 from the bacterium.

    The examples i use are:

    Interspecific competition - native red squirrel to the UK, outcompeted in areas by the American Grey Squirrel. Also P.aurelia and P.caudautum

    Intraspecific - you can use any species, a decent one imo is foxes or rabbits or something of the like.
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    (Original post by nofishing)
    'Distinguish between the terms conservation and preservation'
    Anyone know the difference?
    Both aim to maintain biodiversity, but conservation often involves management and reclamation (such as re-releasing animals wild) but preservation is keeping the habitat in its natural, 'untouched' state.
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    (Original post by HumanNature1992)
    Interspecific - the introduction of the grey squirell to the UK, the native red squirell has to compete but is outcompeted as the grey squirell has a better chance of survival since its larger and can store more fat.

    Intraspecific - can be anything of the same species, e.g. an increase in rabbit population, then food and space decrease so rabbit population also decreases.
    (Original post by Falcon91)
    Interspecific competition - native red squirrel to the UK, outcompeted in areas by the American Grey Squirrel. Also P.aurelia and P.caudautum

    Intraspecific - you can use any species, a decent one imo is foxes or rabbits or something of the like.

    Thanks I'll think I'll remember squirells more than Paramecium aurelia :erm:
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    for the P aurelia and P caudaautum what are the limiting factors for both of them which cause one to be better adapted.
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    (Original post by Sakujo)
    More DRD4 receptors would result in increased sensitivity no? Any amount of dopamine not matter how little would be taken up with a large number of receptors.
    Yeah, you're right. My bad.
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    (Original post by Sakujo)
    I hope not :facepalm2:

    explain, with examples, the terms interspecific and intraspecific competition;

    Anyone got examples?
    Interspecific: Different species compete with eachother for the same resources e.g. red squirrels competiting with grey squirrels for the same food sources and habitats.

    - Since they are both competing for the same food, they both end up getting less food and so both populations have less energy for growth and reproduction and so their population sizes are limited.
    - Also distribution of species is likely to be affected, if one species is better adapted than the other then the better adapted species is going to end up with all of the food and the other less adapted species will not be able to live along-side the other species and will end up dying out.


    Intraspecific: Organisms of the same species compete with eachother for the same resources e.g. A rabbit population may compete for food and space.

    - The population of a rabbits increases when resources are plentiful. As populations increase there will be more rabbits competing for space and food. Eventually resources such as space and food will become limiting and the populations begin to decline.
    - A smaller population leads to less competition for space and food and so growth and reproduction occur at higher rates making the population grow again.
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    the p aurelia and p caduatum, is one better adapted than the other for obtaining food or space?
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    Urgh, I'm really struggling with Module 4 and some of the gene technology stuff. A paper based on ecosystems and genetic diagrams would be brilliant. I'd love a long immobilised enzyme question, but because of the ISAs, I don't think they'll put this in. This thread is really moving, but it's really helpful
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    for interspecific and intraspecific competition what are they competing for ? is it food, space, light, water, temperature etccc
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    (Original post by amitpatel44)
    for the P aurelia and P caudaautum what are the limiting factors for both of them which cause one to be better adapted.
    Any change could have an impact, such as temperature could favour one or the other depending on conditions. It doesnt work in a lab because of the competitive exclusion principle - i.e. variables are easy to exclude in labs, usually many factors involved so more compicated than one just out-competing the other.

    (Original post by amitpatel44)
    for interspecific and intraspecific competition what are they competing for ? is it food, space, light, water, temperature etccc
    Yea, they compete for food, light, space/terriotories, not temperature.
 
 
 
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