AQA BIOL5 ~ 17th June 2013 ~ A2 Biology Watch
This is mentioned on part of the syllabus and the whole part about anti-globalisation activists has thrown me! Anyone know what they are getting at? I get the bit about environmentalists but not the rest :s
'Understand the need to balance the humanitarian aspects of recombinant DNA technology with the opposition from activists and anti-globalisation activists'
-Ca2+ ions used for the muscle contraction
-Nitrate ions taken up by plants
-Na+ and K+ions in the whole action potential thing
-Potassium ions in fertillisers
-Chloride ions, potassium ions, sodium ions in oral rehydration therapy.
LOTS TO TALK ABOUT
guys can someone explain the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes? thanks
Type 2 is where insulin is still secreted but the cells in the body has lost it's responsiveness to it, and it usually develops in older people
Hope this helps
also Ca2+ in the synapse
Na+ in action potential & the formation of a generator potential in the pacinian corpsule.
H+ ions in the light dependent reaction of photosynthesis
Nitrates in the nitrogen cycle
Fe3+ in haemoglobin (I think its Fe3+ :/)
can we all help out to form essay plans on what to write about each of them ?
can we form an outline for
the importance of co2 in biology ?
The importance of water in biology?
The importance of hydrogen bonding in biology?
Guys, can anyone give me the ideal answer to the following please:
Describe the transmission across a synapse
Action potential reaches pre knob
Knob (lol) is more permeable to calcium ions,
Calcium diffused in down conc. Gradient
Cause vesicles to bind with membrane
Diffuses across cleft
Binds with receptors on post knob
Sodium gates open etc.
Describe how muscles contract
Calcium ions bind to troponin
Moving tropomuosin from binding site
Cross bridge links form between binding site and myosin
Ca activates ATPase
Binding of ATP breaks cross bridge
Hydrolysis of ATP cocks ATP
Head rotates moving filaments
Process of PCR
95 degrees h bonds break, strands separate
55 degrees primers bind
72 degreess DNA pol. Produces new strands
How vectors are produced
Isolated via restriction endonuclease
Binding at specific sites
Forming sticky ends
Cleaved together with plasmid with DNA ligase
RNA pol binds to sense strand at promoter
With correct transcription factors
Phosphodiester bonds form
Define these irritatingly similar words:
2) conversion of glucose to glycogen (lysis = splitting, so breaking down)
3) gluconeogenesis is glucose being made from fatty acids, amino acids etc
4) glycolysis is a stage in respiration that converts glucose to pyruvate
1) Glycogenesis- Making of glycogen from glucose
2) Glycogenolysis- Break down of glycogen to make glucose
3) Gluconeogenesis- Making of glucose from molecules other than glycogen e.g. carbohydrates
4) Glycolysis- first step of respiration
I remember glycolysis from Biol4 but for the rest just remember,
genesis means making
if it has Glu in the begining its for glucose, glycogen for glycogen
It's ridiculous that the specimen mark scheme is wrong, people will be using mark schemes to revise from and then lose marks in the real exam :/
I think they want candidates to understand that there is opposition to genetic engineering and we need to know an example of an anti-globalisation activists such as Green Peace. Probably best to find out why they oppose it too
of the same length. Explain why. in on the spec paper? what is the answr
Also does anyone know what the grade boundaries are generally like for this exam? Percentage wise?
Production of glycogen, stimulated by insulin Yep
Mobilisation og glycogen, stimulated by adrenaline and glucagon yeaah, you just need to know it's the breakdown of glycogen into glucose
Gluconeogenesis, production of glucose from other compounds, stim by glucagon. Yep
Glycolysis first stage of respiration yep, would recommend you go on to say that it to the turning or glucose to pyruvate
That right? This is my rubbish topic.
You know when you read the sequence from the gel electrophresis and you read it from bottom to top, i thought that you wrote the complimentary sequence, not the sequence shown, if that makes sense?
i think what you're sayings right ... if it shows up as a G (guanine) for example then it would've been a C (cytosine) cos they're complimentary to each other
1) Glycogenesis- making glycogen from glucose yep
2) Glycogenolysis- splitting glycogen into glucose yep
3) Gluconeogenesis- making glucose from amino acids and lipids? yep
4) Glycolysis- ? It's unit 4 so dont worry too much but useful knowledge for essay, it's the turning of glucose to pyruvate
I dont know lol