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Lyont
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#3481
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#3481
(Original post by mooomooo)
This is mentioned on part of the syllabus and the whole part about anti-globalisation activists has thrown me! Anyone know what they are getting at? I get the bit about environmentalists but not the rest :s

'Understand the need to balance the humanitarian aspects of recombinant DNA technology with the opposition from activists and anti-globalisation activists'

Thanks!
I think they want candidates to understand that there is opposition to genetic engineering and we need to know an example of an anti-globalisation activists such as Green Peace. Probably best to find out why they oppose it too
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s24a
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#3482
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#3482
(Original post by amberpen)
what would you include in an essay on inorganic ions??
-Ca2+ ions used for the whole synapse thing
-Ca2+ ions used for the muscle contraction
-Nitrate ions taken up by plants
-Na+ and K+ions in the whole action potential thing
-Potassium ions in fertillisers
-Chloride ions, potassium ions, sodium ions in oral rehydration therapy.

LOTS TO TALK ABOUT
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Starlight94
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#3483
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#3483
(Original post by ryanj18)
guys can someone explain the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes? thanks
Type 1 is where it's developed at a young age insulin not secreted from the islets of langerhans

Type 2 is where insulin is still secreted but the cells in the body has lost it's responsiveness to it, and it usually develops in older people

Hope this helps
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F Hopeful
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#3484
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#3484
(Original post by amberpen)
what would you include in an essay on inorganic ions??
Ca2+'s role in muscle contraction

also Ca2+ in the synapse

Na+ in action potential & the formation of a generator potential in the pacinian corpsule.

H+ ions in the light dependent reaction of photosynthesis

Nitrates in the nitrogen cycle

Fe3+ in haemoglobin (I think its Fe3+ :/)
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Lyont
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#3485
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#3485
(Original post by jonnyb123)
conversion of glucose into glycogen
conversion of glycogen to glucose
production of glucose from non-carbohydrates (amino acids and fatty acids etc)
er...conversion of glucose into pyruvate haha
correct!
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noreaction
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#3486
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#3486
Hey guys

can we all help out to form essay plans on what to write about each of them ?

For example

can we form an outline for

the importance of co2 in biology ?

The importance of water in biology?

The importance of hydrogen bonding in biology?
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amelia95
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#3487
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#3487
I swear to God I have never been so scared for an exam! The sheer quantity we have to learn for it is ridiculous! Worst A-Level taken. Anyway rant over!!!

Ps imagine if the essay was the importance of ions in Biology, I'd cry with happiness!


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helpme456
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#3488
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#3488
This exam is solid particulaly Q9, im getting like 45/75
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DrewYouTwo
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#3489
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#3489
(Original post by Scienceisgood)
Guys, can anyone give me the ideal answer to the following please:

Describe the transmission across a synapse

Action potential reaches pre knob
Knob (lol) is more permeable to calcium ions,
Calcium diffused in down conc. Gradient
Cause vesicles to bind with membrane
Release neurotransmitters
By exocytosis
Diffuses across cleft
Binds with receptors on post knob
Sodium gates open etc.


Describe how muscles contract

Sarcolema depolarised
Calcium ions bind to troponin
Moving tropomuosin from binding site
Cross bridge links form between binding site and myosin
Ca activates ATPase
Binding of ATP breaks cross bridge
Hydrolysis of ATP cocks ATP
Head rotates moving filaments
Head rebinds

Process of PCR

95 degrees h bonds break, strands separate
55 degrees primers bind
72 degreess DNA pol. Produces new strands

How vectors are produced
Isolated via restriction endonuclease
Binding at specific sites
Forming sticky ends
Cleaved together with plasmid with DNA ligase

D Translation
RNA pol binds to sense strand at promoter
With correct transcription factors
Complemtary base-pairing
Phosphodiester bonds form
Introns spliced

Describe Transcription

Thanks. =)
Fff
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Starlight94
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#3490
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#3490
(Original post by Lyont)
Define these irritatingly similar words:

1) Glycogenesis
2) Glycogenolysis
3) Gluconeogenesis
4) Glycolysis
1) conversion of glycogen to glucose
2) conversion of glucose to glycogen (lysis = splitting, so breaking down)
3) gluconeogenesis is glucose being made from fatty acids, amino acids etc
4) glycolysis is a stage in respiration that converts glucose to pyruvate

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Lyont
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#3491
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#3491
(Original post by F Hopeful)
1) Glycogenesis- Making of glycogen from glucose
2) Glycogenolysis- Break down of glycogen to make glucose
3) Gluconeogenesis- Making of glucose from molecules other than glycogen e.g. carbohydrates
4) Glycolysis- first step of respiration

I remember glycolysis from Biol4 but for the rest just remember,

genesis means making

lysis- breaking

if it has Glu in the begining its for glucose, glycogen for glycogen
Yeah that's right, i think just need to remember with Glycolysis it turns glucose into pyruvate
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Starlight94
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#3492
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#3492
I'm getting really confused what the Na+ and K+ ion channels when talking about action potentials when talking about the depolarisation, can anyone explain?
It's ridiculous that the specimen mark scheme is wrong, people will be using mark schemes to revise from and then lose marks in the real exam :/
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master y
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#3493
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#3493
Can anyone tell me the importance of sticky ends, a
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mooomooo
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#3494
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#3494
(Original post by Lyont)
I think they want candidates to understand that there is opposition to genetic engineering and we need to know an example of an anti-globalisation activists such as Green Peace. Probably best to find out why they oppose it too
Thanks a lot, I just checked out their website and they have a whole page on it so that's cleared that up! Cheers (:
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Anjna
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#3495
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#3495
Fewer action potentials occur along a myelinated axon than along an unmyelinated axon
of the same length. Explain why. in on the spec paper? what is the answr
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ahawkes06
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#3496
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#3496
Any predictions for the essay?

Also does anyone know what the grade boundaries are generally like for this exam? Percentage wise?

Thanks
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Lyont
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#3497
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#3497
(Original post by DrewYouTwo)
Production of glycogen, stimulated by insulin Yep

Mobilisation og glycogen, stimulated by adrenaline and glucagon yeaah, you just need to know it's the breakdown of glycogen into glucose

Gluconeogenesis, production of glucose from other compounds, stim by glucagon. Yep

Glycolysis first stage of respiration yep, would recommend you go on to say that it to the turning or glucose to pyruvate


That right? This is my rubbish topic.
All the more reason to revise it
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ahmmm
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#3498
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#3498
(Original post by Starlight94)
You know when you read the sequence from the gel electrophresis and you read it from bottom to top, i thought that you wrote the complimentary sequence, not the sequence shown, if that makes sense?
i think what you're sayings right ... if it shows up as a G (guanine) for example then it would've been a C (cytosine) cos they're complimentary to each other :confused:
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Starlight94
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#3499
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#3499
(Original post by ahmmm)
i think what you're sayings right ... if it shows up as a G (guanine) for example then it would've been a C (cytosine) cos they're complimentary to each other :confused:
That's what I thought but I just watched this video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qvdxEIMsmUc and at the end it just showed the dna sequence but not with complimentary bases?
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Lyont
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#3500
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#3500
(Original post by mackie0088)
1) Glycogenesis- making glycogen from glucose yep
2) Glycogenolysis- splitting glycogen into glucose yep
3) Gluconeogenesis- making glucose from amino acids and lipids? yep
4) Glycolysis- ? It's unit 4 so dont worry too much but useful knowledge for essay, it's the turning of glucose to pyruvate

I dont know lol
Good luck
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