Hey there! Sign in to join this conversationNew here? Join for free
x Turn on thread page Beta

AQA A2 HISTORY: The Triumph of Elizabeth, 1547-1603 Offical Thread. 2nd June 2014. watch

Announcements
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by annmcc)
    Ahh same just the thought of seeing 3 questions I can't do makes me want to cry! Praying for nothing on foreign policy haha I hate it all
    Haha me too! although I'm not completely sure what I actually want to be asked XD, one I've written in class would be lovely haha!
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by HannahCRJ)
    Thank you so much! I always got confused by that! And thank you too estock! so if asked about government, included parliament, but not the other way around?
    exactly that
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by IllmaticDragon)
    Pretty sure that moray forces her to abdicate in 67
    yes sorry his coup is in 67! my bad.
    Offline

    8
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by hfn123)
    Also in addition to this, how successful was she in her aims? I have never really considered France until today which is stressful!
    For notes regarding France, please look at my previous post.
    As for the extent of the success in France, here's my take:

    She was mostly successful in France because her intentions to improve Anglo-French relations happened. Throughout the period after 1574, Anglo-French relations improved massively as we see a declining Anglo-Spanish Relations.

    The mutual support for each other can be seen in 1572 Treaty of Blois, this was renewed with eager in 1574 from Henry III of France. The only little hiccup is in 1581 when Henry III refused a Anglo-French League against Spain to curb it's power after the 1580 annexation of Portugal.

    After the failed Tudor-Anjou marriage negotiations after 1578, France didn't really play much of a role. They were concerned with the Catholic League headed by a powerful and influential Guise faction at court. (Note. Henry III was previously Protestant, but converted to Catholicism to ascend to the French throne. But remained lenient on Protestants and not fully stimulated into the Catholic faith). Elizabeth on the other hand, was preoccupied with Spain and the culmination to war, which resulted in the 1588 Spanish Armada. Therefore, when approaching the 1580's Anglo-French relations were cordial and peaceful, but they were not allies.
    Offline

    2
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by Fiyeroed)
    me either, I mean I know roughly what she did in France, St Bartholomew massacre, betrothal to Anjou and having to keep them out of the Netherlands etc but nothing about her aims or success
    Elizabeth's aims towards France developed throughout her reign based on the deteriorating relations with Spain.
    I would basically break it down into 4 sections to make it easier.
    1) 1559-1560:France primary threat
    2) 1562-1564: French intervention
    3) 1564-1581: Anglo-French relations improve in counter to deteriorating Ango-Spanish relations
    4)1581-1598: France becomes a theatre of war against Spanish

    Section 1) Initially in 1559 France was the largest threat to English national security because of the "Auld Alliance" between Scotland and France. This threat France posed evident from Cecil recording France is "bestriding the realm with one foot in Calais and the other in Scotland". In response to Francis II garrisoning French troops in Scotland Elizabeth intervened, sending troops to Scotland March 1560 and securing treaty of Edinburgh with France in July 1560. This essentially ended France as the main threat to England, as troops withdrawn from Scotland, Mary renounces claim to English throne and death of Francis II breaks "Auld Alliance".

    Section 2) France is, as John Guy notes "weakened by internal religious division", with conflict breaking out between Huguenot and Catholic guise faction following June 1562 massacre at Vassy. Elizabeth is oppurtunistic to reclaim Calais and pressured by Leicester. She supports Huguenot leader Prince of Conde, 6000 men and occupies port of Le Havre. Huguenot and Catholic guise make peace and turn on English driving them out in July 1563. Treaty of Troyes in April 1564 results in permanent loss of Calais. This religious division seen in France continues however for the majority of Elizabeth's reign, another key reason France is less of a threat than Spain.

    Section 3) Spain becomes a more serious threat. Granvelle 1563/Duke of Alva netherlands 1567/ Genoese loan 1568/ Expulsion of De Spes 1571/ 1578 Don Jon Austria/ Parma crush rebellion netherlands/ 1579 Union of Arras peace with Parma/ 1580 Spanish annexation Portugal. In response to this deteriotation of relations, England moves to closer relations with France. In response to relations being, "plunged into a state of crisis" (guy) in 1568, Elizabeth enters marriage negotiations with Duke of Anjou in 1570. Forms Treaty of Blois with French 1572 which establishes France as "a French Shield" (Wernham) against the Spanish threat. 1579 she begins marriage negotiations with second Duke of Anjou both as a means to restrain his expansion in the netherlands (she doesnt want France to take control of netherlands) and as a means to undermine Duke of Parma's expansion.

    Section 4) This is where close relations with France become undermined by French internal religious division. In 1581 she sends Walsingham to form an anti-Spanish league with Henry III of France but he says no due to fear's of catholics rising up against him. In 1584 Catholic League seek to remove huguenot Henry of Navarre as successor to Henry III, and form treaty of joinville with Spain. Elizabeth fears that if the Catholic league take control of France then she will be faced with a catholic French-Spanish allaince against her. She wants the "revival of France as a check to Spanish power" (guy) and she therefore supports Henry of Navarre in 1589 when he succeeds Henry III, sending 20,000 troops to support him against the catholic league from 1589-1595. Henry of Navarre seizes loads of northern territory from Catholic league and converts to catholicism in 1593. English forces take Crozon from Spanish forces in 1594 in France, and in 1595 Henry of Navarre officially declares war on Spain. French-Spanish war goes on untill 1598 when peace is made.

    -Ultimately I would argue she is relatively successful in terms of her foriegn policy goals with France. By 1598 she had bad relations with France due to henry of navarre being the "antichrist of ingratitude" (elizabeth), however France and Spain were in a position of mutual hatred.
    -The conflict in France 1589-1598 had put financial and military strains of Spain helping her to succeed in the Netherlands, and France was not controlled by the Catholic league (a situation Elizabeth feared in 1585).

    -This was literally as concise as I could make it and still really long so sorry . I'm sure there is a lot missing as I didnt go into a lot of detail, but with 45minutes in the exam you're going to need concise evidence. If anyone spots any wrong dates/events please let me know.
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by LonelyPlanet)
    For notes regarding France, please look at my previous post.
    As for the extent of the success in France, here's my take:

    She was mostly successful in France because her intentions to improve Anglo-French relations happened. Throughout the period after 1574, Anglo-French relations improved massively as we see a declining Anglo-Spanish Relations.

    The mutual support for each other can be seen in 1572 Treaty of Blois, this was renewed with eager in 1574 from Henry III of France. The only little hiccup is in 1581 when Henry III refused a Anglo-French League against Spain to curb it's power after the 1580 annexation of Portugal.

    After the failed Tudor-Anjou marriage negotiations after 1578, France didn't really play much of a role. They were concerned with the Catholic League headed by a powerful and influential Guise faction at court. (Note. Henry III was previously Protestant, but converted to Catholicism to ascend to the French throne. But remained lenient on Protestants and not fully stimulated into the Catholic faith). Elizabeth on the other hand, was preoccupied with Spain and the culmination to war, which resulted in the 1588 Spanish Armada. Therefore, when approaching the 1580's Anglo-French relations were cordial and peaceful, but they were not allies.
    That's a great help. Thanks a lot!
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    Can someone please do a small paragraph on why Edward being a minor might be regarded as crisis?? I really don't get it. I just know that he could be easily manipulated and could be overthrown?
    Offline

    8
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by LaLady)
    Can someone please do a small paragraph on why Edward being a minor might be regarded as crisis?? I really don't get it. I just know that he could be easily manipulated and could be overthrown?
    Edward VI ascended to the throne as a minor and this was detrimental towards the stability of the Kingdom. Not only does his age hinder him in many aspects such as making decisions on his own, it also requires the need for a Lord Protector. This position, filled in by Somerset and Northumberland, allows the Lord Protector to gain the equivalent powers of the monarch and abuse it.

    This can be regarded as a crisis as Somerset initiated war with Scotland, despite success at the Battle of Pinkie 1547, French support of the Scottish ensured a long and financially crippling war for England. Somerset resorted to the debasement of coinage which raised £537,000 for the war, but also raised inflation, causing discontent and ultimately led to the Ketts Rebellion over the issues of enclosure. Whilst Somerset's religious reforms were considered too radical for that time and hence the Western Rebellion, also known as the Prayer Book rebellion in 1547. Northumberland on the other hand, caused a "crisis" as he attempted to alter the Succession Act of 1544 by appointing Lady Jane Grey as Queen and had her married to his son Dudley. This seizure of power and the Tudor throne can be interpreted as personal greed, and demonstrates the abuse of his power as Lord Protector by manipulating Edward into agreeing to the "Devise".

    However, as we all know, the mid-Tudor Crisis did not exist under post-Revisionist views. Somerset did not do much good, however, Northumberland actually attempted to tackle the many problems in England at the time. He ended the war with Scotland and France in 1550, and reduced the forts in Scotland - therefore, reducing the financial burden. He also ceased debasement of the coinage to lower inflationary pressures, attempted to revive the financial position through manipulation of the stock market in Antwerp? (Or is it Holland?). These reforms, along with his religious reforms, would have worked had Edward VI not died suddenly at the age of 16.
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by LonelyPlanet)
    Edward VI ascended to the throne as a minor and this was detrimental towards the stability of the Kingdom. Not only does his age hinder him in many aspects such as making decisions on his own, it also requires the need for a Lord Protector. This position, filled in by Somerset and Northumberland, allows the Lord Protector to gain the equivalent powers of the monarch and abuse it.

    This can be regarded as a crisis as Somerset initiated war with Scotland, despite success at the Battle of Pinkie 1547, French support of the Scottish ensured a long and financially crippling war for England. Somerset resorted to the debasement of coinage which raised £537,000 for the war, but also raised inflation, causing discontent and ultimately led to the Ketts Rebellion over the issues of enclosure. Whilst Somerset's religious reforms were considered too radical for that time and hence the Western Rebellion, also known as the Prayer Book rebellion in 1547. Northumberland on the other hand, caused a "crisis" as he attempted to alter the Succession Act of 1544 by appointing Lady Jane Grey as Queen and had her married to his son Dudley. This seizure of power and the Tudor throne can be interpreted as personal greed, and demonstrates the abuse of his power as Lord Protector by manipulating Edward into agreeing to the "Devise".

    However, as we all know, the mid-Tudor Crisis did not exist under post-Revisionist views. Somerset did not do much good, however, Northumberland actually attempted to tackle the many problems in England at the time. He ended the war with Scotland and France in 1550, and reduced the forts in Scotland - therefore, reducing the financial burden. He also ceased debasement of the coinage to lower inflationary pressures, attempted to revive the financial position through manipulation of the stock market in Antwerp? (Or is it Holland?). These reforms, along with his religious reforms, would have worked had Edward VI not died suddenly at the age of 16.
    Ohhh ok thank you very much!
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    Does anyone have historiography on the Jesuits? Just realised I have none
    Offline

    13
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by annmcc)
    Does anyone have historiography on the Jesuits? Just realised I have none
    Could probably just link them. With. The seminary priests


    Posted from TSR Mobile
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by estock)
    exactly that
    Okay thank you very much!

    Can anyone explain breifly the relevance of Jewel's 'Apology'? I remember being confused in the lesson as to whether it was supposed to be a good or bad thing? And whether Jewel meant it in a good/bad way? Comparing Elizabeths's Protestant Church to the original Catholic Church?
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by JJXX212)
    Elizabeth's aims towards France developed throughout her reign based on the deteriorating relations with Spain.
    I would basically break it down into 4 sections to make it easier.
    1) 1559-1560:France primary threat
    2) 1562-1564: French intervention
    3) 1564-1581: Anglo-French relations improve in counter to deteriorating Ango-Spanish relations
    4)1581-1598: France becomes a theatre of war against Spanish

    Section 1) Initially in 1559 France was the largest threat to English national security because of the "Auld Alliance" between Scotland and France. This threat France posed evident from Cecil recording France is "bestriding the realm with one foot in Calais and the other in Scotland". In response to Francis II garrisoning French troops in Scotland Elizabeth intervened, sending troops to Scotland March 1560 and securing treaty of Edinburgh with France in July 1560. This essentially ended France as the main threat to England, as troops withdrawn from Scotland, Mary renounces claim to English throne and death of Francis II breaks "Auld Alliance".

    Section 2) France is, as John Guy notes "weakened by internal religious division", with conflict breaking out between Huguenot and Catholic guise faction following June 1562 massacre at Vassy. Elizabeth is oppurtunistic to reclaim Calais and pressured by Leicester. She supports Huguenot leader Prince of Conde, 6000 men and occupies port of Le Havre. Huguenot and Catholic guise make peace and turn on English driving them out in July 1563. Treaty of Troyes in April 1564 results in permanent loss of Calais. This religious division seen in France continues however for the majority of Elizabeth's reign, another key reason France is less of a threat than Spain.

    Section 3) Spain becomes a more serious threat. Granvelle 1563/Duke of Alva netherlands 1567/ Genoese loan 1568/ Expulsion of De Spes 1571/ 1578 Don Jon Austria/ Parma crush rebellion netherlands/ 1579 Union of Arras peace with Parma/ 1580 Spanish annexation Portugal. In response to this deteriotation of relations, England moves to closer relations with France. In response to relations being, "plunged into a state of crisis" (guy) in 1568, Elizabeth enters marriage negotiations with Duke of Anjou in 1570. Forms Treaty of Blois with French 1572 which establishes France as "a French Shield" (Wernham) against the Spanish threat. 1579 she begins marriage negotiations with second Duke of Anjou both as a means to restrain his expansion in the netherlands (she doesnt want France to take control of netherlands) and as a means to undermine Duke of Parma's expansion.

    Section 4) This is where close relations with France become undermined by French internal religious division. In 1581 she sends Walsingham to form an anti-Spanish league with Henry III of France but he says no due to fear's of catholics rising up against him. In 1584 Catholic League seek to remove huguenot Henry of Navarre as successor to Henry III, and form treaty of joinville with Spain. Elizabeth fears that if the Catholic league take control of France then she will be faced with a catholic French-Spanish allaince against her. She wants the "revival of France as a check to Spanish power" (guy) and she therefore supports Henry of Navarre in 1589 when he succeeds Henry III, sending 20,000 troops to support him against the catholic league from 1589-1595. Henry of Navarre seizes loads of northern territory from Catholic league and converts to catholicism in 1593. English forces take Crozon from Spanish forces in 1594 in France, and in 1595 Henry of Navarre officially declares war on Spain. French-Spanish war goes on untill 1598 when peace is made.

    -Ultimately I would argue she is relatively successful in terms of her foriegn policy goals with France. By 1598 she had bad relations with France due to henry of navarre being the "antichrist of ingratitude" (elizabeth), however France and Spain were in a position of mutual hatred.
    -The conflict in France 1589-1598 had put financial and military strains of Spain helping her to succeed in the Netherlands, and France was not controlled by the Catholic league (a situation Elizabeth feared in 1585).

    -This was literally as concise as I could make it and still really long so sorry . I'm sure there is a lot missing as I didnt go into a lot of detail, but with 45minutes in the exam you're going to need concise evidence. If anyone spots any wrong dates/events please let me know.
    Honestly that a massive help thank you so much
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by JJXX212)
    Elizabeth's aims towards France developed throughout her reign based on the deteriorating relations with Spain.
    I would basically break it down into 4 sections to make it easier.
    1) 1559-1560:France primary threat
    2) 1562-1564: French intervention
    3) 1564-1581: Anglo-French relations improve in counter to deteriorating Ango-Spanish relations
    4)1581-1598: France becomes a theatre of war against Spanish

    Section 1) Initially in 1559 France was the largest threat to English national security because of the "Auld Alliance" between Scotland and France. This threat France posed evident from Cecil recording France is "bestriding the realm with one foot in Calais and the other in Scotland". In response to Francis II garrisoning French troops in Scotland Elizabeth intervened, sending troops to Scotland March 1560 and securing treaty of Edinburgh with France in July 1560. This essentially ended France as the main threat to England, as troops withdrawn from Scotland, Mary renounces claim to English throne and death of Francis II breaks "Auld Alliance".

    Section 2) France is, as John Guy notes "weakened by internal religious division", with conflict breaking out between Huguenot and Catholic guise faction following June 1562 massacre at Vassy. Elizabeth is oppurtunistic to reclaim Calais and pressured by Leicester. She supports Huguenot leader Prince of Conde, 6000 men and occupies port of Le Havre. Huguenot and Catholic guise make peace and turn on English driving them out in July 1563. Treaty of Troyes in April 1564 results in permanent loss of Calais. This religious division seen in France continues however for the majority of Elizabeth's reign, another key reason France is less of a threat than Spain.

    Section 3) Spain becomes a more serious threat. Granvelle 1563/Duke of Alva netherlands 1567/ Genoese loan 1568/ Expulsion of De Spes 1571/ 1578 Don Jon Austria/ Parma crush rebellion netherlands/ 1579 Union of Arras peace with Parma/ 1580 Spanish annexation Portugal. In response to this deteriotation of relations, England moves to closer relations with France. In response to relations being, "plunged into a state of crisis" (guy) in 1568, Elizabeth enters marriage negotiations with Duke of Anjou in 1570. Forms Treaty of Blois with French 1572 which establishes France as "a French Shield" (Wernham) against the Spanish threat. 1579 she begins marriage negotiations with second Duke of Anjou both as a means to restrain his expansion in the netherlands (she doesnt want France to take control of netherlands) and as a means to undermine Duke of Parma's expansion.

    Section 4) This is where close relations with France become undermined by French internal religious division. In 1581 she sends Walsingham to form an anti-Spanish league with Henry III of France but he says no due to fear's of catholics rising up against him. In 1584 Catholic League seek to remove huguenot Henry of Navarre as successor to Henry III, and form treaty of joinville with Spain. Elizabeth fears that if the Catholic league take control of France then she will be faced with a catholic French-Spanish allaince against her. She wants the "revival of France as a check to Spanish power" (guy) and she therefore supports Henry of Navarre in 1589 when he succeeds Henry III, sending 20,000 troops to support him against the catholic league from 1589-1595. Henry of Navarre seizes loads of northern territory from Catholic league and converts to catholicism in 1593. English forces take Crozon from Spanish forces in 1594 in France, and in 1595 Henry of Navarre officially declares war on Spain. French-Spanish war goes on untill 1598 when peace is made.

    -Ultimately I would argue she is relatively successful in terms of her foriegn policy goals with France. By 1598 she had bad relations with France due to henry of navarre being the "antichrist of ingratitude" (elizabeth), however France and Spain were in a position of mutual hatred.
    -The conflict in France 1589-1598 had put financial and military strains of Spain helping her to succeed in the Netherlands, and France was not controlled by the Catholic league (a situation Elizabeth feared in 1585).

    -This was literally as concise as I could make it and still really long so sorry . I'm sure there is a lot missing as I didnt go into a lot of detail, but with 45minutes in the exam you're going to need concise evidence. If anyone spots any wrong dates/events please let me know.
    That's so informative, thanks a lot. Is there any historiography around France/ Elizabeth's success? Not just historians' quotes, but any debates surrounding this area?
    Offline

    13
    ReputationRep:
    Can I ask two questions:

    Have you guys learned that the Jesuits were actively involved in attempting to assassinate Protestant rulers such as William of Orange, or did you learn that they were simply encourage it?

    Where do you stand on the use of the word 'I' in the essays?

    I heard using I was a no-no


    Posted from TSR Mobile
    Offline

    8
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by HannahCRJ)
    Okay thank you very much!

    Can anyone explain breifly the relevance of Jewel's 'Apology'? I remember being confused in the lesson as to whether it was supposed to be a good or bad thing? And whether Jewel meant it in a good/bad way? Comparing Elizabeths's Protestant Church to the original Catholic Church?
    Jewel's Apology in 1562 was essentially helping to justify Elizabeth's 1559 Religious Settlement.

    As her Anglican Church had hints of "popish dunghill" in order to appease the Catholics as well, it did not fit in with the Calvinist nature of other Churches in Protestant strongholds. This led to grievances amongst the more radical Protestants who wanted the Anglican Church to become more adhering to that of Calvin's/Zwinglist's teachings.

    The Jewel's Apology is essentially addressing these grievances and justifying why the current Church is perfect for England. Therefore, it is a good thing as it supports Elizabeth's 1559 Church Settlement.
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    Yeah don't use 'I' it's informal and a bad habit to use. Use phrases like in final analysis...
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by IllmaticDragon)
    Can I ask two questions:

    Have you guys learned that the Jesuits were actively involved in attempting to assassinate Protestant rulers such as William of Orange, or did you learn that they were simply encourage it?

    Where do you stand on the use of the word 'I' in the essays?

    I heard using I was a no-no


    Posted from TSR Mobile
    not sure about the Jesuits question but my teacher told us never to use I in an essay because the examiner is not interested in your opinion just how well you have argued your point, bit harsh I thought but I would say dont use it at all
    Offline

    8
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by embaker)
    not sure about the Jesuits question but my teacher told us never to use I in an essay because the examiner is not interested in your opinion just how well you have argued your point, bit harsh I thought but I would say dont use it at all
    Actually, mark scheme says that to reach a level 5, "independent judgement and a mature historical understanding" is needed.

    "Some judgement" is needed for a Level 4 as well. So unless you want a Level 3, 16-25 marks, your opinion is extremely important as it shows you understand the various information and able to deduce a rational opinion based on it.
    Offline

    0
    ReputationRep:
    (Original post by LonelyPlanet)
    Jewel's Apology in 1562 was essentially helping to justify Elizabeth's 1559 Religious Settlement.

    As her Anglican Church had hints of "popish dunghill" in order to appease the Catholics as well, it did not fit in with the Calvinist nature of other Churches in Protestant strongholds. This led to grievances amongst the more radical Protestants who wanted the Anglican Church to become more adhering to that of Calvin's/Zwinglist's teachings.

    The Jewel's Apology is essentially addressing these grievances and justifying why the current Church is perfect for England. Therefore, it is a good thing as it supports Elizabeth's 1559 Church Settlement.
    Thank you so much! That's a lot clearer than the textbook
 
 
 
Reply
Submit reply
Turn on thread page Beta
Updated: June 7, 2015
Poll
Do you agree with the proposed ban on plastic straws and cotton buds?

The Student Room, Get Revising and Marked by Teachers are trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd.

Register Number: 04666380 (England and Wales), VAT No. 806 8067 22 Registered Office: International House, Queens Road, Brighton, BN1 3XE

Write a reply...
Reply
Hide
Reputation gems: You get these gems as you gain rep from other members for making good contributions and giving helpful advice.