geography tomorrow Watch

Kitty-meaw
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#21
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#21
(Original post by jennywasteslives)
Sleep is more important than revision! Even if you don't get through everything, not sleeping will make you forget most of it by the exam and you won't be thinking properly. At least get a few hours
Yup, i know i didn't literally mean no sleep though :P i wouldn't be able to do that haha
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bencs25
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Edexcel A Geography, anyone...?
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becketts
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Is anyone doing Edexcel B geography?
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moe ibz
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(Original post by AlphaNick)
I typed up some notes today on all of the natural hazards, here they are - they're quite basic but this exam isn't hugely demanding:
Spoiler:
Show

Geography OCR B – SDME Notes
§ Volcanoes:
§ Causes of volcanoes:
§ Volcanoes are formed at convergent boundaries (subduction zones) and divergent boundaries.
§ At convergent boundaries, low density basalt which forms oceanic crust is pressed beneath a more dense continental crust. This causes the oceanic crust to melt, and it often ascends through the continental plate and forms volcanic eruptions.
§ At divergent boundaries, two plates are moving away from each other. The block between the two faults drops into the mantle. This forms a steep central valley known as a rift, which magma seeps upwards and fills. Volcanoes and islands form when the magma reaches the surface and cools.

§ Types of volcanoes:
§ There are two main types of volcanoes: shield volcanoes, strato-volcanoes and hot-spot volcanoes.
§ Shield volcanoes are formed at divergent (constructive) plate boundaries. They tend to be low and wide due to the low viscosity of the escaping magma which distributes it over a wide location. Eruptions of shield volcanoes are much gentler and can last many months.
§ Strato-volcanoes (cone volcanoes) are formed at convergent plate boundaries which have subduction zones. When magma escapes, it reacts with carbon dioxide and water which causes it to become much more viscous than shield volcanoes – resulting in less widespread distribution and a cone-shape. The eruptions are extremely violent and they release huge amounts of pumice alongside pyroclastic flows and clouds of ash (nuées).
§ Hot-spot volcanoes occur at plate boundaries in which the crust is very thin. Chains of volcanic islands form and cool quickly due to the presence of water. They tend to be shield volcanoes and are similarly less destructive.

§ Effects of volcanoes:
§ Lahars – a quick flow of mud and water which has been heated by the lava.
§ Pyroclastic flow – a wave of extremely hot gas protruding from the volcano.
§ Tsunamis – volcanoes near the water can collapse and cause tsunamis.
§ Lava flow – can destroy homes while covering farmland and roads.
§ Nuées – clouds of ash which can affect air quality and engine function.
§ Boulders – can be chucked out of the volcano which can destroy infrastructure.

§ Uses of volcanoes:
§ Mineral deposits – volcanoes are often associated with diamond, copper, silver, gold and zinc mines.
§ Tourism – volcanoes are very appealing to the tourist industry.
§ Fertile soils – the deposition of minerals causes fertile soil which is invaluable to the agricultural industry.
§ Geothermal power – power generating companies are often situated here in order to access renewable energy.

§ Volcano case studies:
§ Nevado del Ruiz (1985) – Main threat was lahars which cut off roads and transport networks, making rescue effort difficult. Evacuations were initially ordered but dismissed due to ineffective measuring equipment.
§ Mount Etna (2002) – Lava movement was the main effect which threatened valuable industry. Response was quick and efficient.

§ Earthquakes:
§ Causes of earthquakes:
§ Earthquakes occur at all plate boundaries (divergent, convergent and transform). The focus is the precise location at which the earthquake occurs – which is often below the surface. This is transposed directly up onto the surface and is designated as the epicentre.
§ Earthquakes occur as a result of convection currents within the mantle. Heat from radioactive decay within the Earth causes sections of the mantle to circulate while transferring heat energy. This has an effect on the crust which results in movement. When movement is prevented by colliding plates, large forces build up which when released cause earthquakes.

§ Effects of earthquakes:
§ Destruction of infrastructure – buildings which aren’t able to move or release stress can be destroyed.
§ Landslides – shaking of the ground can cause landslides which may disrupt roads and railways.
§ Tsunamis – subterranean earthquakes can cause tsunamis and coastal flooding.
§ Liquefaction – earthquakes may cause groundwater to rise and flood non-urbanised areas.
§ Transport disruption – earthquakes can cause infrastructure such as motorways to collapse, which prevents transportation from being effectively distributed.

§ Factors affecting the damage of an earthquake:
§ Distance from epicentre – the further away from the earthquake, the lesser the damage.
§ Geology – weak rock or sediment results in greater damage.
§ Design of buildings – rigid structures are poor at relieving stress generated by earthquakes; flexible buildings are more likely to withstand the shockwaves.

§ Earthquake case studies:
§ Northridge, California (1994) – Freeway collapsed which prevented aid from entering the city effectively. Hazards caused by broken gas pipes, unsecure appliances such as water boilers and concrete buildings were severely affected.
§ Sichuan, China (2008) – Highlighted the construction flaws of schools in which many collapsed. Poor quality houses were a major factor in amplifying the damage.

§ Tropical storms:
§ Causes of tropical storms:
§ Tropical storms are caused by large depressions which form over tropical oceans. They require a minimum temperature of 27°C and a 60m depth to form. Fast-rising warm air creates an area of very low pressure, which sucks in air and the rotating winds cause moisture to be absorbed.
§ A depression becomes a tropical storm when wind speeds exceed 74 mph, and when they are typically 700 km in diameter or 13 km in height.
§ These conditions are only satisfied in the areas around the equator in the tropics – such as North America / Central America, Caribbean, Africa, South Asia and Australia.

§ Types of tropical storms:
§ Cyclone – a system of winds rotating inwards to an area of low pressure.
§ Hurricane – a violent tropical storm in the Caribbean region.
§ Typhoon – a violent tropical storm over the Indian and Pacific oceans.

§ Effects of tropical storms:
§ Storm surges – downward pressure exerted by the tropical storm causes the sea level to rise slightly in local areas, causing coastal flooding.
§ Strong winds – these cause the destruction of infrastructure and local habitats.
§ Fish / birds – migration patterns and distribution can be temporarily or permanently disrupted.

§ Tropical storm case studies:
§ Hurricane Katrina (2005) – Mass flooding in New Orleans occurred due to the ineffective defences which were breached. There were notably no warnings issued in the long-term, but shelters were set up shortly after the warnings intensified.
§ Cyclone Nargis (2008) – The effectiveness of the response teams from other countries was limited by the military government who refused international aid.

§ Droughts:
§ Causes of droughts:
§ Droughts occur when there is a lower than average amount of rainfall in a given time period.
§ The low rainfall is often caused by rising air which carries water molecules away, which prevents precipitation from occurring.

§ Factors affecting the severity of droughts:
§ Climate – areas of low rainfall are more susceptible to drought.
§ Politics – war can affect access to water.
§ Technology – levels of technology dictate the efficiency of water storage and transportation.
§ Environment – different geology allows variation in water storage and runoff.
§ Use and users – in MEDCs, water is used for luxury rather than in LEDCs where it is used for subsistence.
§ Social – the number of people and demand affects the severity.
§ Economics – high wealth usually results in better capability to cope with drought.

§ Drought case studies:
§ Ethiopia in the Sahel (1984-85 / 2006) – 85% of the population relied on rainfall for farming for a living. The civil war conflict caused negligence towards the drought issues.
§ Australia (2005-6) – Meteorological events called El Niño combined with disruption caused the drought. It led to water rationing / hosepipe bans throughout Australia.
thanks for the help but are you sure that the theme is natural hazard or is it any other themes.
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moe ibz
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#25
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#25
(Original post by AlphaNick)
The OCR B SDME is definitely natural hazards... IDK about other exam boards.

thanks for helping me out and i am doing ocr
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ElGenioEstúpido
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#26
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#26
(Original post by AlphaNick)
I typed up some notes today on all of the natural hazards, here they are - they're quite basic but this exam isn't hugely demanding:
Spoiler:
Show

Geography OCR B – SDME Notes
§ Volcanoes:
§ Causes of volcanoes:
§ Volcanoes are formed at convergent boundaries (subduction zones) and divergent boundaries.
§ At convergent boundaries, low density basalt which forms oceanic crust is pressed beneath a more dense continental crust. This causes the oceanic crust to melt, and it often ascends through the continental plate and forms volcanic eruptions.
§ At divergent boundaries, two plates are moving away from each other. The block between the two faults drops into the mantle. This forms a steep central valley known as a rift, which magma seeps upwards and fills. Volcanoes and islands form when the magma reaches the surface and cools.

§ Types of volcanoes:
§ There are two main types of volcanoes: shield volcanoes, strato-volcanoes and hot-spot volcanoes.
§ Shield volcanoes are formed at divergent (constructive) plate boundaries. They tend to be low and wide due to the low viscosity of the escaping magma which distributes it over a wide location. Eruptions of shield volcanoes are much gentler and can last many months.
§ Strato-volcanoes (cone volcanoes) are formed at convergent plate boundaries which have subduction zones. When magma escapes, it reacts with carbon dioxide and water which causes it to become much more viscous than shield volcanoes – resulting in less widespread distribution and a cone-shape. The eruptions are extremely violent and they release huge amounts of pumice alongside pyroclastic flows and clouds of ash (nuées).
§ Hot-spot volcanoes occur at plate boundaries in which the crust is very thin. Chains of volcanic islands form and cool quickly due to the presence of water. They tend to be shield volcanoes and are similarly less destructive.

§ Effects of volcanoes:
§ Lahars – a quick flow of mud and water which has been heated by the lava.
§ Pyroclastic flow – a wave of extremely hot gas protruding from the volcano.
§ Tsunamis – volcanoes near the water can collapse and cause tsunamis.
§ Lava flow – can destroy homes while covering farmland and roads.
§ Nuées – clouds of ash which can affect air quality and engine function.
§ Boulders – can be chucked out of the volcano which can destroy infrastructure.

§ Uses of volcanoes:
§ Mineral deposits – volcanoes are often associated with diamond, copper, silver, gold and zinc mines.
§ Tourism – volcanoes are very appealing to the tourist industry.
§ Fertile soils – the deposition of minerals causes fertile soil which is invaluable to the agricultural industry.
§ Geothermal power – power generating companies are often situated here in order to access renewable energy.

§ Volcano case studies:
§ Nevado del Ruiz (1985) – Main threat was lahars which cut off roads and transport networks, making rescue effort difficult. Evacuations were initially ordered but dismissed due to ineffective measuring equipment.
§ Mount Etna (2002) – Lava movement was the main effect which threatened valuable industry. Response was quick and efficient.

§ Earthquakes:
§ Causes of earthquakes:
§ Earthquakes occur at all plate boundaries (divergent, convergent and transform). The focus is the precise location at which the earthquake occurs – which is often below the surface. This is transposed directly up onto the surface and is designated as the epicentre.
§ Earthquakes occur as a result of convection currents within the mantle. Heat from radioactive decay within the Earth causes sections of the mantle to circulate while transferring heat energy. This has an effect on the crust which results in movement. When movement is prevented by colliding plates, large forces build up which when released cause earthquakes.

§ Effects of earthquakes:
§ Destruction of infrastructure – buildings which aren’t able to move or release stress can be destroyed.
§ Landslides – shaking of the ground can cause landslides which may disrupt roads and railways.
§ Tsunamis – subterranean earthquakes can cause tsunamis and coastal flooding.
§ Liquefaction – earthquakes may cause groundwater to rise and flood non-urbanised areas.
§ Transport disruption – earthquakes can cause infrastructure such as motorways to collapse, which prevents transportation from being effectively distributed.

§ Factors affecting the damage of an earthquake:
§ Distance from epicentre – the further away from the earthquake, the lesser the damage.
§ Geology – weak rock or sediment results in greater damage.
§ Design of buildings – rigid structures are poor at relieving stress generated by earthquakes; flexible buildings are more likely to withstand the shockwaves.

§ Earthquake case studies:
§ Northridge, California (1994) – Freeway collapsed which prevented aid from entering the city effectively. Hazards caused by broken gas pipes, unsecure appliances such as water boilers and concrete buildings were severely affected.
§ Sichuan, China (2008) – Highlighted the construction flaws of schools in which many collapsed. Poor quality houses were a major factor in amplifying the damage.

§ Tropical storms:
§ Causes of tropical storms:
§ Tropical storms are caused by large depressions which form over tropical oceans. They require a minimum temperature of 27°C and a 60m depth to form. Fast-rising warm air creates an area of very low pressure, which sucks in air and the rotating winds cause moisture to be absorbed.
§ A depression becomes a tropical storm when wind speeds exceed 74 mph, and when they are typically 700 km in diameter or 13 km in height.
§ These conditions are only satisfied in the areas around the equator in the tropics – such as North America / Central America, Caribbean, Africa, South Asia and Australia.

§ Types of tropical storms:
§ Cyclone – a system of winds rotating inwards to an area of low pressure.
§ Hurricane – a violent tropical storm in the Caribbean region.
§ Typhoon – a violent tropical storm over the Indian and Pacific oceans.

§ Effects of tropical storms:
§ Storm surges – downward pressure exerted by the tropical storm causes the sea level to rise slightly in local areas, causing coastal flooding.
§ Strong winds – these cause the destruction of infrastructure and local habitats.
§ Fish / birds – migration patterns and distribution can be temporarily or permanently disrupted.

§ Tropical storm case studies:
§ Hurricane Katrina (2005) – Mass flooding in New Orleans occurred due to the ineffective defences which were breached. There were notably no warnings issued in the long-term, but shelters were set up shortly after the warnings intensified.
§ Cyclone Nargis (2008) – The effectiveness of the response teams from other countries was limited by the military government who refused international aid.

§ Droughts:
§ Causes of droughts:
§ Droughts occur when there is a lower than average amount of rainfall in a given time period.
§ The low rainfall is often caused by rising air which carries water molecules away, which prevents precipitation from occurring.

§ Factors affecting the severity of droughts:
§ Climate – areas of low rainfall are more susceptible to drought.
§ Politics – war can affect access to water.
§ Technology – levels of technology dictate the efficiency of water storage and transportation.
§ Environment – different geology allows variation in water storage and runoff.
§ Use and users – in MEDCs, water is used for luxury rather than in LEDCs where it is used for subsistence.
§ Social – the number of people and demand affects the severity.
§ Economics – high wealth usually results in better capability to cope with drought.

§ Drought case studies:
§ Ethiopia in the Sahel (1984-85 / 2006) – 85% of the population relied on rainfall for farming for a living. The civil war conflict caused negligence towards the drought issues.
§ Australia (2005-6) – Meteorological events called El Niño combined with disruption caused the drought. It led to water rationing / hosepipe bans throughout Australia.
Wow, thanks Nick.
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Kitty-meaw
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#27
(Original post by tridianprime)
If you are doing tsunami's this should be enough for that case study:

Boxing Day Tsunami 2004
250,000 dead
2,000,000 homeless
At highest, wave was 15m high
Affected Indonesia first then Thailand and eventually India etc.

Volcanoes: http://mrrudgegeography.weebly.com/m...-eruption.html

Earthquake: http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebit...kes_rev5.shtml

Flooding: http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebit...ent_rev6.shtml

I hope that helps.

Just get to work now and try to answer some case study questions to ingrain it before tomorrow. Don't try and memorise it.
+ 650 000 seriously injured :P
and i got the max waves reaching 25m?
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D_Vadgama
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#28
Which board?
I'll be sitting got Edexcel IGCSE geography exam tomorrow. Any advice anyone?

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AwesomeLizzie
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(Original post by AlphaNick)
For the Key Themes OCR B exam you need to memorise 15.
Yeah, for IGCSE Edexcel Geography, you need to know 16 case studies.


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AwesomeLizzie
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(Original post by D_Vadgama)
Which board?
I'll be sitting got Edexcel IGCSE geography exam tomorrow. Any advice anyone?

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I'm doing that! God help us in a 3 hour exam!


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nurav11
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So how'd everyone find it? I don't think my hands have ever hurt so much...

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AwesomeLizzie
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(Original post by nurav11)
So how'd everyone find it? I don't think my hands have ever hurt so much...

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Which board?


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nurav11
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(Original post by AwesomeLizzie)
Which board?
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Edexcel IGCSE, the 3 hr one

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arabinthemist
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I'm not doing any work today after today. Omg 3 hours is horrible.
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tridianprime
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Let's get a discussion going here. I did AQA. It was a horrible paper in my opinion. My teacher had recommended we focus on volcanoes and tsunami and earthquake but there was none of it(bar one pathetic earthquake one). There were some questions like:

What is a river flood?

What is a levee?

How could you get full marks for these? Also, what did you put for how was a beach formed? There was also the describe the beach on which I thought was odd. I mention the deposited sand and rock as a result from eroded cliff face but felt there was little to mention as you can't mention water other than the fact of deposited sand.

Any thoughts? I don't think I did too badly but it wasn't great.
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AwesomeLizzie
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#36
(Original post by nurav11)
Edexcel IGCSE, the 3 hr one

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Me too. For some reason my hand didn't actually hurt, but my brain seized up half way through. What topics did you do?


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D_Vadgama
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(Original post by nurav11)
So how'd everyone find it? I don't think my hands have ever hurt so much...

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It was okay, although there was so much to write!
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nurav11
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(Original post by tridianprime)
Let's get a discussion going here. I did AQA. It was a horrible paper in my opinion. My teacher had recommended we focus on volcanoes and tsunami and earthquake but there was none of it(bar one pathetic earthquake one). There were some questions like:

What is a river flood?

What is a levee?

How could you get full marks for these? Also, what did you put for how was a beach formed? There was also the describe the beach on which I thought was odd. I mention the deposited sand and rock as a result from eroded cliff face but felt there was little to mention as you can't mention water other than the fact of deposited sand.

Any thoughts? I don't think I did too badly but it wasn't great.
Sorry I don't do AQA but I heard from others that they didn't get the qs they expected either

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nurav11
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(Original post by AwesomeLizzie)
Me too. For some reason my hand didn't actually hurt, but my brain seized up half way through. What topics did you do?


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Yeh I know what u mean, I did coasts, hazards, economic activity, urban environments, globalization, coasts fieldwork and urban fieldwork. Boy that was brutal. Wbu?

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D_Vadgama
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(Original post by AwesomeLizzie)
Me too. For some reason my hand didn't actually hurt, but my brain seized up half way through. What topics did you do?


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From section A I picked river environment and hazards, section B: economic activity and energy and urbanisation, section C: questions 7 and 9 and finally for section D: fragile environments

what about you, which topics?
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