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    (Original post by shatmypants)
    We havent been told yet. Will be doing it in Easter I think. What's yours on?

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    ah same, we'll have to wait and see. would rather have got the EMPA out the way earlier to be honest
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    Ultraviolet radiation causes thymine to form a bond with the nucleotides on either side of it.
    Not really sure what it means, it is like it suddenly bond (hydrogen bond) with a guanine above it in the polynucleotide or directly on the left/right without the complementary base pairing rules?#
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    Anyone know if any question has been on the past paper where it asked you the method of DNA sequencing or other genetic engineering, I understand the process but I dont know how to condense the method or what key points to include into a small paragraph whilst ensuring gaining all the marks?
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    Do we need to know about replica plating?


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    Can anyone explain how we use Fluorescent Markers & Enzyme markers to identify genes please. Don't really get that part

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    (Original post by Thebest786)
    Can anyone explain how we use Fluorescent Markers & Enzyme markers to identify genes please. Don't really get that part

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    basically they are used to identify if the bacteria has successfully take up the gene and cooperate into the plasmid.
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    so far, i prefer unit 4 than unit 5 but maybe my mind may change later after we cover more topics. so far we done genes and now doing co-ordinations...
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    Some one explain the nerve impulse, my teacher notes are confusing as heck!
    PLEASE I BEG YAAAAAAAAAA
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    (Original post by DCMed96)
    basically they are used to identify if the bacteria has successfully take up the gene and cooperate into the plasmid.
    Thank you. Could you or anyone possibly explain resrriction mapping?

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    (Original post by Makashima)
    Some one explain the nerve impulse, my teacher notes are confusing as heck!
    PLEASE I BEG YAAAAAAAAAA
    Is there anything specific you want to know?
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    (Original post by Efemena15)
    Is there anything specific you want to know?
    would you mind explaining the process because im just being confused by which channel opens and which channel closes during depolar and polar
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    (Original post by Makashima)
    would you mind explaining the process because im just being confused by which channel opens and which channel closes during depolar and polar
    Resting potential


    • At resting potential, most Potassium ion channels are open and most Sodium ion channels are closed
    • The sodium-potassium pump actively transports sodium ions out of the axon and actively transports potassium ions into the axon.
    • 3 sodium ions are actively transported out of the axon for every 2 potassium ions that are actively transported in
    • There are more sodium ions in the tissue fluid surrounding the axon than in the cytoplasm, and more potassium ions in the cytoplasn than in the tissue fluid, so there is a chemical gradient
    • The inside of an axon is negatively charged in relation to the outside
    • The resting potential is around 65 mV and in this condition, the axon is said to be polarised
    • Because most potassium ion channels are open and most sodium ion channels aren't, the axon membrane is more permeable to potassium ions.


    Action potential


    1. At resting potential, the sodium ion channels are mostly closed
    2. A stimulus excites the neurone cell membrane and causes the sodium ion channels to diffuse into the axon through these channels
    3. As the sodium ions diffuse into the axon, more sodium ion channels open, causing a greater influx of sodium ions by diffusion (the membrane becomes more permeable to sodium ions)
    4. Once the potential difference reaches around +40 mV, the sodium ion channels close and the potassium ion channels begin to open
    5. From bullet points 2-4, that process is known as depolarisation
    6. Potassium ions diffuse out of axon, causing repolarisation of the axon
    7. There is an overshoot; too many potassium ions diffuse out of axon because the potassium ion channels are too slow to close. The potential difference becomes more negative than resting potential (-70mV). This is called Hyperpolarisation
    8. The Potassium ion channels close and the sodium potassium pump re-establishes the resting potential by pumping sodium out and potassium in.

    Hope this helps
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    (Original post by Efemena15)
    x
    Hope this helps
    Thank you so much, much more simpler. In the AQA book it is too excessively detailed! THANKS


    (Original post by Chatirito_MUFC)
    x
    Wow that is some amazing notes, just wondering if you did an Unit 4 too? ^_^ Thanks thanks
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    (Original post by Makashima)
    Thank you so much, much more simpler. In the AQA book it is too excessively detailed! THANKS




    Wow that is some amazing notes, just wondering if you did an Unit 4 too? ^_^ Thanks thanks
    Yeah I do unit 4 too, what do you need help with?

    Edit: Just seen that you were speaking to someone else. No worries
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    (Original post by Chatirito_MUFC)
    I made some amazing notes when I did this unit and it helped me get an amazing grade.
    Here is the link.
    Trust me....read it.
    https://www.scribd.com/doc/239646001/AQA-Biology-Unit-5
    If you can't download it, email me @[email protected] and I'll send it to you.

    The questions that are one the document are they ideal questions
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    Hi guys.

    I forgot my biology textbook at school today ?!
    Could anyone be kind enough to post pictures of the 4 chapters in chapter 12 of the book ? Please !!!! XD

    Would really appreciate it !


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    Hey guys, does anyone have the links to the June 14 papers?
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    This thread needs to get more active, not long now guys. Have you all finished the syllabus?
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    (Original post by Efemena15)
    This thread needs to get more active, not long now guys. Have you all finished the syllabus?

    We had this whole week to start on the skeletal muscles etc
    But we chose to prepare empa which is the week after the week come back
    :l Like dude seriously, I want to get everything done!

    We just need to cover muscle contraction, homoeostasis and feedback mechanism then everything is completed
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    (Original post by Thebest786)
    Can anyone explain how we use Fluorescent Markers & Enzyme markers to identify genes please. Don't really get that part

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    Fluorescent markers are like indicators. So once u have made target gene u can insert it into a plasmid, You can also add these marker gene which code for fluorescence. The smart thing is that the fluorescent marker will bind only if the target gene is present so the plasmids with the target gene that we want will light up under uv light. The ones that dont have the target gene wont have the marker gene so it wont light up under uv
 
 
 
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