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    (Original post by hlaff)
    I really don't get what we need to know on T-Cells and B-Cells. Any help would be greatly appreciated, thanks in advance
    Basically the T cells are white blood cells that have matured in the thymus gland, they are a secondary response and a cell mediated. This means that they deal with the cells that have come in contact with the pathogen I.e the phagocytes. The T cells make specific receptors to fit the antigens that the body cell has presented on their own cell surface membrane to form a antigen-receptor complex. After that, the T cells destroy the body cell by piercing holes into the cell surface membrane which distrupts the integrity of the cell and so it can't withstand pressures of osmosis. The B cells are also a secondary response but this is more long term as the B cells come across the pathogen the T helper cells bind to the B cells activating them to divide by mitosis into plasma cells (these produce antibodies specific to the pathogens own antigens) the B cells also produce memory cells that circulate in the blood that when they come in contact with the pathogen in the future, it can rapidly divide by mitosis into more plasma and memory cells. This is known as humoral immunity as it is in the blood. Hope this helps!
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    (Original post by zoe.imogen)
    Basically the T cells are white blood cells that have matured in the thymus gland, they are a secondary response and a cell mediated. This means that they deal with the cells that have come in contact with the pathogen I.e the phagocytes. The T cells make specific receptors to fit the antigens that the body cell has presented on their own cell surface membrane to form a antigen-receptor complex. After that, the T cells destroy the body cell by piercing holes into the cell surface membrane which distrupts the integrity of the cell and so it can't withstand pressures of osmosis. The B cells are also a secondary response but this is more long term as the B cells come across the pathogen the T helper cells bind to the B cells activating them to divide by mitosis into plasma cells (these produce antibodies specific to the pathogens own antigens) the B cells also produce memory cells that circulate in the blood that when they come in contact with the pathogen in the future, it can rapidly divide by mitosis into more plasma and memory cells. This is known as humoral immunity as it is in the blood. Hope this helps!
    thank you that was very helpful! Absolute lifesaver, I can go into that exam feeling confident now hahaha
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    (Original post by hlaff)
    thank you that was very helpful! Absolute lifesaver, I can go into that exam feeling confident now hahaha
    Good glad it helped!!
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    Feeling ready for the exam although I haven't revised, the only bit I find confusing at all is the immunology section and remembering parts of the heart, so far I've been getting 50-55/60 on the mocks so I'm confident
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    (Original post by thatgr)
    Feeling ready for the exam although I haven't revised, the only bit I find confusing at all is the immunology section and remembering parts of the heart, so far I've been getting 50-55/60 on the mocks so I'm confident
    Wow that's really good! How do you get such good marks without revising!?
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    (Original post by thatgr)
    Feeling ready for the exam although I haven't revised, the only bit I find confusing at all is the immunology section and remembering parts of the heart, so far I've been getting 50-55/60 on the mocks so I'm confident
    Take it from an A2 student who happens to be re-sitting this module.... REVISE. You won't make it through A2 without revising, Even if you can scrape through AS without.
    My teachers always told me three hours a day 5 days a week. Although as exams approach its more 4 hours a day 7 days a week.
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    (Original post by Grace828)
    Take it from an A2 student who happens to be re-sitting this module.... REVISE. You won't make it through A2 without revising, Even if you can scrape through AS without.
    My teachers always told me three hours a day 5 days a week. Although as exams approach its more 4 hours a day 7 days a week.
    My sister does A2 and I have seen the content, it is so much harder!and yeah my teachers say the same, I would be so much more nervous if I didn't revise! Are you only resitting unit one? Good luck
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    (Original post by zoe.imogen)
    My sister does A2 and I have seen the content, it is so much harder!and yeah my teachers say the same, I would be so much more nervous if I didn't revise! Are you only resitting unit one? Good luck
    Thank you! I am only resitting Unit 1, Got a C in Unit 1, B in unit 2 and A in Unit 3. I was too relaxed last year, would like to get an A in unit 1 this year!
    Unit 4 and 5 aren't too bad, especially if you get help from teachers for anything you don't understand. Just dont leave anything until the last minute is my advice.
    Good luck to you too!
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    (Original post by Lizzyfitzgerald)
    Has anyone got any idea of what the 5 markers are likely to be?
    Thinking of making a thread for one. What do you guys think?
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    http://www.thestudentroom.co.uk/show...9#post56014659

    Check out my thread for the five markers!
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    (Original post by bekha j)
    The sodium- potassium pump is about moving sodium and potassium ions across the cell membrane using active transport.
    The sodium- potassium pump is an example of when a molecule or ion is being moved into a cell at the same time as a different one is being removed from it.

    In the pump, sodium ions are actively removed from the cell while potassium ions are actively taken in from the surroundings. This process is essential to a number of important processes in the organism, such as the creation of nerve impulses.


    i haven't been taught that much about it but that is what i know, there is also another part to it, involving glucose, about the role of active transport in absorption, if you'd like me to explain the stages of that?

    it's all so confusing o_0
    Glucose moves into epithelial cells from the lumen of the small intestine by facilitated diffusion, down a concentration gradient. Once it diffuses enough so it's in equilibrium, the glucose in the small intestine now cannot diffuse across.

    The epithelial cells pump out sodium ions (using the sodium-potassium pump) into the blood forming a concentration gradient of sodium ions towards the epithelial cells. The Na+ and glucose move by co-transport (an indirect form of active transport, using the Na+ concentration gradient, rather than ATP) through a protein, into the epithelial cells so that glucose can move into the cell even though its against the diffusion gradient for glucose.

    Glucose then moves by facilitated diffusion into the blood plasma by another carrier.
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    (Original post by tay22)
    Omg just everything. I am dreading unit 2 even more


    Posted from TSR Mobile
    I feel that EXACT same, I'm stuffed for biology
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    Anyone have any predictions for tomorrow?
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    has anyone got any idea what the 5 markers could be??
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    (Original post by Megst)
    Anyone have any predictions for tomorrow?
    Thanks for the follow! And not entirely sure, all I'm guessing is loads of HSW! I think immunology will come up and the heart maybe? Good luck for tomorrow
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    What do you mean control of Cardiac cycle
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    (Original post by Grace828)
    Take it from an A2 student who happens to be re-sitting this module.... REVISE. You won't make it through A2 without revising, Even if you can scrape through AS without.
    My teachers always told me three hours a day 5 days a week. Although as exams approach its more 4 hours a day 7 days a week.
    Normal revising isn't effective for me, I get demotivated and learn nothing, as with all my exams I just do intense revising the day before and listen hard in lessons, biology is a subject I'm naturally good at cos I can remember what the book says and regurgitate it so I'm pretty confident that the book and past papers will suffice
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    (Original post by zoe.imogen)
    Wow that's really good! How do you get such good marks without revising!?
    Haha people always say that but I'm just good at biology, I can't do the same in other subjects really
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    (Original post by thatgr)
    Haha people always say that but I'm just good at biology, I can't do the same in other subjects really
    Lucky! I'm proper stressing out now😫
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    Does anyone have any predicted questions????
 
 
 
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