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    Unofficial markscheme anyone please
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    Unofficial mark scheme of what I can remember, I can't remember the exact order of the questions though so i've done them randomly, feel free to correct me and fill in some of the questions.

    1) mitochondria question
    - it was 2.8 for actual size
    - It was either that mitochondria have its own DNA or that they have circular DNA
    -

    2) heart question
    - it was A and C (cant remember which order)
    -

    3) lungs question
    - When breathing out the diaphragm relaxes and reverts to its original dome shape, the volume in the thorax decreases and the pressure in the thorax increases. Air leaves lungs down pressure gradient.
    - Continuing smoking had decrease, stopping smoking had increase then decrease
    - Alveoli are damaged, goblet cells produce more mucus so airways narrower

    4) enzyme question protease
    - Made in ribosomes in pancreas
    - It was inactive in the pancreas since pancreas has important enzymes such as amylase which are proteins and if the protease was in an active form it would hydrolise and digest the enzymes before they left the pancreas
    - One of the answers was peptide bond

    5) enzyme question pH
    - Graph had a shallower gradient and reached plateau at the same pH but later on in time
    - pH decreases because when the triglyceride is hydrolysed it takes up a water molecule/ triglycerides hydrolyse to fatty acids which are acidic (something like that)

    6) Immunity
    - Blood transfusion would provide passive immunity and provide the individual with memory cells which would recognise the ebola virus and initiate an immediate immune response producing antibodies rapidly and in large amounts to destroy the virus before it could damage the host cells
    - Vaccine wouldnt work due to antigenic variability so memory cells would not recognise antigen. The virus used in the vaccine could also mutate and become active causing serious side effects. (cant remember what else i put)

    8)
    - Sodium ions that are already present in epithelial cells are actively transport against the concentration gradient into the blood via a carrier protein. The soidum ion conc in the epithelial cells is now lower than that of the lumen of the SI. So Sodium ions are diffused into the epithelial cells, but before doing so bind with glucose. They pass through the cell-surface membrane via a co-transport protein. (not those words exactly, but something like that)
    - Chloride ions are too large, charged and not lipid-soluble so pass by facilitated diffusion via protein channel. Oxygen is pretty much the opposite. (I couldnt think of what they would want for 5 marks.
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    triglyceride is hydrolysed to a glycerol and fatty acids, since fatty acids contain the carboxyl group it can dissociate into H+ ions hence lowering the pH is what i put
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    what did people put for the why youd use a pH meter instead of pH indicator question?
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    (Original post by Ismail786)
    what did people put for the why youd use a pH meter instead of pH indicator question?
    just that a more accurate reading could be obtained, it was only 1 mark
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    (Original post by Ismail786)
    what did people put for the why youd use a pH meter instead of pH indicator question?
    I think its just that it gives a more accurate pH
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    (Original post by Ismail786)
    triglyceride is hydrolysed to a glycerol and fatty acids, since fatty acids contain the carboxyl group it can dissociate into H+ ions hence lowering the pH is what i put
    That answer is good but seems more chemistry related lol. Biology is usually more simple
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    (Original post by Jackmilne95)
    That answer is good but seems more chemistry related lol. Biology is usually more simple
    I think you would just have to put that triglycerides are hydrolysed to fatty acids, which are acidic and therefore decrease the pH
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    (Original post by Jackmilne95)
    Unofficial mark scheme of what I can remember, I can't remember the exact order of the questions though so i've done them randomly, feel free to correct me and fill in some of the questions.

    1) mitochondria question
    - it was 2.8 for actual size
    - It was either that mitochondria have its own DNA or that they have circular DNA
    -

    2) heart question
    - it was A and C (cant remember which order)
    -

    3) lungs question
    - When breathing out the diaphragm relaxes and reverts to its original dome shape, the volume in the thorax decreases and the pressure in the thorax increases. Air leaves lungs down pressure gradient.
    - Continuing smoking had decrease, stopping smoking had increase then decrease
    - Alveoli are damaged, goblet cells produce more mucus so airways narrower

    4) enzyme question protease
    - Made in ribosomes in pancreas
    - It was inactive in the pancreas since pancreas has important enzymes such as amylase which are proteins and if the protease was in an active form it would hydrolise and digest the enzymes before they left the pancreas
    - One of the answers was peptide bond

    5) enzyme question pH
    - Graph had a shallower gradient and reached plateau at the same pH but later on in time
    - pH decreases because when the triglyceride is hydrolysed it takes up a water molecule (something like that)

    6) Immunity
    - Blood transfusion would provide passive immunity and provide the individual with memory cells which would recognise the ebola virus and initiate an immediate immune response producing antibodies rapidly and in large amounts to destroy the virus before it could damage the host cells
    - Vaccine wouldnt work due to antigenic variability so memory cells would not recognise antigen. The virus used in the vaccine could also mutate and become active causing serious side effects. (cant remember what else i put)

    8)
    - Sodium ions that are already present in epithelial cells are actively transport against the concentration gradient into the blood via a carrier protein. The soidum ion conc in the epithelial cells is now lower than that of the lumen of the SI. So Sodium ions are diffused into the epithelial cells, but before doing so bind with glucose. They pass through the cell-surface membrane via a co-transport protein. (not those words exactly, but something like that)
    - Chloride ions are too large, charged and not lipid-soluble so pass by facilitated diffusion via protein channel. Oxygen is pretty much the opposite. (I couldnt think of what they would want for 5 marks.
    Was the answer for the protease question definitely ribosomes, its what i put, just some people in my year disagreed?
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    (Original post by georgestonham1)
    Was the answer for the protease question definitely ribosomes, its what i put, just some people in my year disagreed?
    I'm almost certain since ribosomes synthesise proteins and it is a protein. I guess they would condone RER. What did people say it was?
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    (Original post by Jackmilne95)
    I'm almost certain since ribosomes synthesise proteins and it is a protein. I guess they would condone RER. What did people say it was?
    Yeah see that's what i thought, but people seemed to think RER, but i was glad to see you thought this too.
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    (Original post by georgestonham1)
    Was the answer for the protease question definitely ribosomes, its what i put, just some people in my year disagreed?
    It's ribosomes or rough endoplasmic reticulum, since those are the only organelles capable of synthesising proteins.
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    The graph question temperature change was asked but it was a pH graph so wouldn't it remain the same
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    For the inactive enzyme question i said
    - Enzyme will digest protein as it is a protease enzyme
    - The enzyme will therefore digest channel proteins and carrier proteins in the cell membrane (phospholipid bilayer) of the pancreatic cell.
    - Because it was talking about a pancreatic cell, I said this means there may be less active transport of substances eg. Glucose into the cell as there will be fewer carrier proteins

    Can someone tell me if this was right or wrong
    I seriously did not like this paper i liked last year's better
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    (Original post by Studious_Student)
    It's ribosomes or rough endoplasmic reticulum, since those are the only organelles capable of synthesising proteins.
    okay thank you !!
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    (Original post by Amaal/)
    The graph question temperature change was asked but it was a pH graph so wouldn't it remain the same
    No, you have to go by the assumption that enzymes work better at higher temperatures and that they wouldn't work well in lower ones. You would get the mark as long as you could clearly show that the new graph had a lower gradient and reached the endpoint in a longer time frame.
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    okay this has reassured me as i put ribosomes but a few people in my year said lysosomes? Also what did people put for the question about holes between the ventricles?
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    (Original post by Abibeveridge)
    okay this has reassured me as i put ribosomes but a few people in my year said lysosomes? Also what did people put for the question about holes between the ventricles?
    Oxygenated blood leaks into the right ventricle, reducing the amount of oxygenated blood transported round the body, lowers stroke volume??
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    Please I beg someone remind me what Q4 and Q6 were ???? My mind is going absolutely crazy over it. I think I missed those 2 questions ???
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    (Original post by Abibeveridge)
    okay this has reassured me as i put ribosomes but a few people in my year said lysosomes? Also what did people put for the question about holes between the ventricles?
    It has to do with oxygenated and deoxygenated blood mixing in the heart due to no barrier between the left and right side. This reduces conc gradient in the blood so less oxygen is diffused into the blood. I put something like that anyway
 
 
 
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