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    Ergh do you guys think it's gonna be a hard exam tomorrow?!?¿
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    What came up in breadth? Can't remember
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    (Original post by essex_ellz)
    Ergh do you guys think it's gonna be a hard exam tomorrow?!?¿
    Personally I believe it will be easier than the breadth
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    (Original post by essex_ellz)
    Do we need to know any of the inorganic ions like the cations and anions for this exam tomorrow
    Yes, definitely, could be a 4 mark question for why we need Ca2+ ions, for example- make sure you know them well =)
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    (Original post by essex_ellz)
    Do we need to know any of the inorganic ions like the cations and anions for this exam tomorrow
    I'm not quite sure however if we do......

    Cations - Positive Charge

    1. Calcium (Ca2+) - Increases bone, teeth, and cartilage rigidity, Involved in nerve impulse transmission , Acts as acofactor for many enzymes (i.e. lipase ATPase and cholinesterase), Stimulatesmuscle contraction and regulates cell membrane permeability.

    2. Sodium (Na+) -Regulates fluid balance (i.e osmotic pressure, water levels and maintenance), generates nerve impulses and muscle contraction, helps to maintain turgidity in plant vacuole.

    3. Potassium (K+) - Again important for nerve transmission and muscle contraction,activates enzymes needed for photosynthesis, involved in synthesis and breakdown of glycogen and protein,maintains fluid levels in the body ect.

    4. Hydrogen (H+) - Involved in the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide (Bohr effect), Involved in photosynthesis and respiration, regulation of blood pH and affects the pH of substances (more H+ = more acidic)

    5. Ammonium (NH4+) - Component of nucleic acids, Absorbed from the soil by plants then can make amino acids ect, Maintains pH in human body, involved in the nitrogen cycle.

    Anions - Negative Charge

    1. Nitrate (NO3-) - Pretty much same for Ammonium, Component of nucleic acids,amino acids, proteins, and chlorophyll, Used to make hormones made of proteins which contain nitrogen (i.e. insulin - regulates blood glucose levels), Component of the nitrogen cycle.

    2. Hydrogencarbonate (HCO3-) - Acts as a buffer, helps tomaintain blood pH, Involved in thetransport of carbon dioxide into and out of the blood.

    3. Chloride (Cl-) - Cofactor for amylase, involved in the chloride shift which helps to maintain blood pH during gas exchange, involved in some nerve impulses, used to produce hydrochloric acid in the stomach, Regulates affinity of haemoglobin to oxygen through allosteric effects, helps in the production of urine in the kidney and maintaining water balance.

    4. Phosphate (PO4^3-) - Increases bone, teeth and cartilage rigidity (bonds with calcium to produce calcium phosphate which strengthens bones), Involved in photosynthesis and respiration reactions, helps roots grow in plants, Component of ATP, phospholipids, nucleic acids and several other enzymes.

    5. Hydroxide (OH-) - Affects the pH of substances and regulates blood pH (the more OH- ions a solution has the more alkali it is).
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    (Original post by DrBossBoooky)
    I'm not quite sure however if we do......

    Cations - Positive Charge

    1. Calcium (Ca2+) - Increases bone, teeth, and cartilage rigidity, Involved in nerve impulse transmission , Acts as acofactor for many enzymes (i.e. lipase ATPase and cholinesterase), Stimulatesmuscle contraction and regulates cell membrane permeability.

    2. Sodium (Na+) -Regulates fluid balance (i.e osmotic pressure, water levels and maintenance), generates nerve impulses and muscle contraction, helps to maintain turgidity in plant vacuole.

    3. Potassium (K+) - Again important for nerve transmission and muscle contraction,activates enzymes needed for photosynthesis, involved in synthesis and breakdown of glycogen and protein,maintains fluid levels in the body ect.

    4. Hydrogen (H+) - Involved in the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide (Bohr effect), Involved in photosynthesis and respiration, regulation of blood pH and affects the pH of substances (more H+ = more acidic)

    5. Ammonium (NH4+) - Component of nucleic acids, Absorbed from the soil by plants then can make amino acids ect, Maintains pH in human body, involved in the nitrogen cycle.

    Anions - Negative Charge

    1. Nitrate (NO3-) - Pretty much same for Ammonium, Component of nucleic acids,amino acids, proteins, and chlorophyll, Used to make hormones made of proteins which contain nitrogen (i.e. insulin - regulates blood glucose levels), Component of the nitrogen cycle.

    2. Hydrogencarbonate (HCO3-) - Acts as a buffer, helps tomaintain blood pH, Involved in thetransport of carbon dioxide into and out of the blood.

    3. Chloride (Cl-) - Cofactor for amylase, involved in the chloride shift which helps to maintain blood pH during gas exchange, involved in some nerve impulses, used to produce hydrochloric acid in the stomach, Regulates affinity of haemoglobin to oxygen through allosteric effects, helps in the production of urine in the kidney and maintaining water balance.

    4. Phosphate (PO4^3-) - Increases bone, teeth and cartilage rigidity (bonds with calcium to produce calcium phosphate which strengthens bones), Involved in photosynthesis and respiration reactions, helps roots grow in plants, Component of ATP, phospholipids, nucleic acids and several other enzymes.

    5. Hydroxide (OH-) - Affects the pH of substances and regulates blood pH (the more OH- ions a solution has the more alkali it is).
    Thanks that's so helpful. My teacher didn't go through this very well.
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    (Original post by Chmbiogeog)
    Thanks that's so helpful. My teacher didn't go through this very well.
    Ah I'm glad you found it useful, you're welcome. If you need anything else don't hesitate to ask?
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    Thank you guys we didn't get taught that at all! X
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    I'm so unprepared it's unreal!
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    Can someone explain the test for proteins pleazd
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    (Original post by essex_ellz)
    Can someone explain the test for proteins pleazd
    Use biuret solution (copper sulfate and sodium hydroxide)
    Colour change from blue -> purple if proteins are present
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    (Original post by DrBossBoooky)
    I'm not quite sure however if we do......

    Cations - Positive Charge

    1. Calcium (Ca2+) - Increases bone, teeth, and cartilage rigidity, Involved in nerve impulse transmission , Acts as acofactor for many enzymes (i.e. lipase ATPase and cholinesterase), Stimulatesmuscle contraction and regulates cell membrane permeability.

    2. Sodium (Na+) -Regulates fluid balance (i.e osmotic pressure, water levels and maintenance), generates nerve impulses and muscle contraction, helps to maintain turgidity in plant vacuole.

    3. Potassium (K+) - Again important for nerve transmission and muscle contraction,activates enzymes needed for photosynthesis, involved in synthesis and breakdown of glycogen and protein,maintains fluid levels in the body ect.

    4. Hydrogen (H+) - Involved in the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide (Bohr effect), Involved in photosynthesis and respiration, regulation of blood pH and affects the pH of substances (more H+ = more acidic)

    5. Ammonium (NH4+) - Component of nucleic acids, Absorbed from the soil by plants then can make amino acids ect, Maintains pH in human body, involved in the nitrogen cycle.

    Anions - Negative Charge

    1. Nitrate (NO3-) - Pretty much same for Ammonium, Component of nucleic acids,amino acids, proteins, and chlorophyll, Used to make hormones made of proteins which contain nitrogen (i.e. insulin - regulates blood glucose levels), Component of the nitrogen cycle.

    2. Hydrogencarbonate (HCO3-) - Acts as a buffer, helps tomaintain blood pH, Involved in thetransport of carbon dioxide into and out of the blood.

    3. Chloride (Cl-) - Cofactor for amylase, involved in the chloride shift which helps to maintain blood pH during gas exchange, involved in some nerve impulses, used to produce hydrochloric acid in the stomach, Regulates affinity of haemoglobin to oxygen through allosteric effects, helps in the production of urine in the kidney and maintaining water balance.

    4. Phosphate (PO4^3-) - Increases bone, teeth and cartilage rigidity (bonds with calcium to produce calcium phosphate which strengthens bones), Involved in photosynthesis and respiration reactions, helps roots grow in plants, Component of ATP, phospholipids, nucleic acids and several other enzymes.

    5. Hydroxide (OH-) - Affects the pH of substances and regulates blood pH (the more OH- ions a solution has the more alkali it is).

    this doesn't sound at all familiar! thank you so much
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    (Original post by Logic4Life)
    Cell division, Enzymes, Evolution, Protein Synthesis, Biological tests, Biological molecules
    what are these? I probably know them just not that this is what they're called
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    (Original post by Chmbiogeog)
    Use biuret solution (copper sulfate and sodium hydroxide)
    Colour change from blue -> purple if proteins are present
    Is this the test were you need to make it alkaline first or was that another :3
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    (Original post by Nettled)
    Is this the test were you need to make it alkaline first or was that another :3
    No you don't need to for the protein test.
    Edit - taylab_x is correct though.
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    (Original post by Nettled)
    Is this the test were you need to make it alkaline first or was that another :3
    you add the NaOH solution first, which neutralises it
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    yes because its part of the practical spec
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    Anyone able to summarise gas exchange in fish, please?
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    (Original post by Kksjdjdh)
    Anyone able to summarise gas exchange in fish, please?
    In fish their is a counter-current system so blood and water flow in an opposite direction over the gill plates. Water with a high oxygen concentration always flows next to blood with a low oxygen concentration-this maintains a steep concentration gradient.

    The floor of the buccal cavity lowers, which increases volume and decreases the pressure inside the buccal cavity. This sucks water inside and the mouth closes and the buccal cavity floor is raised. The volume decreases and the pressure increases which forces the water out of the gill filaments. The gills are protected by the operculum.
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    (Original post by taylab_x)
    In fish their is a counter-current system so blood and water flow in an opposite direction over the gill plates. Water with a high oxygen concentration always flows next to blood with a low oxygen concentration-this maintains a steep concentration gradient.

    The floor of the buccal cavity lowers, which increases volume and decreases the pressure inside the buccal cavity. This sucks water inside and the mouth closes and the buccal cavity floor is raised. The volume decreases and the pressure increases which forces the water out of the gill filaments. The gills are protected by the operculum.
    Thankyou so much!!!!!! Xoox
 
 
 
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