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    (Original post by Chuck234)
    I have an A* model answer. Do you have an email I could send it to? Also, I'm the opposite I really struggle with language change so if I send you mine could you send me anything that would help with language change?
    hi there, my computer won't let my open the attachments, could you possibly email them to me at [email protected]?? you would be a life saver!!
    Thank you xx
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    (Original post by Themodeststudent)
    Please do send them I really need it!
    I've attached it below, hope it helps!

    I've also attached by Ruby & Lou essay, as I've seen people discussing it and my teacher said my response was exactly what I should write in the exam

    Hope everyone's revision is going well! xx
    Attached Files
  1. File Type: docx ChildSpeechAcquisition.docx (173.4 KB, 140 views)
  2. File Type: docx RubyCSAEssay.docx (10.3 KB, 103 views)
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    (Original post by elsierose)
    If anyone is missing content for their child speech acquisition I literally have all of my notes on it typed out so I can send it out to people

    I'm feeling pretty confident for speech acquisition, but feel like I don't know enough for language change at the moment
    hi! could you possibly send me these notes?
    my email is [email protected]
    you would be a life saver!!!
    also any notes on language change would be much appreciated too.
    many thanks
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    (Original post by elsierose)
    I've attached it below, hope it helps!

    I've also attached by Ruby & Lou essay, as I've seen people discussing it and my teacher said my response was exactly what I should write in the exam

    Hope everyone's revision is going well! xx
    sorry I've just seen this! ignore my other request
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    I've been swamped with psychology revision as I stupidly left a lot to the last minute and now I can't concentrate on English as much as I wanted to. I usually revise by looking over all my notes and then annotate a text ( child Lang/change). However because I'm tight on time I'm annotatating the texts and then doing an essay plan. I'm probably going to focus on AO1 features aswell bc thats where most of the marks are gained and that is where I'm weakest. Good luck to everyone xxxx
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    (Original post by elsierose)
    I've attached it below, hope it helps!

    I've also attached by Ruby & Lou essay, as I've seen people discussing it and my teacher said my response was exactly what I should write in the exam

    Hope everyone's revision is going well! xx
    Thank you soooo much! I hope you do well in the exam and get the grade you want! Also good luck to everyone else!
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    (Original post by Tsrsarahhhh)
    I've been swamped with psychology revision as I stupidly left a lot to the last minute and now I can't concentrate on English as much as I wanted to. I usually revise by looking over all my notes and then annotate a text ( child Lang/change). However because I'm tight on time I'm annotatating the texts and then doing an essay plan. I'm probably going to focus on AO1 features aswell bc thats where most of the marks are gained and that is where I'm weakest. Good luck to everyone xxxx
    I'm in the exact same position! Got psychology on Tuesday and finding it hard to do everything.
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    (Original post by Themodeststudent)
    I'm in the exact same position! Got psychology on Tuesday and finding it hard to do everything.
    Ahh I'm probably going to do some light revision for English atm then as soon as the psychology exam is finished, head straight to the library and do some hardcore revision. Good luck for psychology
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    (Original post by Themodeststudent)
    Thank you soooo much! I hope you do well in the exam and get the grade you want! Also good luck to everyone else!
    no problem! aw thank you, you too!!
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    (Original post by Chuck234)
    This is the Ruby and Lou text I have just found the transcript. I can see your problem already I was the exact same in the Mock exam.

    The problem that you're having is that you're looking for whatever you can see and writing it down. What you need to do is cluster your examples, like for the post telegraphic stage there's not much meat to the sand which. You've said she should be in the telegraphic stage but your examples are limited. What I will do because I genuinely empathise with you on this one is, I'll write you a response for this question.
    YES! She's saying that we should stop describing the text and write about it as a whole, find it hard not to just describe though.
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    (Original post by Chuck234)
    I hope this helps it's not a fall response but I don't know how we are expected to write a full response in such a short time.
    I can't read the content sorry. I've tried opening it on my phone screen (smaller) but its still unclear. Could you resend it please?
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    Does anyone have any tips/sample answers for language change?
    I am also struggling in finding words that have been borrowed from other languages in the texts. Could anyone give me advice on that?
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    hey, sorry im pretty stuck on lang change but can try help on children's acquisition if you need any! Sorry, is your exam 14th june ?? as mine is 15th?? didn't realise they could do that
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    (Original post by Gal cool)
    Does anyone have any tips/sample answers for language change?
    I am also struggling in finding words that have been borrowed from other languages in the texts. Could anyone give me advice on that?
    Hope this helps
    For Language Change: I had a great teacher, the way I was taught is follows this plan:
    Introduction - PAF - Purpose, audience, form, if more than one text compare and contrast them, relate to genre today if possible- Contextual factors - the time that the text was written, any information about the author, the social context (e.g. post war period, women's restricted role in society), writing conventions at that time, compare to today,- What do you expect from the texts, what will you investigate,
    Next go through the frameworks systematically in this order.
    Lexis - analyse the word/ terminology choices, identify any archaic/obsolete words, lexical/semantical change, neologisms, any perjoration/ amelioration, use specific language change terminology, how did the words come to be - borrowing/ loan word, eponym, invasions, the social/historical context, etymology - word origin, orthography, political correctness, Americanisation, globalisation,
    Semantics/Pragmatics - describe the meaning of the text/ words whilst being tentative and open-minded (with alternative meanings as well), have meanings changed (if so why?), always quote the text, why do you think this is what it means, what the author's intention was, the effect that it has on the reader/ intended reader, always bring in historical knowledge but make sure its relevant and focuses on the actual text, social context, accessibility to the modern reader, political correctness,
    Grammar - any differences in grammar, sentence length, punctuation, use personal pronouns to address the reader, word order, imperatives, context -standardisation etc
    Phonology -accents - their popularity, social and cultural developments (RP, BBC English Queens English), long ans short 's', great vowel shift,
    Discourse - link to genre
    Graphology - accessibility to reader, layout, link to genre and compare to that of today, context, handwriting, print conventions,
    Conclusion - sum up what you have found, if what you expected from the text came to be e.g. lexical choices overtime are evident in the text...
    When I did this paper it was synoptic, I don't know if it still is, if it is then link to the units you did last year - gender, technology, dialect, power, occupational groups. Focus answer on language change and always be tentative.

    Contextual / Historical Factors
    Invasions
    Official Language- English was acknowledged as being the official language of business in 1362 for the first time in three centuries, partly because too few people in the courts understood Latin, also in the same year Parliament opened in English. In the late 1300s, English replaced French as the language of the school room.
    Great Vowel Shift - 1400-1600/ 15th and 16th centuries - mass immigration after Black Death gave way to uniform way of speaking rather than lots of different pronunciations
    Standardisation
    William Caxton - major player in developing printing press, books were previously handwritten, mass production, standard spellings, can link to Samuel Johnson
    Printers - individual printers established their own conventions and styles, so uniformity was deemed unimportant at first. Printers wanted to fit words neatly on a line, so they began to drop letters such as the terminal 'e', at other times they added letters to words because they got paid by the number of letters. You can compare this with texting.
    Samuel Johnson/Dictionaries - SJ wanted to fix language, wrote dictionary between 1747 and 1755, took French 40 years to make one, standardisation, not the first English dictionary, mention others as well as examiners complain that everyone mentions him, you can mention - 'An Universall Etymological English Dictionary' 1721, first attempt to list and define all words in the English language, about 60,000 words, wasn't rivalled for over 30 years. the Word 'dictionary' had not properly been defined
    John Lowth- In 1750 published 'Lowth's Grammar Rules', very influential even today, rules included: you should not split infinitives (accepted before, but this is a Latin rule), you should not use a double negative (had been accepted for emphasis), you should not end a sentence with a proposition.
    John Locke - 1632 - 1704 - language controls thought - his opinion, link to prescriptivism

    Timeline - you should learn a few points from Old English - Middle English - Early Modern English -18th & 19& centuries - English today - English as a global language - English tomorrow - about attitudes, changes and historical factors.
    You do need to know specialise terminology in order to get top marks, so here are some that I learnt.
    Key terms - prescriptivism/descriptivism, narrowing, extension, neologisms, etymology, morphology, Americanisation, globalisation, pejorative, ameliorative, orthography, diachronic variation, decay, synchronic variation,
    Why does language change - natural development, decay, loans, globalisation, progress, technology, borrowing, technological advances, synchronic/diachronic variation, slang, media, youth,
    You should learn about that the long and short 's' 'ʃ’, as that frequently comes up in old texts. The long one was left over from Old English and continued into Late Modern English. It was used at the beginning and in the middle and the short was used at the end of words. The long 's' was replaced by the short 's' in 1800, as it didn't have a phonological function and because of printing practices when pages has to be individually set, it was deemed unnecessary.For Language Change: I had a great teacher, the way I was taught is follows this plan:
    Introduction - PAF - Purpose, audience, form, if more than one text compare and contrast them, relate to genre today if possible- Contextual factors - the time that the text was written, any information about the author, the social context (e.g. post war period, women's restricted role in society), writing conventions at that time, compare to today,- What do you expect from the texts, what will you investigate,
    Next go through the frameworks systematically in this order.
    Lexis - analyse the word/ terminology choices, identify any archaic/obsolete words, lexical/semantical change, neologisms, any perjoration/ amelioration, use specific language change terminology, how did the words come to be - borrowing/ loan word, eponym, invasions, the social/historical context, etymology - word origin, orthography, political correctness, Americanisation, globalisation,
    Semantics/Pragmatics - describe the meaning of the text/ words whilst being tentative and open-minded (with alternative meanings as well), have meanings changed (if so why?), always quote the text, why do you think this is what it means, what the author's intention was, the effect that it has on the reader/ intended reader, always bring in historical knowledge but make sure its relevant and focuses on the actual text, social context, accessibility to the modern reader, political correctness,
    Grammar - any differences in grammar, sentence length, punctuation, use personal pronouns to address the reader, word order, imperatives, context -standardisation etc
    Phonology -accents - their popularity, social and cultural developments (RP, BBC English Queens English), long ans short 's', great vowel shift,
    Discourse - link to genre
    Graphology - accessibility to reader, layout, link to genre and compare to that of today, context, handwriting, print conventions,
    Conclusion - sum up what you have found, if what you expected from the text came to be e.g. lexical choices overtime are evident in the text...
    When I did this paper it was synoptic, I don't know if it still is, if it is then link to the units you did last year - gender, technology, dialect, power, occupational groups. Focus answer on language change and always be tentative.

    Contextual / Historical Factors
    Invasions
    Official Language- English was acknowledged as being the official language of business in 1362 for the first time in three centuries, partly because too few people in the courts understood Latin, also in the same year Parliament opened in English. In the late 1300s, English replaced French as the language of the school room.
    Great Vowel Shift - 1400-1600/ 15th and 16th centuries - mass immigration after Black Death gave way to uniform way of speaking rather than lots of different pronunciations
    Standardisation
    William Caxton - major player in developing printing press, books were previously handwritten, mass production, standard spellings, can link to Samuel Johnson
    Printers - individual printers established their own conventions and styles, so uniformity was deemed unimportant at first. Printers wanted to fit words neatly on a line, so they began to drop letters such as the terminal 'e', at other times they added letters to words because they got paid by the number of letters. You can compare this with texting.
    Samuel Johnson/Dictionaries - SJ wanted to fix language, wrote dictionary between 1747 and 1755, took French 40 years to make one, standardisation, not the first English dictionary, mention others as well as examiners complain that everyone mentions him, you can mention - 'An Universall Etymological English Dictionary' 1721, first attempt to list and define all words in the English language, about 60,000 words, wasn't rivalled for over 30 years. the Word 'dictionary' had not properly been defined
    John Lowth- In 1750 published 'Lowth's Grammar Rules', very influential even today, rules included: you should not split infinitives (accepted before, but this is a Latin rule), you should not use a double negative (had been accepted for emphasis), you should not end a sentence with a proposition.
    John Locke - 1632 - 1704 - language controls thought - his opinion, link to prescriptivism

    Timeline - you should learn a few points from Old English - Middle English - Early Modern English -18th & 19& centuries - English today - English as a global language - English tomorrow - about attitudes, changes and historical factors.
    You do need to know specialise terminology in order to get top marks, so here are some that I learnt.
    Key terms - prescriptivism/descriptivism, narrowing, extension, neologisms, etymology, morphology, Americanisation, globalisation, pejorative, ameliorative, orthography, diachronic variation, decay, synchronic variation,
    Why does language change - natural development, decay, loans, globalisation, progress, technology, borrowing, technological advances, synchronic/diachronic variation, slang, media, youth,
    You should learn about that the long and short 's' 'ʃ’, as that frequently comes up in old texts. The long one was left over from Old English and continued into Late Modern English. It was used at the beginning and in the middle and the short was used at the end of words. The long 's' was replaced by the short 's' in 1800, as it didn't have a phonological function and because of printing practices when pages has to be individually set, it was deemed unnecessary.
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    (Original post by EsGal)
    hi! could you possibly send me these notes?
    my email is [email protected]
    you would be a life saver!!!
    also any notes on language change would be much appreciated too.
    many thanks
    Hope this helps For Language Change: I had a great teacher, the way I was taught is follows this plan:
    Introduction - PAF - Purpose, audience, form, if more than one text compare and contrast them, relate to genre today if possible- Contextual factors - the time that the text was written, any information about the author, the social context (e.g. post war period, women's restricted role in society), writing conventions at that time, compare to today,- What do you expect from the texts, what will you investigate,
    Next go through the frameworks systematically in this order.
    Lexis - analyse the word/ terminology choices, identify any archaic/obsolete words, lexical/semantical change, neologisms, any perjoration/ amelioration, use specific language change terminology, how did the words come to be - borrowing/ loan word, eponym, invasions, the social/historical context, etymology - word origin, orthography, political correctness, Americanisation, globalisation,
    Semantics/Pragmatics - describe the meaning of the text/ words whilst being tentative and open-minded (with alternative meanings as well), have meanings changed (if so why?), always quote the text, why do you think this is what it means, what the author's intention was, the effect that it has on the reader/ intended reader, always bring in historical knowledge but make sure its relevant and focuses on the actual text, social context, accessibility to the modern reader, political correctness,
    Grammar - any differences in grammar, sentence length, punctuation, use personal pronouns to address the reader, word order, imperatives, context -standardisation etc
    Phonology -accents - their popularity, social and cultural developments (RP, BBC English Queens English), long ans short 's', great vowel shift,
    Discourse - link to genre
    Graphology - accessibility to reader, layout, link to genre and compare to that of today, context, handwriting, print conventions,
    Conclusion - sum up what you have found, if what you expected from the text came to be e.g. lexical choices overtime are evident in the text...
    When I did this paper it was synoptic, I don't know if it still is, if it is then link to the units you did last year - gender, technology, dialect, power, occupational groups. Focus answer on language change and always be tentative.

    Contextual / Historical Factors
    Invasions
    Official Language- English was acknowledged as being the official language of business in 1362 for the first time in three centuries, partly because too few people in the courts understood Latin, also in the same year Parliament opened in English. In the late 1300s, English replaced French as the language of the school room.
    Great Vowel Shift - 1400-1600/ 15th and 16th centuries - mass immigration after Black Death gave way to uniform way of speaking rather than lots of different pronunciations
    Standardisation
    William Caxton - major player in developing printing press, books were previously handwritten, mass production, standard spellings, can link to Samuel Johnson
    Printers - individual printers established their own conventions and styles, so uniformity was deemed unimportant at first. Printers wanted to fit words neatly on a line, so they began to drop letters such as the terminal 'e', at other times they added letters to words because they got paid by the number of letters. You can compare this with texting.
    Samuel Johnson/Dictionaries - SJ wanted to fix language, wrote dictionary between 1747 and 1755, took French 40 years to make one, standardisation, not the first English dictionary, mention others as well as examiners complain that everyone mentions him, you can mention - 'An Universall Etymological English Dictionary' 1721, first attempt to list and define all words in the English language, about 60,000 words, wasn't rivalled for over 30 years. the Word 'dictionary' had not properly been defined
    John Lowth- In 1750 published 'Lowth's Grammar Rules', very influential even today, rules included: you should not split infinitives (accepted before, but this is a Latin rule), you should not use a double negative (had been accepted for emphasis), you should not end a sentence with a proposition.
    John Locke - 1632 - 1704 - language controls thought - his opinion, link to prescriptivism

    Timeline - you should learn a few points from Old English - Middle English - Early Modern English -18th & 19& centuries - English today - English as a global language - English tomorrow - about attitudes, changes and historical factors.
    You do need to know specialise terminology in order to get top marks, so here are some that I learnt.
    Key terms - prescriptivism/descriptivism, narrowing, extension, neologisms, etymology, morphology, Americanisation, globalisation, pejorative, ameliorative, orthography, diachronic variation, decay, synchronic variation,
    Why does language change - natural development, decay, loans, globalisation, progress, technology, borrowing, technological advances, synchronic/diachronic variation, slang, media, youth,
    You should learn about that the long and short 's' 'ʃ’, as that frequently comes up in old texts. The long one was left over from Old English and continued into Late Modern English. It was used at the beginning and in the middle and the short was used at the end of words. The long 's' was replaced by the short 's' in 1800, as it didn't have a phonological function and because of printing practices when pages has to be individually set, it was deemed unnecessary.For Language Change: I had a great teacher, the way I was taught is follows this plan:
    Introduction - PAF - Purpose, audience, form, if more than one text compare and contrast them, relate to genre today if possible- Contextual factors - the time that the text was written, any information about the author, the social context (e.g. post war period, women's restricted role in society), writing conventions at that time, compare to today,- What do you expect from the texts, what will you investigate,
    Next go through the frameworks systematically in this order.
    Lexis - analyse the word/ terminology choices, identify any archaic/obsolete words, lexical/semantical change, neologisms, any perjoration/ amelioration, use specific language change terminology, how did the words come to be - borrowing/ loan word, eponym, invasions, the social/historical context, etymology - word origin, orthography, political correctness, Americanisation, globalisation,
    Semantics/Pragmatics - describe the meaning of the text/ words whilst being tentative and open-minded (with alternative meanings as well), have meanings changed (if so why?), always quote the text, why do you think this is what it means, what the author's intention was, the effect that it has on the reader/ intended reader, always bring in historical knowledge but make sure its relevant and focuses on the actual text, social context, accessibility to the modern reader, political correctness,
    Grammar - any differences in grammar, sentence length, punctuation, use personal pronouns to address the reader, word order, imperatives, context -standardisation etc
    Phonology -accents - their popularity, social and cultural developments (RP, BBC English Queens English), long ans short 's', great vowel shift,
    Discourse - link to genre
    Graphology - accessibility to reader, layout, link to genre and compare to that of today, context, handwriting, print conventions,
    Conclusion - sum up what you have found, if what you expected from the text came to be e.g. lexical choices overtime are evident in the text...
    When I did this paper it was synoptic, I don't know if it still is, if it is then link to the units you did last year - gender, technology, dialect, power, occupational groups. Focus answer on language change and always be tentative.

    Contextual / Historical Factors
    Invasions
    Official Language- English was acknowledged as being the official language of business in 1362 for the first time in three centuries, partly because too few people in the courts understood Latin, also in the same year Parliament opened in English. In the late 1300s, English replaced French as the language of the school room.
    Great Vowel Shift - 1400-1600/ 15th and 16th centuries - mass immigration after Black Death gave way to uniform way of speaking rather than lots of different pronunciations
    Standardisation
    William Caxton - major player in developing printing press, books were previously handwritten, mass production, standard spellings, can link to Samuel Johnson
    Printers - individual printers established their own conventions and styles, so uniformity was deemed unimportant at first. Printers wanted to fit words neatly on a line, so they began to drop letters such as the terminal 'e', at other times they added letters to words because they got paid by the number of letters. You can compare this with texting.
    Samuel Johnson/Dictionaries - SJ wanted to fix language, wrote dictionary between 1747 and 1755, took French 40 years to make one, standardisation, not the first English dictionary, mention others as well as examiners complain that everyone mentions him, you can mention - 'An Universall Etymological English Dictionary' 1721, first attempt to list and define all words in the English language, about 60,000 words, wasn't rivalled for over 30 years. the Word 'dictionary' had not properly been defined
    John Lowth- In 1750 published 'Lowth's Grammar Rules', very influential even today, rules included: you should not split infinitives (accepted before, but this is a Latin rule), you should not use a double negative (had been accepted for emphasis), you should not end a sentence with a proposition.
    John Locke - 1632 - 1704 - language controls thought - his opinion, link to prescriptivism

    Timeline - you should learn a few points from Old English - Middle English - Early Modern English -18th & 19& centuries - English today - English as a global language - English tomorrow - about attitudes, changes and historical factors.
    You do need to know specialise terminology in order to get top marks, so here are some that I learnt.
    Key terms - prescriptivism/descriptivism, narrowing, extension, neologisms, etymology, morphology, Americanisation, globalisation, pejorative, ameliorative, orthography, diachronic variation, decay, synchronic variation,
    Why does language change - natural development, decay, loans, globalisation, progress, technology, borrowing, technological advances, synchronic/diachronic variation, slang, media, youth,
    You should learn about that the long and short 's' 'ʃ’, as that frequently comes up in old texts. The long one was left over from Old English and continued into Late Modern English. It was used at the beginning and in the middle and the short was used at the end of words. The long 's' was replaced by the short 's' in 1800, as it didn't have a phonological function and because of printing practices when pages has to be individually set, it was deemed unnecessary.
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    (Original post by elsierose)
    If anyone is missing content for their child speech acquisition I literally have all of my notes on it typed out so I can send it out to people

    I'm feeling pretty confident for speech acquisition, but feel like I don't know enough for language change at the moment
    Omg pls send me your language acquisition notes pls! I have a marked example which got an A for language change if you need it...
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    (Original post by vintagesha)
    Omg pls send me your language acquisition notes pls! I have a marked example which got an A for language change if you need it...
    Here's some notes on Language acquisition. Please send me your language change essay

    Theories of Language Acquisition- B.F. Skinner - Imitation - behaviourism/reinforcement – all behaviour is conditioned, punished or rewarded by experience until it becomes automatic, babies imitate their parents, positive or negative reinforcement, can support with critical age hypothesis, counter argue with Brown (1973) who’s research shows that children’s language is rarely corrected exceptions for when they get the facts wrong or are lying, also correction is rarely successful – Cazden (1972) child repeatedly used the form ‘holded’ despite adult rephrasing the sentence several times with correct form ‘held’ ad the child did not notice the difference, Katherine Nelson (1973) – children who were corrected developed slower than others, children are capable of lexical innovation,
    - Noam Chomsky -Innateness – language is innate, children are born with grammatical knowledge/ knowledge of grammatical rules and a predisposition to learn language, Language Acquisition Device (LAD) – linguistic universals, child have a LAD which provides them with an innate knowledge of the linguistic universals which speeds of acquisition when they hear their native language, babies make hypotheses from which they work out the grammar which increases over time with hearing more language, counter argument - critical age hypothesis, the language babies are spoken too is impoverished (Child Directed Speech), no physical evidence of LAD, babies can learn any language not just that of parents,
    - Jean Piaget – language acquisition parallels cognitive development, language is controlled by the development of thought, object permeance (whereby the continual existence of an object is known despite the object being unseen) is achieved before the age of two, counter argument - however studies show that the word ‘gone’ helped children to understand object permanence rather than the other way around,
    - Bruner -Input/Social Interaction – language development is dependent on social factors, language gets things done, Bruner (1983) ‘children learn to use a language initially…to get what they want, to play games, to stay connected with those on whom they are dependent’, The Language Acquisition Support System (LASS) – support for language learning provided by parents who do more than provide models for imitation,
    - The Critical Age Hypothesis – language is acquired rather than learned and there is a particular period during which children acquire it most easily, if children are not exposed to language until after this period is over they may never catch up – case of Genie – can support hypothesis with people’s difficulties with learning second languages compared with the ease with which they acquire their mother tongue,
    - Berko-Gleason – children knew the plural of ‘wug’ despite not having heard the word before - supports Chomsky’s innateness theory,
    Don’t just add theories, use them with your analysis and counter and counteract them to create arguments to show that your points can be supported or contravened.
    Stages of Acquisition – Speculate about the child’s stage of development
    Holophrastic Stage – one word utterances, 12-18 monthsTwo Word Stage – two word combinations, 18-24 months Telegraphic – More word combinations, 24-36 monthsPost telegraphic – more grammatically complex combinations, 36 months +
    Early Phonological Mistakes
    Children master language by making mistakes until they fully master the skills‘Trial and Error’ – this approach is taken by some linguistics to be evidence that learning is taking place, but phonological ability is based on the ability to produce sounds.
    Deletion – omitting final consonants – do(g), cu(p),Substitution - substituting one sound for anotherAddition – adding an extra vowel sound to the end of words, following a CVCV (consonant vowel consonant vowel) pattern egg doggieAssimilation – changing one consonant or vowel for another Reduplication – repeating a whole syllable – dada, mama,Consonant cluster reduction – if something is difficult to articulate, they are reduced – spider → ‘pider* Jean Berko and Roger Brown (1960) – Children who referred to a plastic inflatable fish as fis’, substituting the ‘sh’ sound for an‘s’ sound, could not link the object to the adults use of fis’. This is an example of consonant cluster reduction.Under/over generalisation of rules – runned, weared, drawed,Ellipsis – leaving out words
    Child Directed Speech (CDS)
    Aims and features - to attract and hold the attention of children- make language easier by being predictable - repetition of adult’s and child’s words- encourage turn taking – use of cues- one word utterances- present tense- few verbs/modifiers- concrete nouns- expansions – fill out child sentence- encouraging speech- lots of questions- exaggerated intonation- yes/no questioning- song like intonation
    There is much disagreement about the influence of CDS, some find it very important, others fell it plays only a marginal role. Over-correction can have a detrimental effect (Katherine Nelson) with children being fearful to talk and express themselves for fear of getting it wrong, so it can affect a child’s confidence. The purpose of CDS may be social rather than educational, as it helps communication. Non-Western countries don’t use CDS and are less compromising with their language use.
    Writing an answerAgain, you can follow the linguistic frameworks and/or use them as a sort of check list as to what you’re looking for. I didn’t write my answer in framework sections for language acquisition but just went with what I had found in the text on a random basis, as its not as easy to do with this.
    What to include: Analysis of dataInformed speculation about child’s stage of developmentEvaluation of what child is learning in the dataConnections with theoretical approachesLinguistic terminology to describe word classes and grammatical constructions – be preciseAnalyse and Conclusions

    Introduction – write a general overview – explain what’s going on – state your line of argument that can be developed, what you expect to find,
    Grammar – pronouns, holophrases (single word utterances), verbs, nouns, tenses, saying ‘no’, asking questions, morphemes, mean length utterances (MLU), what stage is the child at and what features of this stage are apparent, formation of plurals, function words,
    Lexical and Semantic Development – simple descriptive words, concrete/abstract nouns – stages of development – function words,
    CDS – synonyms, cognitive development, what is child learning, turn taking,
    Discourse, question and answer, narrative structures, turn taking, politeness – please and thank you, where do they learn this,
    Phonology – pronunciation, phonological mistakes,

    Pragmatic Development – functions of language, context, functions of child’s speech – John Dore, labelling, repeating, answering, requesting action, calling, greeting, protesting, practising,
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    (Original post by PennyGirl)
    Here's some notes on Language acquisition. Please send me your language change essay

    Theories of Language Acquisition- B.F. Skinner - Imitation - behaviourism/reinforcement – all behaviour is conditioned, punished or rewarded by experience until it becomes automatic, babies imitate their parents, positive or negative reinforcement, can support with critical age hypothesis, counter argue with Brown (1973) who’s research shows that children’s language is rarely corrected exceptions for when they get the facts wrong or are lying, also correction is rarely successful – Cazden (1972) child repeatedly used the form ‘holded’ despite adult rephrasing the sentence several times with correct form ‘held’ ad the child did not notice the difference, Katherine Nelson (1973) – children who were corrected developed slower than others, children are capable of lexical innovation,
    - Noam Chomsky -Innateness – language is innate, children are born with grammatical knowledge/ knowledge of grammatical rules and a predisposition to learn language, Language Acquisition Device (LAD) – linguistic universals, child have a LAD which provides them with an innate knowledge of the linguistic universals which speeds of acquisition when they hear their native language, babies make hypotheses from which they work out the grammar which increases over time with hearing more language, counter argument - critical age hypothesis, the language babies are spoken too is impoverished (Child Directed Speech), no physical evidence of LAD, babies can learn any language not just that of parents,
    - Jean Piaget – language acquisition parallels cognitive development, language is controlled by the development of thought, object permeance (whereby the continual existence of an object is known despite the object being unseen) is achieved before the age of two, counter argument - however studies show that the word ‘gone’ helped children to understand object permanence rather than the other way around,
    - Bruner -Input/Social Interaction – language development is dependent on social factors, language gets things done, Bruner (1983) ‘children learn to use a language initially…to get what they want, to play games, to stay connected with those on whom they are dependent’, The Language Acquisition Support System (LASS) – support for language learning provided by parents who do more than provide models for imitation,
    - The Critical Age Hypothesis – language is acquired rather than learned and there is a particular period during which children acquire it most easily, if children are not exposed to language until after this period is over they may never catch up – case of Genie – can support hypothesis with people’s difficulties with learning second languages compared with the ease with which they acquire their mother tongue,
    - Berko-Gleason – children knew the plural of ‘wug’ despite not having heard the word before - supports Chomsky’s innateness theory,
    Don’t just add theories, use them with your analysis and counter and counteract them to create arguments to show that your points can be supported or contravened.
    Stages of Acquisition – Speculate about the child’s stage of development
    Holophrastic Stage – one word utterances, 12-18 monthsTwo Word Stage – two word combinations, 18-24 months Telegraphic – More word combinations, 24-36 monthsPost telegraphic – more grammatically complex combinations, 36 months +
    Early Phonological Mistakes
    Children master language by making mistakes until they fully master the skills‘Trial and Error’ – this approach is taken by some linguistics to be evidence that learning is taking place, but phonological ability is based on the ability to produce sounds.
    Deletion – omitting final consonants – do(g), cu(p),Substitution - substituting one sound for anotherAddition – adding an extra vowel sound to the end of words, following a CVCV (consonant vowel consonant vowel) pattern egg doggieAssimilation – changing one consonant or vowel for another Reduplication – repeating a whole syllable – dada, mama,Consonant cluster reduction – if something is difficult to articulate, they are reduced – spider → ‘pider* Jean Berko and Roger Brown (1960) – Children who referred to a plastic inflatable fish as fis’, substituting the ‘sh’ sound for an‘s’ sound, could not link the object to the adults use of fis’. This is an example of consonant cluster reduction.Under/over generalisation of rules – runned, weared, drawed,Ellipsis – leaving out words
    Child Directed Speech (CDS)
    Aims and features - to attract and hold the attention of children- make language easier by being predictable - repetition of adult’s and child’s words- encourage turn taking – use of cues- one word utterances- present tense- few verbs/modifiers- concrete nouns- expansions – fill out child sentence- encouraging speech- lots of questions- exaggerated intonation- yes/no questioning- song like intonation
    There is much disagreement about the influence of CDS, some find it very important, others fell it plays only a marginal role. Over-correction can have a detrimental effect (Katherine Nelson) with children being fearful to talk and express themselves for fear of getting it wrong, so it can affect a child’s confidence. The purpose of CDS may be social rather than educational, as it helps communication. Non-Western countries don’t use CDS and are less compromising with their language use.
    Writing an answerAgain, you can follow the linguistic frameworks and/or use them as a sort of check list as to what you’re looking for. I didn’t write my answer in framework sections for language acquisition but just went with what I had found in the text on a random basis, as its not as easy to do with this.
    What to include: Analysis of dataInformed speculation about child’s stage of developmentEvaluation of what child is learning in the dataConnections with theoretical approachesLinguistic terminology to describe word classes and grammatical constructions – be preciseAnalyse and Conclusions

    Introduction – write a general overview – explain what’s going on – state your line of argument that can be developed, what you expect to find,
    Grammar – pronouns, holophrases (single word utterances), verbs, nouns, tenses, saying ‘no’, asking questions, morphemes, mean length utterances (MLU), what stage is the child at and what features of this stage are apparent, formation of plurals, function words,
    Lexical and Semantic Development – simple descriptive words, concrete/abstract nouns – stages of development – function words,
    CDS – synonyms, cognitive development, what is child learning, turn taking,
    Discourse, question and answer, narrative structures, turn taking, politeness – please and thank you, where do they learn this,
    Phonology – pronunciation, phonological mistakes,

    Pragmatic Development – functions of language, context, functions of child’s speech – John Dore, labelling, repeating, answering, requesting action, calling, greeting, protesting, practising,
    Thanks!
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    (Original post by PennyGirl)
    hey, sorry im pretty stuck on lang change but can try help on children's acquisition if you need any! Sorry, is your exam 14th june ?? as mine is 15th?? didn't realise they could do that
    No it's actually on the 15th, sorry about that made a mistake and can't seem to change it on the Mobile app and website doesn't let me log in
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    I usually write about Declaratives, Imperatives, Interrogatives and Exclamatory sentences, as their effects usually link in with what the question is asking.

    Things like Rhetorical questions or questions of some sort

    Field Specific Lexis

    Length of turn

    Monosyllabic words/Polysyllabic and so on

    Similes, Metaphors

    Idiolect

    And always start your essay with contextual information if applicable.

    Also mention Phatic, Transactional, Referential, Expressive or Interactional talk (which ever one it is)

    Basically make clear links between terminology and the effects it has, and how it helps the text achieve the thing you are being asked to discuss.
 
 
 
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