salz
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#21
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(Original post by cclose)
Id say increases the reaction time so better suiting survival chances of the organism.

Why would glucose in the urine result in the production of a larger volume of urine compared to when glucose isnt present?
when glucose is present in the urine, then the concentration is high and more water will be reabsorbed down the osmotic gradient, hence the volume of urine will be high...if glucose isn't present then the urine is less concentrated and less reabsorption of water occurs...i hope this is right!

okay .. why does the ventilation rate increase when the body temperature increase?
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Doji
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#22
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#22
(Original post by salz)
when glucose is present in the urine, then the concentration is high and more water will be reabsorbed down the osmotic gradient, hence the volume of urine will be high...if glucose isn't present then the urine is less concentrated and less reabsorption of water occurs...i hope this is right!

okay .. why does the ventilation rate increase when the body temperature increase?
Only Core Q's please :p:, some don't do option C, i do B :p:
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salz
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#23
opps..sorry..i forgot...

okay am gonna ask about something am weak in hoping that i'll get some useful answers..

explain the process of oxidative phosphorylation.
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cclose
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(Original post by Doji)
Umm because less glucose in the blood means, the blood has a lower solute potential, and so the collecting ducts have a higher solute potential, and water will enter the collecting ducts rather than be absorbed into the blood, hence more urine?

Hard question lol, please tell us the answer.
Close to what I thought- my answer to it was (derived from a mark scheme):
- more glucose in filtrate than blood therefore more negative water potential
- less water reabsorbed (this usually happens in the Proximal convoluted tubule i thought though)
- by osmosis

(only a three mark question but REALLY hoping these sort of questions dont come up in the exam on wednesday!)
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#25
(Original post by salz)
when glucose is present in the urine, then the concentration is high and more water will be reabsorbed down the osmotic gradient, hence the volume of urine will be high...if glucose isn't present then the urine is less concentrated and less reabsorption of water occurs...i hope this is right!

okay .. why does the ventilation rate increase when the body temperature increase?
I do C =D
im guessing...
-more need for blood to circulate to the skin so can be lost easily for homeostasis in the body
-therfore greater cardiac output required
-ventilation rate increases so an impulse sent to increase the heart rate?!?!
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M.A.H
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#26
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#26
(Original post by salz)
opps..sorry..i forgot...

okay am gonna ask about something am weak in hoping that i'll get some useful answers..

explain the process of oxidative phosphorylation.
Oxidatvie Phosphorylation is the synthesis of ATP from energy released by the electron transport chain
-Hydrogen atoms are released from the NADH+H+ and the FADH_2 splitting into H +ions and e-

-The electrons move along the electron chain(which is made up of electron carriers) losing some energy at each level.

-The energy lost is then used to pump the H+ into the space between the inner and out mitochondrial membranes (the intermembrnal space).

-Since the concentration of H+ ions are higher in the intermembrnal space than the matrix an electrochemical gradient exists

-The H+ ions diffuse back through the inner membrane down the gradient into the matrix though specific channels in the stalked particles on the cristae

-Driving the ATPsynthase (the enzyme supplies enegry for ADP to be made into ATP)

-The H+ and the electron recombine to form Hydrogen and combines with oxygen at the end to form water, the oxygen is the hydrogen acceptor.


How do the features of the proximal convuluted tubule of the kidney nephron maximise the rate of absoprtion of glucose?
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salz
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#27
(Original post by cclose)
I do C =D
im guessing...
-more need for blood to circulate to the skin so can be lost easily for homeostasis in the body
-therfore greater cardiac output required
-ventilation rate increases so an impulse sent to increase the heart rate?!?!
yeah that could possible be right!! i could always use my common sense but then something called 'marking scheme' scares me...
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salz
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#28
(Original post by M.A.H)
Oxidatvie Phosphorylation is the synthesis of ATP from energy released by the electron transport chain
-Hydrogen atoms are released from the NADH+H+ and the FADH_2 splitting into H +ions and e-

-The electrons move along the electron chain(which is made up of electron carriers) losing some energy at each level.

-The energy lost is then used to pump the H+ into the space between the inner and out mitochondrial membranes (the intermembrnal space).

-Since the concentration of H+ ions are higher in the intermembrnal space than the matrix an electrochemical gradient exists

-The H+ ions diffuse back through the inner membrane down the gradient into the matrix though specific channels in the stalked particles on the cristae

-Driving the ATPsynthase (the enzyme supplies enegry for ADP to be made into ATP)

-The H+ and the electron recombine to form Hydrogen and combines with oxygen at the end to form water, the oxygen is the hydrogen acceptor.


How do the features of the proximal convuluted tubule of the kidney nephron maximise the rate of absoprtion of glucose?
Much appreciated...that was extremely helpful

The proximal convoluted tubule has a brush border of tiny microvilli that increases the surface area for the absorption of glucose. It also has numerous mitochondira that supply the proximal convoluted tubule with enough energy to increase the rate of reabsorption of glucose (not sure about this point though.. hehe)
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salz
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#29
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#29
opps forgot the question

Why do cones give better vision aquity than rods?
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Nirvash
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#30
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#30
because each cone synapses with its own bipolar neurone while several rod cells synapse with just one bipolar neurone, giving rise to synaptic convergence.

Describe the process of anaerobic respiration in yeast cells
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zahra_89
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#31
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#31
glycolysis is the only process that takes place.
glucose is converted into pyruvate.
pyruvate is converted into ethanol.
only 2 ATP molecules are made (from glycolysis)

explain the role of myelin in nerve impulse transmission.
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UGetMeiii
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#32
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#32
Folds around the axon
Nodes of ranvier in 'gaps' throughout the myelin sheath
Its main 'role' though is that its conduction velocity is greater than in an unmyelinated axon, so nerve impulses are transmitted much quicker
well...not too sure about the answer i've given..not much more i could think of..


Describe the roles/functions of the cerebral hemispheres and also how are the two held together together? UGetMeiiiiiii
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Mos Def
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#33
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(Original post by UGetMeiii)
Folds around the axon
Nodes of ranvier in 'gaps' throughout the myelin sheath
Its main 'role' though is that its conduction velocity is greater than in an unmyelinated axon, so nerve impulses are transmitted much quicker
well...not too sure about the answer i've given..not much more i could think of..


Describe the roles/functions of the cerebral hemispheres and also how are the two held together together? UGetMeiiiiiii
...option C right?
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Excalibur
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(Original post by Mos Def)
...option C right?
No, that's the brain section of the core bit.

They're held together by a mass of nerves called the corpus callosum.

The cerebral hemispheres' functions:
- Receive impulses from sensory organs, e.g. eyes, for smell etc
- Control voluntary skeletal muscle movement (along with the cerebellum)
- Centre for mental activity like language, emotion, intelligence, memory.
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Mos Def
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(Original post by Excalibur)
No, that's the brain section of the core bit.

They're held together by a mass of nerves called the corpus callosum.

The cerebral hemispheres' functions:
- Receive impulses from sensory organs, e.g. eyes, for smell etc
- Control voluntary skeletal muscle movement (along with the cerebellum)
- Centre for mental activity like language, emotion, intelligence, memory.
Ahh right... Grey matter surronds White matter (my attempt).

Q: What is the use of dendrites in neurones?
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sozzberry
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#36
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They increase the surface area over which an impulse can be conducted.

Why must the blood glucose concentration be maintained within narrow limits?
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AIUK
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is it because extremes of high and low can lead to hypo and hyperglycemia which involve nausea etc and could lead to stroke... im not sure...

what is the function of the loop of henle and how does it achieve this?
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cclose
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#38
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(Original post by sozzberry)
They increase the surface area over which an impulse can be conducted.

Why must the blood glucose concentration be maintained within narrow limits?

Id say because it affects respiration and blood pressure and that extremes can lead to comas, feinting, kidney damage etc.

(Original post by skl)
what is the function of the loop of henle and how does it achieve this?
to make the urine more concentrated
-changes in the ionic concentrations by sodium diffusing out of the ascending limb and its impermeability to water draws water out of the descending limb by osmosis hence concentrating the urine.

Explain how the presence of ADH in the blood can change the urine concentration.
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NotoriousRB
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#39
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loop of henle - absorption of water...achieves this by ascendin limb bein permeable to na+ ions which pumped out lowers water potential outside the loop of henle (the innner medulla) hence.. water omsoses out of the decsendin limb which is permeable to water

give an account for lipd soluble and lipid insolube hormones how are they taken in and what do they do?
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NotoriousRB
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#40
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lol yo we posted at like the same time now whats gonna happen??

ADH

increase in water potential -> detected by osmoreceptors -> hypothalamus less ADH secreted -> DCT and collectin ducts LESS permeable to water = less water reabsorption hence more dilute urine
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