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    (Original post by Ro27)
    SELECTIVE REABSORPTION ALERT

    Na+/K+ ion pumps, actively pump Na+ ions into the blood capillaries
    Na+/glucose/amino acids diffuse into the cells lining the PCT by facilitated diffusion
    Water potential of the cells lining the PCT lowers, water moves, by osmosis, into the cells
    Glucose/amino acids go into the blood capillaries
    Water moves, by osmosis, into the blood capillaries

    ????

    Pleeease correct me if I'm wrong
    please correct me if i'm wrong, but i thought the cotransporter proteins for Na+/glucose were in the tubule wall, which is how selective reabsorption from the glomerular filtrate occurs in the proximal convoluted tubule. So they actually pump Na+ into the tubule? and then the glucose is moved into the blood by diffusion/helped by active transport?
    same for amino acids pretty much
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    (Original post by Crazydavy)
    Anyone know why synaptic convergence/divergence of nervous impulses might be important or used for?
    Synaptic convergence is ued by the brain. Many neuuronal systems can sent and inmpulse to the cerebrum of the brain, signalling danger.

    Synaptic divergence is used in the reflex arc and it allows the sensory neurone to send an impulse to the relay neurone, which then relays this impulse to the motor neurone, but the impulse can then be sent to the cerebellum of the brain.
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    (Original post by wilsea05)
    please correct me if i'm wrong, but i thought the cotransporter proteins for Na+/glucose were in the tubule wall, which is how selective reabsorption from the glomerular filtrate occurs in the proximal convoluted tubule. So they actually pump Na+ into the tubule? and then the glucose is moved into the blood by diffusion/helped by active transport?
    same for amino acids pretty much
    Yes, this is true. The co-transporter is used to bring glucose/amino acids into the tubule cells, with association of Na+ ions (via fascillitated diffusion.)

    Also dont forget that water then diffuses into the tubule cells due, via osmosis, due to the lower water potential in the cell. The water is then moved into the blood by diffusion osmosis.
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    (Original post by Summerdays)
    Yes, this is true. The co-transporter is used to bring glucose/amino acids into the tubule cells, with association of Na+ ions (via fascillitated diffusion.)

    Also dont forget that water then diffuses into the tubule cells due, via osmosis, due to the lower water potential in the cell. The water is then moved into the blood by diffusion.
    Can water enter anything by diffusion I thought it was osmosis?
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    (Original post by MoMatrix)
    Can water enter anything by diffusion I thought it was osmosis?
    LOL that's what I meant. Damn, I really need to go to sleep
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    (Original post by wilsea05)
    please correct me if i'm wrong, but i thought the cotransporter proteins for Na+/glucose were in the tubule wall, which is how selective reabsorption from the glomerular filtrate occurs in the proximal convoluted tubule. So they actually pump Na+ into the tubule? and then the glucose is moved into the blood by diffusion/helped by active transport?
    same for amino acids pretty much
    yeahh same thing except youre sayinn pct wall and im saying cells lining the pct. Na+ are pumped OUT though and DIFFUSE in?? or is that what you said lol.. my brain is dead
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    So nervous!
    what do you think will come up tommorw! ?
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    Could someone please explain the hairpin counter current mechanism in easy steps that we can remember. Thanks!
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    This is what i THINK will come up
    I have gone through the specification and the January 2010 and June 2010 F214 papers and found parts they haven't asked about yet. Note: these are parts of the specification that are remaining, it's a lot i know and too much to be asked in one exam so it'll be some of the following i tink:

    From Communication and Homeostasis:
    Definition of homeostasis
    What negative/positive feedback is
    Principles of homeostasis in terms of receptors/effectors
    Roles of sensory receptors
    Describing how resting potential is maintained
    Describing how action potential is transmitted (reference to voltage-gated ion channels)
    Outline significance of frequency of impulse transmission
    Role of neurotransmitters and role of synapes
    First messenger (Adrenaline) and second messenger (cAMP)
    How insulin is secreted in Beta-cells (reference to potassium/calcium channels)
    How insulin can be produced (using bacteria/from stem cells) advantages and disadvantages

    From Excretion:
    Definition of excretion
    Structure of Lobules
    Role of liver in detoxification
    Structure of a nephron
    Ultrafiltration
    Osmoreceptors/Counter current multiplier etc
    Problems from renal dialysis/transplant
    How to test for use of anabolic steroids (using gas chromatography)
    From Photosynthesis:
    Definition of autotroph/heterotroph
    State that light enegry is used during photosynthesis to produce complex organic molecules
    Explain how respiration in plants and animals depends upon the products of photosynthesis
    Define the term photosynthetic pigment
    Role of water in Light-dependent stage
    Limiting factors in photosynthesis (light intensity/CO2/temperature)
    How to investigate these factors experimentally
    From Respiration:
    Why we need to respire
    How structure of mitochondia enable them to carry out their functions
    Link reaction
    Process of chemiosmosis/oxidative phosphorylation
    Evidence for chemiosmosis
    Why no theoretical maximum yeild of ATP
    Definition of respiratory substrate



    I know it's a lot but basically i think we'll need to know a fair bit about action potentials/insulin secretion/countercurrent multiplier/ADH/fatty liver/the liver/chemiosmosis/oxidative phosphorylation


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    Anyone?
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    (Original post by LisaWilliams)
    This is what i THINK will come up
    I have gone through the specification and the January 2010 and June 2010 F214 papers and found parts they haven't asked about yet. Note: these are parts of the specification that are remaining, it's a lot i know and too much to be asked in one exam so it'll be some of the following i tink:

    From Communication and Homeostasis:
    Definition of homeostasis
    What negative/positive feedback is
    Principles of homeostasis in terms of receptors/effectors
    Roles of sensory receptors
    Describing how resting potential is maintained
    Describing how action potential is transmitted (reference to voltage-gated ion channels)
    Outline significance of frequency of impulse transmission
    Role of neurotransmitters and role of synapes
    First messenger (Adrenaline) and second messenger (cAMP)
    How insulin is secreted in Beta-cells (reference to potassium/calcium channels)
    How insulin can be produced (using bacteria/from stem cells) advantages and disadvantages

    From Excretion:
    Definition of excretion
    Structure of Lobules
    Role of liver in detoxification
    Structure of a nephron
    Ultrafiltration
    Osmoreceptors/Counter current multiplier etc
    Problems from renal dialysis/transplant
    How to test for use of anabolic steroids (using gas chromatography)
    From Photosynthesis:
    Definition of autotroph/heterotroph
    State that light enegry is used during photosynthesis to produce complex organic molecules
    Explain how respiration in plants and animals depends upon the products of photosynthesis
    Define the term photosynthetic pigment
    Role of water in Light-dependent stage
    Limiting factors in photosynthesis (light intensity/CO2/temperature)
    How to investigate these factors experimentally
    From Respiration:
    Why we need to respire
    How structure of mitochondia enable them to carry out their functions
    Link reaction
    Process of chemiosmosis/oxidative phosphorylation
    Evidence for chemiosmosis
    Why no theoretical maximum yeild of ATP
    Definition of respiratory substrate



    I know it's a lot but basically i think we'll need to know a fair bit about action potentials/insulin secretion/countercurrent multiplier/ADH/fatty liver/the liver/chemiosmosis/oxidative phosphorylation


    basically everything lol!
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    (Original post by Ro27)
    yeahh same thing except youre sayinn pct wall and im saying cells lining the pct. Na+ are pumped OUT though and DIFFUSE in?? or is that what you said lol.. my brain is dead
    arghh I hate this selective reabsorption :P

    So is this right i've added a few details to your points just to understand..

    Na+/K+ ion pumps, actively pump Na+ ions into the blood capillaries from cells lining PCT?

    Co-transporter brings glucose/AA with Na+ into the cells lining the PCT by facilitated diffusion

    Water potential of the cells lining the PCT lowers, water moves, by osmosis, into the cells from the PCT

    Glucose/amino acids go into the blood capillaries - by active transport?

    Water moves, by osmosis, into the blood capillaries
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    okay so how do i stop confusing photosynthesis and respiration together???
    and i JUST REALISED the amount of detail that we need to know! THIS.IS.NOT.GOOD.
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    (Original post by aimz08)
    arghh I hate this selective reabsorption :P

    So is this right i've added a few details to your points just to understand..

    Na+/K+ ion pumps, actively pump Na+ ions into the blood capillaries from cells lining PCT?

    Co-transporter brings glucose/AA with Na+ into the cells lining the PCT by facilitated diffusion

    Water potential of the cells lining the PCT lowers, water moves, by osmosis, into the cells from the PCT

    Glucose/amino acids go into the blood capillaries - by active transport?

    Water moves, by osmosis, into the blood capillaries
    yeah the Na+ are actively transported out of the cells lining PCT into the tissue fluid in the first instance

    Glucose/aa are initially removed by diffusion but as all of it cant be removed by it, to completely remove the glucose, active transport is used

    Hope this helps
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    Does the descending limb have a high water potential or a low water potential ? Because in the book it says "as the fuid in the tubule descends deeper into the medulla its water potential becomes lower..." does this means that it has a high water potential and then becomes lower? or already has a low water potential?
    Many thanks x
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    (Original post by aimz08)
    Glucose/amino acids go into the blood capillaries - by active transport?
    Thanks, I didn't know it was by active transport LOL!

    The rest is correct to the best of my knowledge.
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    (Original post by LisaWilliams)
    x
    Thanks a lot for making that list, it's much appreciated
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    I know this is probably a really silly question but is yeast a plant cell? If not do we have to know about anaerobic respiration in plants?
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    (Original post by Crazydavy)
    Anyone know why synaptic convergence/divergence of nervous impulses might be important or used for?
    Please tell me we don't seriously need to know that! This is the first time I've come across it (if its like a further knowledge thing please say so i know how much extra revision i have to do on something i wasnt taught :P)
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    (Original post by Ro27)
    Thanks, I didn't know it was by active transport LOL!

    The rest is correct to the best of my knowledge.
    It's actually both diffusion and active transport
 
 
 
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