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# OFFICIAL OCR A2 Biology - F214 Thread watch

1. (Original post by ibysaiyan)
Maths AQA, Bio OCR, physics WJEC T.T
Unfortunately WJEC is the most hardest of all boards when it coms to PHYSICS GRRRRRRRRRRRRRR RAWR.

I think WJEC is just hard over all, got psychology with them I was top 5 at college with my C last year. It was shocking. Although I'm sure a lot can be blamed on the teachers lol.

Anyway back to biology..!
2. (Original post by ibysaiyan)
basically our current module has:
4.1 SHM
4.2: 2 dimensional collisions.
4.3: Kinetic theory and 1st law of thermodynamics RAWR
4.4: Difference between electric and gravtational properties.
4.5: Circular orbits, Doppler shift, Black matter, Dark Energy, Keplers Law T.T
its on 28th .
i know, i want A* in physics and maths and only want an A for bio
im ganna cram so much revision as soon as bio is finished...striaght into the physics book.

shm pendulum- conical

kinetic theory - mean transisional energy:s
3. (Original post by Remarqable M)
have you checked the past papers that i posted on the physcis thread? more past paper questions than biology lol
early planning finally paid off for physics just need to do those questions then im set.
4. (Original post by Tinkerbelle ♥)
Control of heart rate:
1) The sinoatrial node (SAN) generates electical impulses that cause the cardiac muscles to contract

2) The rate at which the SAN fires (heart rate) is unconsciously controlled by the medulla in the brain

3) Animals need to alter their heart rate to respond to internal stimuli, e.g. to prevent fainting due to low blood pressure or to make sure the heart rate is high enough to supply the body with enough oxygen.

4) Stimuli are detected by pressure receptors and chemical receptors:
i) There are pressure receptors called baroreceptors in the aorta and the vena cava. They're stimulated by high and low blood
pressure.
ii) There are chemical receptors called chemoreceptors in the aorta, the carotid artery and the medulla. They moniter oxygen
level in the blood (and CO2 and pH, which are also indicators of oxygen)

5)Electrical impulses from receptors are sent to the medulla along sensory neurones. The medulla processes the information and sends impulses to the SAN along motor neurones.

E.G:
High blood pressure -- Baroreceptors detect -- impulses sent to medulla, which send impulses to vagus nerve, secretes acetylcholine*, which binds to receptors on SAN -- cardiac muscles are the 'effectors' -- the response is that the heart rate slows down to reduce blood pressure back to normal.

*Acetylcholine is secreted when there's high blood pressure or high blood O2, low CO2 or high pH levels.
*When theres is low blood pressure it's noradrenaline that's secreted. Noradrenaline also secreted when low blood O2, high CO2 or low pH levels are detected.
Stuff mentioned in the OCR book is: SAN, Parasympathetic nerve (vagus) and sympathetic nerve, what each does and what are its similarity with adrenaline.
5. What are the causes of type 1 and type 2 diabetes
6. (Original post by MadMaths)
http://www.thestudentroom.co.uk/show...1117260&page=8

post #145
7. (Original post by MadMaths)
i know, i want A* in physics and maths and only want an A for bio
im ganna cram so much revision as soon as bio is finished...striaght into the physics book.

shm pendulum- conical

kinetic theory - mean transisional energy:s
Hmm its OCR right?> i wonder if it would be of any use, is the spec same as yours?>
8. (Original post by Remarqable M)
http://www.thestudentroom.co.uk/show...1117260&page=8

post #145
thanks
9. (Original post by TX22)
What are the causes of type 1 and type 2 diabetes
We discussed it earlier, just hop a page or two back.
10. (Original post by ibysaiyan)
Hmm its OCR right?> i wonder if it would be of any use, is the spec same as yours?>
sort of similiar...no doppler effect, dark matter and stuff
11. (Original post by MadMaths)
sort of similiar...no doppler effect, dark matter and stuff
aww k
12. Aerobic Respiration (very brief) Outline

Glycolysis
-Occurs in the cytoplasm of cells
-2 ATP molecules

=Two Pyruvate molecules (3C)

-Matrix of the Mitochondria
-2 Carbon dioxide molecules

=two acetyl coenzyme A (2C)

Krebs cycle
-Matrix of mitochondria
-4 carbon dioxide
-2 ATP
-6 reduced NAD and 2 reduced FAD

Electron transport chain
-folded inner membrane of mitochondria (cristae)
[Hydrogen from reduced NAD and FAD is split into H+ ions and electrons
-Electrons lose energy that is used to power phosphorlylation of ADP to form ATP in chemiosmosis.

Oxidative phosphorlation = electron transport chain & chemiosmosis
13. Do we have to go into detail into how glucose is converted into glycogen by the liver? If so my hands will be tired from all that note taking
14. (Original post by ibysaiyan)
Stuff mentioned in the OCR book is: SAN, Parasympathetic nerve (vagus) and sympathetic nerve, what each does and what are its similarity with adrenaline.

I have another page of notes burried somewhere if only you could see where I'm sat. It's such a mess, paper everywhere loads of books open! I'll type up the other page a bit later
15. (Original post by CertifiedAngel)
Aerobic Respiration Outline

Glycolysis
-Occurs in the cytoplasm of cells
-2 ATP molecules

=Two Pyruvate molecules (3C)

-Matrix of the Mitochondria
-2 Carbon dioxide molecules

=two acetyl coenzyme A (2C)

Krebs cycle
-Matrix of mitochondria
-4 carbon dioxide
-2 ATP
-6 reduced NAD and 2 reduced FAD

Electron transport chain
-folded inner membrane of mitochondria (cristae)
[Hydrogen from reduced NAD and FAD is split into H+ ions and electrons
-Electrons lose energy that is used to power phosphorlylation of ADP to form ATP in chemiosmosis.

Oxidative phosphorlation = electron transport chain & chemiosmosis
Thanks
16. (Original post by Tinkerbelle ♥)
I have another page of notes burried somewhere if only you could see where I'm sat. It's such a mess, paper everywhere loads of books open! I'll type up the other page a bit later
HAHA , great. well i have 6 modules alone of maths, bless my mess xD
17. (Original post by Tinkerbelle ♥)
Control of heart rate:
1) The sinoatrial node (SAN) generates electical impulses that cause the cardiac muscles to contract

2) The rate at which the SAN fires (heart rate) is unconsciously controlled by the medulla in the brain

3) Animals need to alter their heart rate to respond to internal stimuli, e.g. to prevent fainting due to low blood pressure or to make sure the heart rate is high enough to supply the body with enough oxygen.

4) Stimuli are detected by pressure receptors and chemical receptors:
i) There are pressure receptors called baroreceptors in the aorta and the vena cava. They're stimulated by high and low blood
pressure.
ii) There are chemical receptors called chemoreceptors in the aorta, the carotid artery and the medulla. They moniter oxygen
level in the blood (and CO2 and pH, which are also indicators of oxygen)

5)Electrical impulses from receptors are sent to the medulla along sensory neurones. The medulla processes the information and sends impulses to the SAN along motor neurones.

E.G:
High blood pressure -- Baroreceptors detect -- impulses sent to medulla, which send impulses to vagus nerve, secretes acetylcholine*, which binds to receptors on SAN -- cardiac muscles are the 'effectors' -- the response is that the heart rate slows down to reduce blood pressure back to normal.

*Acetylcholine is secreted when there's high blood pressure or high blood O2, low CO2 or high pH levels.
*When theres is low blood pressure it's noradrenaline that's secreted. Noradrenaline also secreted when low blood O2, high CO2 or low pH levels are detected.
Thanx babe
18. remarquable m woow nice put together for the physics questions.....wooow niccee!! are they all from past papers put together???
19. (Original post by TX22)
What are the causes of type 1 and type 2 diabetes
Type 1 is hereditary. Causes = Unknown. The pancreas can not secrete insulin or adequate insulin. Also, white blood cells can attack Beta cells. No one knows why; (figure this out and you'll probably get a noble prize.)

Type 2 is environmental but recently, a gene has been found suggesting it is linked with genes, so can be argued to be both. Causes: Obesity and a poor diet. Affects the target cells of insulin. Which means insulin is still produced and secreted to target cells but target cells (the liver and others) does not respond adequately to it.
20. (Original post by madani191)
Do we have to go into detail into how glucose is converted into glycogen by the liver? If so my hands will be tired from all that note taking
yes, (Short summary)
we need to know that when there is too much glucose in the blood , Certain steps are taken by the beta- cells such as secretion of insulin.Insulin a polypeptide has target cells, adipose tissue cell and liver cell are few.Insulin binds into the receptors, presence of insulin causes GLUT4 a glucose tranpsorter protein to reach the plasma membrane from the cytoplasm, so that glucose could easily be taken in by the cells.
Other being the work of gluckinase enzyme which converts glucose into glycogen in the liver.

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