OCR Biology - Mammalian Physiology and Behaviour; June 2009 Watch

juicyfruit
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#421
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(Original post by hodgey90)
ok, classical conditioning has two stimuli. take pavlovs dog then, the stimuli of food itself leads to the response of salivating. the dog learns to associate the sound of a bell with food, so the stimulus of a bell leads to the salivation response.
so, two stimuli (food and a bell) now are associated with one response (salivation)

also, in operant conditioning you dont have the reward or punsihment at once, its one or the other i think
I'm really not sure, the mark schemes say that the difference between the two is that operant conditioning has two stimuli, whereas classical conditioning has one stimuli
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LadySmythe
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(Original post by juicyfruit)
Ok, well in the mouth it's always going to be salivary glands secreting Amylos to Maltose by Amylase. In the stomach you wouldn't have Amylose, but instead fatty acids to lipids (lipASE) and proteins to peptides (PEPsinogen). Those two are pretty straight forward, so it's the duodenum and ileum you should think of as having the most due to absorption being high. Think of the duodenum to have everything but mainly proteins; Amylose -> Maltose, Fatty acids and Glycerol -> Lipids, then all the proteins; proteins are turned to peptide bonds by either trypsinogen or chyrotrypsinogen which are both endopeptidases, then you have peptide bonds being further broken down to amino acids, and remember this as carboytrypsin. Remember the ileum to have mostly carbohydrate enzymes and the enzyme that converts them is similar to the product that is converted; maltose -> glucose (malTASE), sucrose to glucose and fructose (suCRASE) and lactose to glucose and galactose (lacTASE) and then you have an extra peptides converted to amino acids by peptidase.
Hope that helps
Thats brilliant thank you !!!

Right, off to do some bones
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LadySmythe
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(Original post by juicyfruit)
I'm really not sure, the mark schemes say that the difference between the two is that operant conditioning has two stimuli, whereas classical conditioning has one stimuli
Every single mark sche,e I've seen has said that (twice out of about 4/5 papers) so I'd go with this IMO
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Toiletpaper8
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By the way, didn't see me being quoted here yesterday. Answer is the tectorial membrane.

Good luck guys.
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LadySmythe
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I leave with a question for people to answer...

Describe the process of blood clotting.

Should be about 5/6 marks (I'm not sure as its not a past paper question, but could be)
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epicist
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no big questions on sarcomeres- neither on contraction nor how an AP stimulates the contraction i think - since theyve been covered consecutively in june 08 and then jan 09 as essay questions.

i reckon there'll be something big on movement at the elbow.

ie flexor muscles contract- brachialis (attached to scapula and radius) and bicep (humerus and ulna) contracts. arm pulled up towards the clavicle. tricep relaxed.

extensor muscle-tricep- attached to scapula, ulna and humerus. when this contracts the flexor muscle are relaxed and this causes the arms to extend.

extensor and flexor muscles work antagonistically- when one set contracts, the other relaxes. Tendons attach muscles to fibres.
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Toiletpaper8
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*yawn*

damaged blood vessel (1)
collagen fibres exposed (1)
activates platelets (1)
cascade effect of clotting factors I to X (1)
prothrombin to thrombin (1)
thrombin catalyses fibrinogen to fibrin (1)
fibrin forms an insoluble mesh (1)

Of course, there's an intrinsic and an extrinsic system... vitamin K is also involved etc etc but the mark scheme will probably go something like that.
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juicyfruit
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(Original post by Loz17)
I leave with a question for people to answer...

Describe the process of blood clotting.

Should be about 5/6 marks (I'm not sure as its not a past paper question, but could be)
Prothrombin is converted to Thrombin, which catalyses the reaction of Fibrinogen to Fibrin. Fibrin acts as a mesh to catch the blood platelets by clotting the blood. Thrombin also gets rid of an amino acid from Fibrinogen in the process.
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Ciaran
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(Original post by Loz17)
Every single mark sche,e I've seen has said that (twice out of about 4/5 papers) so I'd go with this IMO
no you've got it the wrong way round, operant has one stimulus, classical has a stimulus of meat powder and then a conditioned stimulus= the bell
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Toiletpaper8
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(Original post by Ciaran)
no you've got it the wrong way round, operant has one stimulus, classical has a stimulus of meat powder and then a conditioned stimulus= the bell
Agreed.
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juicyfruit
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Classical Conditioning had a conditioned stimulus - the bell being rung and an unconditioned stimulus salivation by food.... but Operant Conditioning has two stimuli for reward and punishment.
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Ciaran
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(Original post by Toiletpaper8)
Agreed.
could anyone go over metabolism by the liver please, i.e. carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism. cheers.. its the only thing i havent done yet
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Toiletpaper8
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(Original post by juicyfruit)
Classical Conditioning had a conditioned stimulus - the bell being rung and an unconditioned stimulus salivation by food.... but Operant Conditioning has two stimuli for reward and punishment.
No...

In operant conditioning, there is one stimuli and that's it. The reward/punishment isn't a stimuli.
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juicyfruit
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(Original post by Ciaran)
could anyone go over metabolism by the liver please, i.e. carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism. cheers.. its the only thing i havent done yet
Look back on the thread for my notes. x
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LadySmythe
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(Original post by Ciaran)
no you've got it the wrong way round, operant has one stimulus, classical has a stimulus of meat powder and then a conditioned stimulus= the bell
Thats it thank you

My god I have little hope

Can anyone please explain the differences in functioning of osteoclast and osteoblasts???
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juicyfruit
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(Original post by Toiletpaper8)
No...

In operant conditioning, there is one stimuli and that's it. The reward/punishment isn't a stimuli.
What's the stimuli then?
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LadySmythe
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(Original post by juicyfruit)
Prothrombin is converted to Thrombin, which catalyses the reaction of Fibrinogen to Fibrin. Fibrin acts as a mesh to catch the blood platelets by clotting the blood. Thrombin also gets rid of an amino acid from Fibrinogen in the process.
Correct, could mention the trigger for prothrombin activating the thrombin is the blood being exposed to collagen
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juicyfruit
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(Original post by Loz17)
Thats it thank you

My god I have little hope

Can anyone please explain the differences in functioning of osteoclast and osteoblasts???
Osteoblasts make bone, osteoclasts breakdown bone when there are new stresses.
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Toiletpaper8
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(Original post by juicyfruit)
What's the stimuli then?
Depends what the stituation is... it could be heat for example.
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juicyfruit
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(Original post by Loz17)
Correct, could mention the trigger for prothrombin activating the thrombin is the blood being exposed to collagen
Thanks, I'll remember to add that in
Ahhhhhhhhhh I'm scared
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