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    what are the core practicals for this unit?
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    (Original post by sarakosanovic)
    yes, the host cells burst = releasing the large number of new virus particles to invade other cells i dont think the lytic pathway has anything to do with t helper cells
    Yep
    My bad! I was thinking in terms of HIV - because HIV attacks T-helpers. Guess its time for me to stop revising
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    (Original post by HQazi)
    Yep
    My bad! I was thinking it in terms of HIV - because HIV attacks T-Helpers. Guess its time for me to stop revising
    awww no worries im going to stop too, its been a long day, gonna do some in the morning Good Luck
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    (Original post by C94)
    Lol same, I was more prepared in Jan then I am now. I really thought I got an A* in Jan, but I also got a C. I realized it was not the content, that prevented me getting the grade, but it was the exam technique.

    The examiners want perfect answers, they want us to be specific. I also noticed in mark schemes, they state the obvious, and that also gets you marks. There is not much we can do really.
    I completely agree...just dunno how to do it.. I need an A in this but could really do with an A* so i can afford to allow econ to be a B
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    (Original post by Brad0440)
    Kind of, what I'm doing is going through the specification and checking that I know everything on there. If I don't know it, I'll find past paper questions on that point and go through them, and if I still don't get it, going back to the text book. If you want, I have a grid with all of the specification points on and what past papers they appear in I can upload if you think it will be helpful?
    late reply, but YES PLEASE! that would be really helpful!
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    (Original post by sarakosanovic)
    awww no worries im going to stop too, its been a long day, gonna do some in the morning Good Luck
    Same It has been a long day
    Good luck to you too! Hope you get the grade you want
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    (Original post by C94)
    Lol same, I was more prepared in Jan then I am now. I really thought I got an A* in Jan, but I also got a C. I realized it was not the content, that prevented me getting the grade, but it was the exam technique.

    The examiners want perfect answers, they want us to be specific. I also noticed in mark schemes, they state the obvious, and that also gets you marks. There is not much we can do really.
    Wanna go through some classic answers..and what to put down for each topic so we hit all the marks in the amrk scheme i think that would really help the night before the exam?
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    anyone have the january13 papers?
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    can somebody summarise the brine shrimp practical please?
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    (Original post by Sravya)
    Wanna go through some classic answers..and what to put down for each topic so we hit all the marks in the amrk scheme i think that would really help the night before the exam?
    I'll Start:

    When one species becomes two species:

    1. reference to original population increasing in size and spreading into a wider diversity of {habitats / eq} ;
    2. reference to mutations ;
    3. leading to diversity in flowering times / eq ;
    4. (and) other plant features / eq ;
    5. reference to reproductive isolation ;
    6. restriction in gene flow / eq ;
    7. between extremes of population / eq ;
    8. reference to different environmental factors in each region ;
    9. each region has different selection pressures / eq ;
    10.idea of plants adapted to a region ;
    11. reference to survival and breeding ;
    12.reference to change in allele frequencies (over time) ;
    13.(leads to) differences between gene pools / eq ;
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    (Original post by Selym95)
    Yeah, thanks! The only thing I'm abit uncertain about is for which circumstances would we talk about the cell mediatiated or the humoral?
    Cell mediated would be when you've got infected cells, such as HIV virus etc, and humoral would be for a general invasion by pathogens involving macrophages and B cells as APCs
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    (Original post by HQazi)
    Same It has been a long day
    Good luck to you too! Hope you get the grade you want
    Yh, you too
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    (Original post by C94)
    I'll Start:

    When one species becomes two species:

    1. reference to original population increasing in size and spreading into a wider diversity of {habitats / eq} ;
    2. reference to mutations ;
    3. leading to diversity in flowering times / eq ;
    4. (and) other plant features / eq ;
    5. reference to reproductive isolation ;
    6. restriction in gene flow / eq ;
    7. between extremes of population / eq ;
    8. reference to different environmental factors in each region ;
    9. each region has different selection pressures / eq ;
    10.idea of plants adapted to a region ;
    11. reference to survival and breeding ;
    12.reference to change in allele frequencies (over time) ;
    13.(leads to) differences between gene pools / eq ;
    Thats really good!

    Light dependent stage of photosynthesis
    1. reference to {thylakoids / thylakoid
    (membranes)} ;
    2. in {granum / grana} ;
    3. (light energy) raises energy level of electrons
    / {chlorophyll / electrons}excited / eq ;
    4. electrons released from {chlorophyll
    /photosystem / eq} / eq ;
    5. reference to electron {carrier / eq} ;
    6. reference to series of {redox / oxidation &
    reduction / eq} reactions ;
    7. reference to energy level of electrons {falls /
    eq} ;
    8. reference to {synthesise ATP from ADP +P /
    phosphorylate ADP} ;
    9. reference to photophosphorylation ;
    10. reference to ATP {synthetase / synthase /
    ase} ;
    11. reference to {chemiosmosis / eq} ;
    12. idea of electrons from {photolysis / eq} used
    to replace those lost ;
    13. reference to involvement of {accessory
    pigments / named example} ;
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    can anyone please give the main points of how TB occurs? have a feeling it might come up tomorrow!
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    (Original post by amber109)
    late reply, but YES PLEASE! that would be really helpful!
    I've already posted it. I think that it's on page 18.


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    (Original post by himi-patel)
    its the response of the immune system which includes the b cell being activated,,m not going to the details.....the b cell gets activated by the t helper cell with the help if cytokines ,,,,,so the activated b cell differentiates to plasma cell wich produce antibodies,,,thats humoral...i think itz also called clonal selection,,,,
    Thank you! Good luck in the exam tomorrow everyone if I forget to say it in the morning!


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    (Original post by anisa_shah)
    can anyone please give the main points of how TB occurs? have a feeling it might come up tomorrow!
    Bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium Terbuculocis.
    Affects lungs
    Symptoms - persistent cough, bloody sputm, weight loss
    Transmitted though the air and spread in crowded areas
    Can be dormant in peoples lungs
    TB bacteria have thick waxy walls which are hard to break down. TB bacteria can supress T cells which reduce antibody production

    treatment is anitbiotics for a long period of time, 2 or more types of antibiotic

    Cant think of much more
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    The examiner can't assume knowledge so you do have to state the obvious. Also some questions are vague and you have to read around the question. That's the annoying thing compared to the other sciences.
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    can anyone describe transcription and translation in a 5 marks answer? I mess up and put too much detail whuch takes up too much time.

    Also translation as a 3 marks answer.
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    (Original post by raves)
    thank yoou
    They absorb IR reflected from the Earth's surface, trapping it and prevent it from escaping into space. This warms the Earth surface.
 
 
 
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