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    I've really underestimated this exam. I only need an 37/90 to get an A overall, but i don't even think i'll get that. I only started revising at 11 last night and have managed to only do the liver and nutrition. I'm just starting support and locomotion now. Nothing is sinking in at all! I have to hope that the topics i do revise come up.
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    will some one bullet point me an answer for bones as levers and also ananganostic muscles please, i really don't get it
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    • Bones as levers
    • Small pivot
    • Load is far away from bicep
    • Small bicep contraction provides a great force
    • Lifts Object
    • Antagonistic Muscles
    • Muscles work opposite to each other
    • Bicep and brachialis contract to lift the arm and elbow
    • These are flexor muscles
    • Tricep contracts to straighten the elbow or arm
    • Extensor muscles
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    (Original post by N.O.R.E.)
    • Bones as levers
    • Small pivot
    • Load is far away from bicep
    • Small bicep contraction provides a great force
    • Lifts Object
    • Antagonistic Muscles
    • Muscles work opposite to each other
    • Bicep and brachialis contract to lift the arm and elbow
    • These are flexor muscles
    • Tricep contracts to straighten the elbow or arm
    • Extensor muscles
    You're super, thanks! :yep:
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    thanks a lot, i've got a feeling it might be on today
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    (Original post by amy123c)
    thanks a lot, i've got a feeling it might be on today
    Alot of people are saying this, so I better get learning this I'n thinking! :woo:
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    i think the ear will come up and ruminant digestion

    ruminant digestion has never come up (besides one talking SPECIFICALLY on amino acid digestion in a ruminant) so this could be likely

    vertebrae too, the structure of lumbar and thoratic as an essay maybe? its just a theory but im making sure I know these inside out
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    is there a way to remember which bones a radius and an ulna...plus what the difference between meta tarsals/carpals and phalanges? I'm confused
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    (Original post by sukhy_uppal)
    is there a way to remember which bones a radius and an ulna...plus what the difference between meta tarsals/carpals and phalanges? I'm confused
    well the ulna is below the radius. so i just remember ulna = under
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    where do i find nick snowdons notes?
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    read my post, the first post on this page for the ulna radius thing

    carpels are the 5 bones which make up the wrist i think, similarly tarsals make up the ankle
    metacarpels are the first 5 bones of the finger and toes, the longer bones which are in the palm of your hand
    phalanges are the end bones of the finger

    just look at your hand. the metacarpals would be the bones which make up your palm, phalanges would be your actual fingers and carpals would be your wrist
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    (Original post by amy123c)
    will some one bullet point me an answer for bones as levers and also ananganostic muscles please, i really don't get it
    • Bicep is the flexor muscle, it is attached to the radius and scapula.
    • When the bicep contracts, the arm bends, hence it 'flexes' the arm.
    • The tricep is the extensor muscle, attached to the scapula, humerus and ulna.
    • When the tricep contracts, it extends the arm.
    • Skeletal muscle can only contract, therefore to move the arm, you need the combination of the tricep and bicep muscle - they work together (antagonistically) to position the arm in the correct place.


    Levers and pivots:
    • The elbow is the pivot. The arm rotates around the elbow. It is a synovial hinge joint.
    • The muscles are attached close to the pivot. The weight (in the hand) is far away from the pivot.
    • This means that the muscles need to provide much more force to lift an object (Moment = Force x Distance). It also means it does not need to move as far when lifting an object. (If you try pushing a door nearer a hinge, you need to push harder than if you were pushing at the handle)
    • The muscle only has to contract a short distance (sarcomeres can only shorten a finite distance) but provide a much stronger force - this requires more energy.
    • Some mammals have an extended ulna, which goes beyond the elbow. The humerus is attached to the end of the ulna and is slightly further away from the pivot. This means that the contraction of the tricep will provide a much stronger force at the hand (the moment is greater). This is useful in badgers, etc as they dig.
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    Too.Much.To.Remember.
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    guys there might be a long question on how the nervous system and hormones control digestion? i've never seen that
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    (Original post by N.O.R.E.)
    guys there might be a long question on how the nervous system and hormones control digestion? i've never seen that
    Sympathetic - fight or flight, nor adrenaline, non significant digestion so sphincters close, reducing peristalsis, less sceretion of saliva and gastic juices.
    Parasympathetic - rest and digest, ACh, sphincters open, more secretion of saliva and gastic juices, smooth muscle contracts, vagus nerve.
    The hormones, blood glucose by lipid metabolism in the liver, beta and alpha glucose to control levels.
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    (Original post by TheTallOne)
    • Bicep is the flexor muscle, it is attached to the radius and scapula.
    • When the bicep contracts, the arm bends, hence it 'flexes' the arm.
    • The tricep is the extensor muscle, attached to the scapula, humerus and ulna.
    • When the tricep contracts, it extends the arm.
    • Skeletal muscle can only contract, therefore to move the arm, you need the combination of the tricep and bicep muscle - they work together (antagonistically) to position the arm in the correct place.


    Levers and pivots:
    • The elbow is the pivot. The arm rotates around the elbow. It is a synovial hinge joint.
    • The muscles are attached close to the pivot. The weight (in the hand) is far away from the pivot.
    • This means that the muscles need to provide much more force to lift an object (Moment = Force x Distance). It also means it does not need to move as far when lifting an object. (If you try pushing a door nearer a hinge, you need to push harder than if you were pushing at the handle)
    • The muscle only has to contract a short distance (sarcomeres can only shorten a finite distance) but provide a much stronger force - this requires more energy.
    • Some mammals have an extended ulna, which goes beyond the elbow. The humerus is attached to the end of the ulna and is slightly further away from the pivot. This means that the contraction of the tricep will provide a much stronger force at the hand (the moment is greater). This is useful in badgers, etc as they dig.
    you're relating all that way too much to physics. we dont need to know stuff like moments = force x distance
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    Right, I've gone over every chapter, and don't feel anymore confident than I did this morning

    Any ideas of what to do for my last half hour of revision??
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    (Original post by juicyfruit)
    Sympathetic - fight or flight, nor adrenaline, non significant digestion so sphincters close, reducing peristalsis, less sceretion of saliva and gastic juices.
    Parasympathetic - rest and digest, ACh, sphincters open, more secretion of saliva and gastic juices, smooth muscle contracts, vagus nerve.
    The hormones, blood glucose by lipid metabolism in the liver, beta and alpha glucose to control levels.
    i was referring more to the CCK, secretin and gastrin (impulse from vagus nerve) but i guess what you wrote could be valid, minus the blood glucose maybe?
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    Good Luck!!! Im Off
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    (Original post by N.O.R.E.)
    i think the ear will come up and ruminant digestion

    ruminant digestion has never come up (besides one talking SPECIFICALLY on amino acid digestion in a ruminant) so this could be likely

    vertebrae too, the structure of lumbar and thoratic as an essay maybe? its just a theory but im making sure I know these inside out
    What horrible essays if they have these:

    Ruminant digestion (hopefully the first part will be name a ruminant)
    Cow
    4 stomachs - in order: Rumen, Reticulum, Omasum, Abomasum
    Bacterium in rumen and reticulum produce cellulase and can digest cellulose into cellobiose and then glucose.
    Glucose can be undergo anabolism to form fatty acids, can be directly absorbed in the rumen. This also produces carbon dioxide and methane.
    Bacterium also use urea in cow's saliva to form proteins.
    After rumen, food regurgitated and chewed again (chewing the cud) before passing down into the reticulum.
    Bacterium are digested, along with any other food products, in the omasum and abomasum (abomasum most like the stomach in humans) by proteases, etc
    Passes into small intestine, amino acids, glucose, any remaining fatty acids absorbed here.
    Large intestine water absorption.

    Absorbed amino acids are deaminated and NH2 group reformed into urea. A nitrogen cycle in the cow is formed.

    Lumbar and thoracic - I doubt I could write a 6-8 mark essay on. Vertebrae on a whole maybe:
    7 cervical vertebrate
    12 thoracic
    5 lumbar
    5 sacrum
    4 coccyx, fused together
    Atlas vertebrate the first cervical, on top of axis, the second cervical. Atlas is up down motion of head, axis is side to side movement of head.

    Vertebrae have neural spine/canal, transverse and articular (both superior - top and inferior - bottom??) and centrum.
    Muscles attached to transverse processes of thoracic and lumbar - holds organs etc.
    Inter-vertebral discs are cartilage, allows small movement between individual vertebrae, overall the spine is flexible.

    Hmm...
 
 
 
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