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    (Original post by JustasB)
    Lichens are used to detect air pollution. The higher the number of lichens in an area, the less air pollution there is. In contrast to that, the lower the level of lichens in an area, the more polluted the area is. An example of an area with high numbers of lichens is a countryside (far away from a city). An example of an area with low numbers of lichens is a city.


    Describe what occurs when you step on a pin. (6 marks)
    The receptors in the skin detect the stimulus (Sharp pin on foot) and send an electrical impulse through the sensory neuron to the motor neuron via two synapses where electrical impulses are changed into chemicals that diffuse through the gap and back into an electrical impulse. They then are sent to the the feet muscles that contact and lift the foot upwards.
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    (Original post by Ajad)
    describe a modern cloning technique? (6 marks)
    Adult cell cloning - Firstly the nucleus of an unfertilised egg cell is removed and the nucleus from a body cell of another organism whose nucleus has been removed.
    The new cell is given an electric shock which causes the egg cell to divice and form an embryo. The embryo is genetically identical to the body cell. Once the embryo has developed into a ball of cells it is placed into the embryo of a host mother
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    Q: Compare Darwin's theory of "Natural Selection" with Lamarck's theory of "the inheritance of acquired characteristics" (6 marks)
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    (Original post by IsaacVB)
    Name hormones of the menstrual cycle and what they do (4 marks)
    FSH- made in the pituitary gland and matures the eggs in ovaries and stimulates ovaries to make oestrogen
    LH- made in the pituitary gland, releases mature eggs and highest round about day 14 of menstrual cycle
    Oestrogen- builds up the lining of the womb, ready for the egg to be fertilised, it also inhibits FSH production and causes the production of LH, it is also in the contraceptive pill along with progesterone

    What is Darwins theory of natural selection??
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    (Original post by Ajad)
    any
    Adult cell cloning involves using the skin cell from an organism and egg cells from a female organism. The egg cells nucleus is removed and is replaced with the nucleus of the skin cell via an electric shock. This stimulates the fertilized zygote to divide and produce an embryo which is implanted into a surrogate mother,
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    (Original post by AmirahxRashid)
    FSH- made in the pituitary gland and matures the eggs in ovaries and stimulates ovaries to make oestrogen
    LH- made in the pituitary gland, releases mature eggs and highest round about day 14 of menstrual cycle
    Oestrogen- builds up the lining of the womb, ready for the egg to be fertilised, it also inhibits FSH production and causes the production of LH, it is also in the contraceptive pill along with progesterone

    What is Darwins theory of natural selection??
    Darwin stated that organism evolve by natural selection. Organism with better inherited features survive and mate, they pass on the genes to the next generation which produced organism that are better adapted to climates and habitats.
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    (Original post by AmirahxRashid)
    FSH- made in the pituitary gland and matures the eggs in ovaries and stimulates ovaries to make oestrogen
    LH- made in the pituitary gland, releases mature eggs and highest round about day 14 of menstrual cycle
    Oestrogen- builds up the lining of the womb, ready for the egg to be fertilised, it also inhibits FSH production and causes the production of LH, it is also in the contraceptive pill along with progesterone

    What is Darwins theory of natural selection??
    He believed only the best adapted species in an environment survived and the least adapted died. These better adapted species then pass on their genes to their offspring which leads to evolution of the species
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    (Original post by AmirahxRashid)
    FSH- made in the pituitary gland and matures the eggs in ovaries and stimulates ovaries to make oestrogen
    LH- made in the pituitary gland, releases mature eggs and highest round about day 14 of menstrual cycle
    Oestrogen- builds up the lining of the womb, ready for the egg to be fertilised, it also inhibits FSH production and causes the production of LH, it is also in the contraceptive pill along with progesterone

    What is Darwins theory of natural selection??
    There si variation in the population due to mutations in the genes of individuals. Some of these mutations cause individuals to have certain characteristics that makes them better suited to the environment. These individuals are more likely to survive and reproduce and pass on their beneficial characteristics. Over many years, most of the species will have this characteristic that helped them survive.
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    Why do organism of same species have variation? Refer to environmental and genetic variation.
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    (Original post by dhruvap)
    Why do organism of same species have variation? Refer to environmental and genetic variation.
    I honestly don't knw
    what is it???
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    (Original post by AmirahxRashid)
    I honestly don't knw
    what is it???
    Genetic - chromosomes from both parents are passed onto the offspring which shows variation in the offspring
    environmental - things like amount of food, exercise, amount of sunlight (changing hair/ eye colour)
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    (Original post by IsaacVB)
    Name hormones of the menstrual cycle and what they do (4 marks)
    FSH - matures the egg simulates LH and is produced in the pituary gland

    ostergroen is produced in the ovaries and thickens the lining of the womb in also inhibits fsh
    LH releases the egg and is produced in the pituary gland
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    (Original post by IAmAnTroll)
    Genetic - chromosomes from both parents are passed onto the offspring which shows variation in the offspring
    environmental - things like amount of food, exercise, amount of sunlight (changing hair/ eye colour)
    Thank you
    Question, How is insulin genetically engineered??
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    (Original post by AmirahxRashid)
    I honestly don't knw
    what is it???
    All organism have similar features that are inherited by their parents, they are inherited during the fusion of sex cells to produce a slightly varied organism from parents. (Genetic variation) For example a child may have the same colour of eyes as father but may inherit disorders from the mother with dominant genes.

    Characteristics can also be influenced by the environment, for example in plants having low sunlight can make the plant's leaves turn yellow. In humans factors such as body mass and height can also be a result of environmental influences.
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    (Original post by AmirahxRashid)
    Thank you
    Question, How is insulin genetically engineered??
    An organism is given the insulin production gene via genetic engineering, it is done using an enzyme and allows the organism to produce insulin which can be later collected.
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    Describe how hormones can be used to increase fertility (4).
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    (Original post by Fractite)
    Describe how hormones can be used to increase fertility (4).
    The main hormones used to increase fertility are FSH and Lh, they are inserted into the women to stimulate the release of and egg after maturing it (Function of FSH and LH). (Can't think of any other points... would this be a four marker?)
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    (Original post by Fractite)
    Describe how hormones can be used to increase fertility (4).
    FSH is given to mature the egg
    LH is given to release the egg

    Q: Discuss the issues surrounding contraceptive pills (advs + disadvs) 5 marks
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    (Original post by dhruvap)
    The main hormones used to increase fertility are FSH and Lh, they are inserted into the women to stimulate the release of and egg after maturing it (Function of FSH and LH). (Can't think of any other points... would this be a four marker?)
    I think it'd be a 2 marks, but if they were super generous four.
    They could give 2 marks for mentioning fsh + lh
    and 2 marks for describing what they do e.e
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    (Original post by IAmAnTroll)
    FSH is given to mature the egg
    LH is given to release the egg

    Q: Discuss the issues surrounding contraceptive pills (advs + disadvs) 5 marks
    Advantages:
    -Reduce unwanted pregnancy
    -Reduced risk of getting Cancer (not sure think i read it somewhere)
    -It is also very effective at being successful

    Disadvantages:
    -Opposed by religions
    -Not 100% effective (Slim chance)
    -There are possible side affects
    -Misconception that it protects against STDs
 
 
 
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