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    (Original post by rebirth61213)
    Ooh. Thanks for asking this one; most of my class struggled to define this (including myself), so it's imperative that everyone here is clear on this term, judging by the confusion that occurred in my set. I'll give it my best... (there's nothing in my textbook and there are very few accessible definitions on the web, but I have discussed this term w/ my teacher, so here goes...)

    Policy communities are one of the two main types of policy network, which is defined as a collaborative group of governmental officials and non-governmental actors with shared interests working together to formulate policy in a particular field. The other type of policy network are issue networks. Policy communities tend to be less inclusive than issue networks as the former tends to only include ministers and leaders of influential insider pressure groups whilst the latter (issue networks) tend to contain a broader range of specialists (e.g. academics, periphery insider groups and potentially outsider groups provided that they are not outsiders by necessity or ideological outsiders). Due to increased media scrutiny (i.e. an increase in the demand for transparency) and the rise of social media which enhances communications between large groups of differing stakeholders, policy communities have been displaced by their more inclusive and informal counterparts; an example of part of an issue network is the National Farmer's Union and the Royal Society for the Protection of Bird's warnings to the government about the potential damage to the environment caused by the construction of HS2. Their contributions - alongside contributions from economists, pro-HS2 pressure groups etc. - will aid the government in implementing the project at the lowest social cost.

    [I think I rambled a bit with this one, but I'm trying to make sure everyone here is clear with this term].

    Next question: Explain the term 'patronage' as used in the extract*** (in the context of the the House of Lords).***

    ***I put at the end "as used in the extract" and the bit in brackets because apparently someone last year got 2 marks for describing the use of patronage in the Commons (when the extract was solely on the Lords). I'm pointing this out b/c some of my friends - including myself until a few weeks ago - didn't know this (i.e. that the the answer needs to be in the right context; I always assumed that you can just ignore the extract for the 5 marker). So, don't fall this trap on Monday/Thursday!
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    Is your first response for pressure groups?? I don't think this comes up in parliament/constitution- the ones I'm doing
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    [QUOTE=BirdIsWord;65305287]I'd rather do 10 markers I haven't learnt my 5 markers yet [/QUOTE

    Identify two reasons why there is no longer a two party system (10 marks)
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    (Original post by BirdIsWord)
    I'd rather do 10 markers I haven't learnt my 5 markers yet
    Identify two reasons why there is no two party system in the UK. (10 marks)
    (My answer is this)
    Party dealignment is the cause of the decline in the UK's traditional party system as in the 1950's, 90% of voters would vote for the two main parties, Conservatives and Labour, whereas in 2010, only 65% of voters voted for Conservatives and Labour. This may be due to the rise of the "floating voter" (a voter who has little party identification and changes the political stance every so election depending on recency factors. This has decreased the number of voters who are associated to a party and has blurred the lines of class voting too.

    Additionally, the 2010 coalition government proved that the UK could adopt a multi party system (due to the hung parliament produced through the FPTP system) in Westminster with the Liberal democrats winning 23% of the vote share and 57 of the seats available, entering a coalition government with the Conservative party. But, also the 2015 general election result showed the steep rise of the SNP party who gained the 56/59 seats in Scotland, with 5% of the vote share, becoming the 2nd party in opposition in Westminster.
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    Explain the term 'Embourgeoisement'
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    (Original post by frossersmyth)
    Explain the term 'Embourgeoisement'
    It's basically just when working class people move to the middle class and develop middle class values and tastes and stuff. Tried to make this definition as basic as possible so you could actually get a proper understanding of it because all definitions on the internet are so complicated! Do you have aqa politics next week?? I do and I think I'm doing participation and voting behaviour and electoral systems for unit 1 and then parliament and the core executive for unit 2. Do you have any predictions or anything? I'm so nervous!!
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    Could someone please comprise all the possible 5 mark questions for AS 2?
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    (Original post by SlimShady96)
    This is the length of your 5 markers? This is more like a 10 marker, way way way too long for a 5 marker.
    Well if that is a 10 marker, I would have thought it would be too short? It doesn't matter about the length really as long as you are able to do it ideally in 5 minutes so you have time for the ten and twenty five markers
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    Explain the term tactical voting [5 marks]
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    (Original post by zaraame16)
    Explain the term tactical voting [5 marks]
    Tactical voting is one big disadvantage to our current electoral system. This is essentially when the electorate/a voter chose to vote for the party that they may not necessarily support, but feel as though are more likely to win. Voters are often forced to do this because FPTP narrows down competition to the two largest parties - Labour and Conservatives - and is unfair to smaller/third parties such as Greens who find it more difficult to gather concentrated support, or benefit from 'Winner's Bonus' like the SNP do. However, in 1997 Tony Blair won by a landslide of 418 seats and 42% vote share, and this was not necessarily because he had garnered so much support - but because people had decided to vote Labour to get rid of the Conservatives who had been in power for a little over 18 years! Similarly, in run-up to the 2017 GE, Tactical2017 was a website that was set up to guide people how to vote in order to get rid of the Conservatives in their local constituency! Tactical voting undermines a government's mandate significantly, as it is often difficult to distinguish between supporters and people who voted in a certain way because they felt as though they had to.




    Define 'informal participation' 5 marks
 
 
 
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