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    I was doing January 2011 and I didn't understand this question at all... "why is the second ionisation energy of rubidium larger than the second ionisation energy of strontium?" could someone answer this for me?? ))
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    (Original post by Ché.)
    Oxygen would obtain a lower ionisation energy as:
    - It has a same identical atomic radius.
    - The amount of electrons differ by one meaning that Oxygen will be able to remove that one easier!
    - this complies with a reduction in nuclear attraction.
    - Electron shielding wouldn't affect their energies in this context due them being in the same period!

    ACROSS A PERIOD:
    Ionisation would decrease - from left to right that is (with reasons above)

    DOWN GROUPS:
    Ionisation would decrease also because:
    - The atomic radius increases down a group, increase susceptibility of electron removal.
    - Electron shielding is increases meaning the attraction would decrease as the outermost electrons are further away from the nucleus.



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    IONISATION ENERGY INCREASES ACROSS PERIODS!!!

    I checked, he wrote the question wrong. Oxygen has higher IE than Nitrogen LOL!
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    (Original post by RachHill)
    I was doing January 2011 and I didn't understand this question at all... "why is the second ionisation energy of rubidium larger than the second ionisation energy of strontium?" could someone answer this for me?? ))
    because rubiduium has one 1 electron in its outer shell, when it removes it and is on the to the 2nd ionisation energy its in a shell closer to the nucleus.. whereas strontiums 2nd electron is still in the outer shell..
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    (Original post by RachHill)
    I was doing January 2011 and I didn't understand this question at all... "why is the second ionisation energy of rubidium larger than the second ionisation energy of strontium?" could someone answer this for me?? ))
    - same number of shells so same shielding
    - rubidium has lower atomic radius than strontium. Therefore small nuclear attraction experienced by the inner electrons.
    -Strontium has a higher nuclear charge than rubidium. The larger the nuclear charge, the greater the attractive force on the outer electrons.
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    (Original post by yasmin.mahfouz)
    Could someone quickly bullet point everything about permanent dipole-dipole forces? 😣


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    There is not too much on it...

    All you need to know is:
    - The most common example - HCl.
    The permanent dipoles arise from differences in electronegativities and they then attract to other permanent dipoles - continuation, etc.

    You might want to bear in mind that:
    - If you place an electrostatic ally charged rod next a polarised liquid, you'll witness a sort of indent on the water flow when hitting the rod.
    - This shows the dipoles' existence and NO MATTER WHAT CHARGE THE ROD HAS - either positive or negative - the charged particles will change position to attract!


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    (Original post by Freddy-Francis)
    - same number of shells so same shielding
    - rubidium has lower atomic radius than strontium. Therefore small nuclear attraction experienced by the inner electrons.
    -Strontium has a higher nuclear charge than rubidium. The larger the nuclear charge, the greater the attractive force on the outer electrons.

    no.
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    (Original post by Freddy-Francis)
    IONISATION ENERGY INCREASES ACROSS PERIODS!!!

    I checked, he wrote the question wrong. Oxygen has higher IE than Nitrogen LOL!
    Phew,

    Thanks!
    ..., Actually?
    Are you sure!?

    It seems right to be honest...


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    (Original post by narli)
    no.
    oh sorry.. What did i do wrong? :eek:
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    (Original post by Freddy-Francis)
    oh sorry.. What did i do wrong? :eek:
    you need to think about what your writing, the questions asking you why RUBIDIUM has an higher 2nd ionisation energy than stronium, not visa versa..
    things like stronium has a higher nuclear charge etc doesnt explain the question
    x
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    (Original post by Freddy-Francis)
    oh sorry.. What did i do wrong? :eek:
    I think you was describing the first part to that question for that paper...
    The first ionisation fits perfectly with your response but obviously the second is different in this case!


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    (Original post by Ché.)
    Phew,

    Thanks!
    ..., Actually?
    Are you sure!?

    It seems right to be honest...


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    oops..
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    (Original post by Freddy-Francis)
    oops..
    I mean... The question is logical, you see?
    Yeah... More electrons surely mean easier release?


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    (Original post by narli)
    you need to think about what your writing, the questions asking you why RUBIDIUM has an higher 2nd ionisation energy than stronium, not visa versa..
    things like stronium has a higher nuclear charge etc doesnt explain the question
    x
    oh ok.. Thankyou very very much..
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    Thank you!!! Also this question... "suggest why ice has a higher melting point than solid ammonia"
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    Why wouldn't the ionisation energy increase across a period, there is a higher nuclear charge, similar forces of shielding and the atomic radius decreases, therefore more energy is required to remove an electron the further across the period you go.


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    (Original post by RachHill)
    Thank you!!! Also this question... "suggest why ice has a higher melting point than solid ammonia"
    Stronger hydrogen bonds as oxygen has 2 lone pairs whereas nitrogen only have 1 in ammonia, also oxygen is more electronegative than nitrogen.


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    Why is the first ionisation energy of O less than N?

    Answer: N has a single electron in each P orbital, whereas O has a pair of electrons in a P orbital
    The pairing leeds to replulsion/or is of a higher energy level so less energy needed to remove electrons

    Why is the first ionisation energy of B smaller than Be?
    Answer: Because B involves removing an electron from a P orbital which is of a higher energy level than Be so less energy is needed to remove the electrons
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    (Original post by RachHill)
    Thank you!!! Also this question... "suggest why ice has a higher melting point than solid ammonia"
    SOlid ammonia has weak hyderogen bonds. small amount of energy is needed to break the bonds. so low melting point.

    Ice has hydrogen bonding. It has an open lattice with hydrogen bonds holding the molecules apart. More energgy is needed to break the bonds.

    Correct me if i am wrong please so i can improve
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    (Original post by RachHill)
    Thank you!!! Also this question... "suggest why ice has a higher melting point than solid ammonia"
    DIFFERENCES:
    - Nitrogen in Ammonia form have one lone pair and thus having the ability to make one hydrogen bond per molecule.
    - Water has two lone pairs and thus having the ability to make two hydrogen bonds per molecule.
    - More hydrogen bonds - stronger, intermolecular attraction and thus will requiring higher energies to break down the lattice!


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    (Original post by Ché.)
    DIFFERENCES:
    - Nitrogen in Ammonia form have one lone pair and thus having the ability to make one hydrogen bond per molecule.
    - Water has two lone pairs and thus having the ability to make two hydrogen bonds per molecule.
    - More hydrogen bonds - stronger, intermolecular attraction and thus will requiring higher energies to break down the lattice!


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    ahhhhh thank you!!!!
 
 
 
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