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    (Original post by IRoranth)
    They're both description based questions- no need to explain too much- with the features one make sure you get all features in, with the define one, make sure you're expanding on your definition and adding an example (also add an example in the features question- e.g. outline the features of direct democracy: direct, unmediated and continuous, expand on these points, add an ancient example (e.g. Athens) then add a modern example (e.g. referendums).
    So, yeah, they are essentially the same, but take the word features into account when writing

    hope i helped
    You certainly did help, cheers mate.
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    (Original post by romaiseb)
    Guys what could be some points for how the government is an elected dictatorship? This won't come up as a question on its own of course but I was wondering how I could elaborate this point when it comes to a question on how democratic the UK is.
    I'd imagine Blair's landslide victories in general elections are examples of elective dictatorship, because a large majority in parliament would mean legislation would be ineffectively scrutinised by the opposition, legislation would pass easily and govt. domination on select committees? What do you think?
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    (Original post by romaiseb)
    Haha I literally just asked that question to my politics group chat!! No they're not, they're more movements rather than pressure groups, seeing as they don't really exert influence on the government.
    Thank you! I always get so confused 😂

    For are pressure groups becoming more important, could you say:
    1) Due to conservative govt cutting stuff, pressure groups are standing up against it -> i.e. Anti-Austerity movement, or BMA striking against changes to their contract

    2) Due to multi-cultural, educated Britain, means that people turn to pressure groups more as they feel they represent issues they feel passionate about -> National Trust -> also increasing awareness around social issues such as environment/discrimination meant rise of pressure groups like Stonewall

    3) Increase in numbers -> due to increase in numbers it means pressure groups are more easily able to scrutinise government, hold them to account and influence the legislative process -> RAC and Automobile Association put a petition up against introduction of road pricing (1million signed) which govt listened to (I don't have another example more recently, this was 2007)

    However:
    1) Fall of corporatism -> fall in membership of trade unions -> not included in legislative process as much anymore -> shown as the cuts in austerity have been allowed

    2)Although members increased, govt been able to resist large pressure groups -> Stop the War, tuition fees etc

    Any suggestions/amendments would be greatly appreciated, thanks
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    (Original post by IRoranth)
    I'd imagine Blair's landslide victories in general elections are examples of elective dictatorship, because a large majority in parliament would mean legislation would be ineffectively scrutinised by the opposition, legislation would pass easily and govt. domination on select committees? What do you think?
    Yeah that's a good point, thank you! Now that you mention Blair, you could also argue that another example of an elected dictatorship can be seen through the fact that Blair went ahead with the Iraq invasion in 2003 despite large public disapproval.
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    If someone could mark my past paper attempt I would be grateful! I did the January 2009 paper Edexcel, and just did the a/b/c questions on Democracy and Participation. I wrote it by hand and then typed it all up lol, it's below! Thanks for whoever does it!



    WHAT ARE THE MAIN FEATURES OF A REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY? (5)

    The main features of a representative democracy involve the people having elected representatives that will make political decisions for them. In the UK, this happens during a General Election when the electorate provides a mandate when a party wins a majority of in government.

    Another feature is that the people have representatives that communicate and defend their views and interests in Parliament. The job of MPs is to carry out this function by use of the MP- Constituency link. Examples of this is in parliamentary debates or Private Members' Bills.

    IN WHAT WAYS HAS POLITICAL PARTICIPATION DECLINED IN THE UK IM RECENT YEARS? (10)

    One way in which political participation could be seen as in decline in recent years is due to low turnouts at elections. For example, the 2015 election turnout was just 66.1%. This shows that members of the electorate are not participating in politics compared to turnouts in the past that have reached above 70%.

    A second way that political participation has declined in recent years is by 'voter fatigue'. The increasing use of referendums since 1997 may be leading to a growing disinterest among potential voters due to having to voter all the time. Evidence of this was the turnout for the referendum on whether certain cities should have elected mayors. The turnout varied between lows of 20-30%. This shows how political participation is in decline.

    Lastly, a third way is due to general political disengagement. A 2015 Audit on Political Engagement found that very few people were involved in many political activities at all including voting which, of those studied, constituted for just 18%. In this way, statistics and studies have produced evidence to show that political participation is in decline.

    EVALUATE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE VARIOUS WAYS IN WHICH PARTICIPATION AND DEMOCRACY CAN BE STRENGTHENED IN THE UK (25)

    There are a number of ways in which participation and democracy can be strengthened in the UK. However, their effectiveness is debatable.

    One way democracy can be enhanced is through electoral reform. This is because many argue that the current 'First Past The Post' system is unrepresentative and ignores minority parties (e.g. The Green Party won just 1 seat in Brighton in 2015 despite millions of votes). However, it can be argues that when reform proposals have been made, there has been little support. The 2011 AV referendum produced a strong rejection of the new system. However, it could be argued that the result was directed more at punishing the Liberal Democrats for abandoning manifesto promises, rather than a genuine lack of want for a new electoral system.

    Additionally, a way that participation can be strengthened is by introducing more participation in technology. For example, text voting and the use of online referendums. However, critics argue that there are significant security risks when using the Internet. Also, the rise of "clicktivism" may mean that we are reducing complex political issues to a simple click of a button. For example, the Scottish referendum on independence in 2014 would have wide implications depending on the results and 16-17 year olds were allowed to vote. If this were moved onto an online platform, arguably the turnout would have been lower (alienating potential elderly voters) and young people, who are seen as inexperienced, would have held the weight of the decision.

    Another way that democracy could be strengthened in the UK is through the increased use of referendums. They are seen as more of a direct form of democracy and can encourage voters to become more informed. However, some argue that the increased use of referendums since 1997 has not raised turnout levels at elections (66.1% in 2015) and referendums themselves. The recent referendum on whether certain cities should have elected mayors drew mere numbers that amounted to a 20-30% turnout. Additionally, it's argued that too many referendums could lead to 'voter fatigue'.

    Another way that participation could be strengthened is by introducing compulsory voting. This is the case in Australia, where fines have been known to reach 170 dollars for those who don't vote. However, critics argue that in a liberal democracy one should retain the right not to vote, especially if they are well-informed but disagree with all the parties and their policies. Additionally, forcing people to vote might lead to an increase in 'donkey voting' (random selection) or spoilt ballot papers.

    In conclusion, participation in the UK can e increased through the wider use of technology and the introduction of compulsory voting. However, security concerns and worries of the infringement of civil liberties damages the strengths of the arguments. Additionally, democracy could be strengthened in the UK by electoral reform or the wider use of referendums. But, in the same way, concerns over 'voter fatigue', low turnout levels and motives for voting may lead to the questioning of how influential these innovations would be.
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    (Original post by alevelpain)
    Bit random but does anyone have another example of a pressure group that's massive other than National Trust (and if possible the figures for membership)
    The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB). The membership of this group is greater than the membership of the Labour Party, Liberal Democrats and Conservatives combined and doubled!
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    (Original post by Louise12307)
    If someone could mark my past paper attempt I would be grateful! I did the January 2009 paper Edexcel, and just did the a/b/c questions on Democracy and Participation. I wrote it by hand and then typed it all up lol, it's below! Thanks for whoever does it!



    WHAT ARE THE MAIN FEATURES OF A REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY? (5)

    The main features of a representative democracy involve the people having elected representatives that will make political decisions for them. In the UK, this happens during a General Election when the electorate provides a mandate when a party wins a majority of in government.

    Another feature is that the people have representatives that communicate and defend their views and interests in Parliament. The job of MPs is to carry out this function by use of the MP- Constituency link. Examples of this is in parliamentary debates or Private Members' Bills.

    IN WHAT WAYS HAS POLITICAL PARTICIPATION DECLINED IN THE UK IM RECENT YEARS? (10)

    One way in which political participation could be seen as in decline in recent years is due to low turnouts at elections. For example, the 2015 election turnout was just 66.1%. This shows that members of the electorate are not participating in politics compared to turnouts in the past that have reached above 70%.

    A second way that political participation has declined in recent years is by 'voter fatigue'. The increasing use of referendums since 1997 may be leading to a growing disinterest among potential voters due to having to voter all the time. Evidence of this was the turnout for the referendum on whether certain cities should have elected mayors. The turnout varied between lows of 20-30%. This shows how political participation is in decline.

    Lastly, a third way is due to general political disengagement. A 2015 Audit on Political Engagement found that very few people were involved in many political activities at all including voting which, of those studied, constituted for just 18%. In this way, statistics and studies have produced evidence to show that political participation is in decline.

    EVALUATE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE VARIOUS WAYS IN WHICH PARTICIPATION AND DEMOCRACY CAN BE STRENGTHENED IN THE UK (25)

    There are a number of ways in which participation and democracy can be strengthened in the UK. However, their effectiveness is debatable.

    One way democracy can be enhanced is through electoral reform. This is because many argue that the current 'First Past The Post' system is unrepresentative and ignores minority parties (e.g. The Green Party won just 1 seat in Brighton in 2015 despite millions of votes). However, it can be argues that when reform proposals have been made, there has been little support. The 2011 AV referendum produced a strong rejection of the new system. However, it could be argued that the result was directed more at punishing the Liberal Democrats for abandoning manifesto promises, rather than a genuine lack of want for a new electoral system.

    Additionally, a way that participation can be strengthened is by introducing more participation in technology. For example, text voting and the use of online referendums. However, critics argue that there are significant security risks when using the Internet. Also, the rise of "clicktivism" may mean that we are reducing complex political issues to a simple click of a button. For example, the Scottish referendum on independence in 2014 would have wide implications depending on the results and 16-17 year olds were allowed to vote. If this were moved onto an online platform, arguably the turnout would have been lower (alienating potential elderly voters) and young people, who are seen as inexperienced, would have held the weight of the decision.

    Another way that democracy could be strengthened in the UK is through the increased use of referendums. They are seen as more of a direct form of democracy and can encourage voters to become more informed. However, some argue that the increased use of referendums since 1997 has not raised turnout levels at elections (66.1% in 2015) and referendums themselves. The recent referendum on whether certain cities should have elected mayors drew mere numbers that amounted to a 20-30% turnout. Additionally, it's argued that too many referendums could lead to 'voter fatigue'.

    Another way that participation could be strengthened is by introducing compulsory voting. This is the case in Australia, where fines have been known to reach 170 dollars for those who don't vote. However, critics argue that in a liberal democracy one should retain the right not to vote, especially if they are well-informed but disagree with all the parties and their policies. Additionally, forcing people to vote might lead to an increase in 'donkey voting' (random selection) or spoilt ballot papers.

    In conclusion, participation in the UK can e increased through the wider use of technology and the introduction of compulsory voting. However, security concerns and worries of the infringement of civil liberties damages the strengths of the arguments. Additionally, democracy could be strengthened in the UK by electoral reform or the wider use of referendums. But, in the same way, concerns over 'voter fatigue', low turnout levels and motives for voting may lead to the questioning of how influential these innovations would be.
    I'm not using the mark scheme for this but I personally think this would be at least 32/40, probably higher. Very solid set of answers overall.
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    (Original post by alevelpain)
    Thank you! I always get so confused 😂

    For are pressure groups becoming more important, could you say:
    1) Due to conservative govt cutting stuff, pressure groups are standing up against it -> i.e. Anti-Austerity movement, or BMA striking against changes to their contract

    2) Due to multi-cultural, educated Britain, means that people turn to pressure groups more as they feel they represent issues they feel passionate about -> National Trust -> also increasing awareness around social issues such as environment/discrimination meant rise of pressure groups like Stonewall

    3) Increase in numbers -> due to increase in numbers it means pressure groups are more easily able to scrutinise government, hold them to account and influence the legislative process -> RAC and Automobile Association put a petition up against introduction of road pricing (1million signed) which govt listened to (I don't have another example more recently, this was 2007)

    However:
    1) Fall of corporatism -> fall in membership of trade unions -> not included in legislative process as much anymore -> shown as the cuts in austerity have been allowed

    2)Although members increased, govt been able to resist large pressure groups -> Stop the War, tuition fees etc

    Any suggestions/amendments would be greatly appreciated, thanks
    Yeah those are great points! Personally I think they way you tackle this question is by covering: the success of their functions and how they're becoming more powerful - correct me if I'm wrong though.

    Here's some more points you could include:
    - PGs are more important as a lot more younger people, and those who aren't interested in conventional politics can join and have a say in political issues (seeing as in 2010 only 44% of young people voted in the General Election which shows how there may be a slow disinterest in politics, so younger people join PGs instead) - There's a rise in 'New Politics' (activism)
    - New methods they can use to allow people to participate (e.g. cyberactivism - e-petitions/Wikileaks)
    - Their sizes are growing (e.g. RSPB over a million members - more than all the main 3 political parties combined)
    - Depending on their status they can influence legislation (e.g. NFU is required by law to be consulted with on legislation regarding agriculture)
    - They have been successful in protecting the rights of minorities - e.g. Justice for Gurkhas = Gurkhas (who fought alongside the British in WW2) now have the right to live in the UK

    HOWEVER
    - Some people only join to be 'free riders' (just to benefit from the PG - e.g. joining the AA = car breakdown coverage)
    - PGs are argued to be elitist as it is mainly wealthy groups that have access to lobbying, etc, to achieve their aims

    Let me know what you think ^
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    Explain WHY the proportional electoral systems have been used more widely since 1997 ? can anyone help/ make a plan please
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    (Original post by romaiseb)
    Yeah those are great points! Personally I think they way you tackle this question is by covering: the success of their functions and how they're becoming more powerful - correct me if I'm wrong though.

    Here's some more points you could include:
    - PGs are more important as a lot more younger people, and those who aren't interested in conventional politics can join and have a say in political issues (seeing as in 2010 only 44% of young people voted in the General Election which shows how there may be a slow disinterest in politics, so younger people join PGs instead) - There's a rise in 'New Politics' (activism)
    - New methods they can use to allow people to participate (e.g. cyberactivism - e-petitions/Wikileaks)
    - Their sizes are growing (e.g. RSPB over a million members - more than all the main 3 political parties combined)
    - Depending on their status they can influence legislation (e.g. NFU is required by law to be consulted with on legislation regarding agriculture)
    - They have been successful in protecting the rights of minorities - e.g. Justice for Gurkhas = Gurkhas (who fought alongside the British in WW2) now have the right to live in the UK

    HOWEVER
    - Some people only join to be 'free riders' (just to benefit from the PG - e.g. joining the AA = car breakdown coverage)
    - PGs are argued to be elitist as it is mainly wealthy groups that have access to lobbying, etc, to achieve their aims

    Let me know what you think ^
    I like your points, thanks! I think how it's answered is down to interpretation (good thing about essay subjects). For me, it's are pressure groups becoming MORE important? I.e. what factors are enabling them to become more important, and how can you show these factors helping? So if you say rising membership, this has helped them rise in prominence because. Your way works too though, I just have a certain style of writing essays and it's too late to change me now
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    (Original post by AllanSmith22)
    Explain WHY the proportional electoral systems have been used more widely since 1997 ? can anyone help/ make a plan please
    25 marks or 10 marks? I remember seeing this as a 10 mark question so just wondering
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    Its a 10 but also seen something similar as a 25

    (Original post by alevelpain)
    25 marks or 10 marks? I remember seeing this as a 10 mark question so just wondering
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    (Original post by AllanSmith22)
    Its a 10 but also seen something similar as a 25
    New devolved authorities more legitimacy since proportional
    Blair needed support of citizens for it to pass the referendum -> dissatisfaction with FPTP
    Potential implementation in Westminster
    In Stormont, designed to create a power-sharing executive due to fractured nature of politics
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    (Original post by alevelpain)
    New devolved authorities more legitimacy since proportional
    Blair needed support of citizens for it to pass the referendum -> dissatisfaction with FPTP
    Potential implementation in Westminster
    In Stormont, designed to create a power-sharing executive due to fractured nature of politics
    if that comes up ill probably avoid it especially if something like that is 25
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    I do a plan and then an hour later i forget everything i wrote. I will probably do a lot better than i think it will. for unit 1 anyway
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    any positives of the Single Transferable Vote (STV) electoral system? I'm currently assessing all the electoral systems and can post the document if anyone would like it!
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    (Original post by MBenjamin)
    any positives of the Single Transferable Vote (STV) electoral system? I'm currently assessing all the electoral systems and can post the document if anyone would like it!
    More choice
    Fewer votes are wasted
    Highly represented as there are multiple representatives
    No safe seats
    No need for tactical voting
    Favours large parties
    Just to name a few


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    (Original post by mollyadtr)
    More choice
    Fewer votes are wasted
    Highly represented as there are multiple representatives
    No safe seats
    No need for tactical voting
    Favours large parties
    Just to name a few


    Posted from TSR Mobile
    Thanks!
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    (Original post by MBenjamin)
    Thanks!
    No problem!
    If the essay question was as vague as 'assess the advantages of pr' would you talk about specific pr systems as well as the general advantages and disadvantages do ya think?


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    (Original post by mollyadtr)
    No problem!
    If the essay question was as vague as 'assess the advantages of pr' would you talk about specific pr systems as well as the general advantages and disadvantages do ya think?


    Posted from TSR Mobile
    my teacher said to talk about specific ones in discussing your advantages and disadvantages
 
 
 
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