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    (Original post by Vengefulcandy)
    Probably wouldn't waste time talking about chloride, the other ions are more important and will get you 21 marks on spec
    Cholera is still part of spec so it would contribute to the 21 marks, then a paragraph on cystic fibrosis should get you the extra spec marks.
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    (Original post by mck9777)
    Cholera is still part of spec so it would contribute to the 21 marks, then a paragraph on cystic fibrosis should get you the extra spec marks.
    Do you know what extra spec stuff that could be mentioned in the essay?
    I want to prepare a few of it in case they come up:

    I was thinking of:
    1. Cystic fibrosis (the biology of it)
    2. Sickle Cell Anaemia (about the details of mutations and how it affect the haemoglobin)
    3. Kidneys (someone mentioned in the previous pages)
    4. Inhibitors in synapses (GABA, and other medicines)
    5.

    Anymore?
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    can someone explain ions in relation to cystic fibrosis?
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    Does anyone know the chances of someone having the same genetic fingerprint as you? As in the same core sequences, it will be useful if the essay is about DNA and I can go on about talking on the forensic side of it.
    I'm not too sure I think it was 1 in 15million people but google is giving me different figures
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    (Original post by DCMed96)
    Do you know what extra spec stuff that could be mentioned in the essay?
    I want to prepare a few of it in case they come up:

    I was thinking of:
    1. Cystic fibrosis (the biology of it)
    2. Sickle Cell Anaemia (about the details of mutations and how it affect the haemoglobin)
    3. Kidneys (someone mentioned in the previous pages)
    4. Inhibitors in synapses (GABA, and other medicines)
    5.

    Anymore?
    Rubisco, Nitrogenase, Keratin and Collagen, Ribozymes(splicing), :/ feel free to keep adding! Also it takes 15atp to fix each molecule of N2
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    (Original post by hiyaitsnikitaaa)
    can someone explain ions in relation to cystic fibrosis?
    Cystic fibrosis is caused by mutant recessive allele. 3 bases , (AAA) are missing caused by deletion. The Normal gene called cystic fibrosis trans-membrane conductance regular gene produces protein of 1480 amino acids. The mutant gene produces a non-functional protein; it is unable to perform its role of transporting chloride ions across epithelial membranes. Usually, chloride ions are pumped out of epithelial cells and water leaves by osmosis to the area of lower potential gradient. This keeps the mucus coating of the cells moist. In patients with cystic fibrosis, chloride ions are not actively transported, so water retains in the cell. This results in epithelial membranes being dry and the mucus produced remains viscous and sticky. This environment is a suitable place of bacteria to survive and this will cause the patient more susceptible to infection.
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    Me! Can you please share teacher predictions so I can get more practise in 😁 I need more essay practise. if you need more past paper questions make sure you're careful as a lot are out of spec... Read biology magazines from 6 months ago for out of spec stuff and new discoveries that were out at the time of writing the paper... Same for news. [http://vbio.weebly.com/aqa-unit-5-revision-pack.html
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    does someone have some out of spec knowledge if the essay was to do with Co2. i would greatly appreciate it
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    (Original post by Vengefulcandy)
    Nitrate ions
    Hydrogen ions
    Phosphate ions
    Sodium/potassium ions
    Calcium ions
    Iron (II) ions
    hydrogen carbonate ions (offspec)
    Can you explain what hydrogen carbonate does please?
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    can someone explain hydrogen carbonate and is chloride and inorganic ion/
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    could some one explain what i would write about Homeostasis:

    rennin-angiotension pathway and ADH
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    If anyones looking for more current spec questions all in one place:

    http://vbio.weebly.com/aqa-unit-5-revision-pack.html
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    (Original post by Ozy96)
    If anyones looking for more current spec questions all in one place:

    http://vbio.weebly.com/aqa-unit-5-revision-pack.html
    thankyoy
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    What topic do you guys think is likely to come up for the essay?
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    (Original post by Ozy96)
    If anyones looking for more current spec questions all in one place:

    http://vbio.weebly.com/aqa-unit-5-revision-pack.html
    do these questions contain questions from the old specification?
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    Is RNA double stranded or single stranded? Because mRNA and tRNA are both single stranded but siRNA is orginally double stranded RNA cut into smaller strands and then separated into single strands before combining with an enzyme etc. Just a bit confused.
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    Haemoglobin is the pigment in red blood cells thatcarries oxygen around the body. However, with the change ofjust one amino acid (a mutation) the haemoglobin molecules stick to each otherand form fibres inside the red blood cells. This makes the red blood cellchange into a sickle shape and so they become very inefficient at transportingoxygen. Theybecome rigid and thus get stuck in capillaries, blocking them. Oxygen cannotget to the cells of the body and it is possible for the affected person to die.���c�}a[o
    does this sound okay for an essay
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    (Original post by nualamurphy5)
    do these questions contain questions from the old specification?
    Well, it contains old spec questions that are relevant to the new spec.
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    (Original post by Ozy96)
    Well, it contains old spec questions that are relevant to the new spec.
    thats great thanks !!
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    (Original post by mck9777)
    Cholera is still part of spec so it would contribute to the 21 marks, then a paragraph on cystic fibrosis should get you the extra spec marks.
    I agree but i'd personally leave chloride ions to the end and if I've got time, i'd then add it in
 
 
 
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