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    (Original post by anniexoxo)
    Would describing beta blockers be ok instead
    Beta blockers are not a treatment for depression. Beta blockers bring about vasodilation, which is a treatment for other things - such as hypertension, heart attack, atherosclerosis etc... One potential side effect of beta blockers is depression. If you did mention it then you'd want to say that. It might collect marks if you stated that some medical treatments in medicine have side effects; some of which are depression; beta blockers - for example. You'd want to state that this is a weakness of the model. It's perhaps quite valid point to make, but I think there are easier ways to get the marks.
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    (Original post by HighPi)
    Well this is like asking what techniques will reduce cue dependent forgetting. I mean, we often forget things because we lack the contextual cues that were present when a memory was first encoded. Therefore, to improve context/state dependent memory we should try to study in the same conditions as those that will be present in the exam. As such, the exam conditions will best reflect the contextual cues that were present when you were revising, and the memories of what you were studying are more likely to come to the surface.

    So the best approach would be to ensure you revise at the same time of day as the exam (so you are in a similar frame of mind). The exam hall will be quiet, so try to be in a quiet environment. Sit at a desk (not in bed or on the sofa), as this is what you'll do in the exam. Have a drink of water with you (if you plan to have one in the exam).

    These are both good study techniques and good examples to give in response to such a question coming up. However, I'd be inclined to agree with your teacher that this is unlikely to come up. It's a very specific question and most students would find it inaccessible. But you never know, and better to be safe than sorry!
    Hi. This is going to sound really silly but for research evidence do we include this is the evaluation paragraph or within the main body of the essay. For practice, i have been including it in evaluation.
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    (Original post by HighPi)
    Well this is like asking what techniques will reduce cue dependent forgetting. I mean, we often forget things because we lack the contextual cues that were present when a memory was first encoded. Therefore, to improve context/state dependent memory we should try to study in the same conditions as those that will be present in the exam. As such, the exam conditions will best reflect the contextual cues that were present when you were revising, and the memories of what you were studying are more likely to come to the surface.

    So the best approach would be to ensure you revise at the same time of day as the exam (so you are in a similar frame of mind). The exam hall will be quiet, so try to be in a quiet environment. Sit at a desk (not in bed or on the sofa), as this is what you'll do in the exam. Have a drink of water with you (if you plan to have one in the exam).

    These are both good study techniques and good examples to give in response to such a question coming up. However, I'd be inclined to agree with your teacher that this is unlikely to come up. It's a very specific question and most students would find it inaccessible. But you never know, and better to be safe than sorry!
    Thanks. What type of chemotherapy treats depression?
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    (Original post by anniexoxo)
    Hi. This is going to sound really silly but for research evidence do we include this is the evaluation paragraph or within the main body of the essay. For practice, i have been including it in evaluation.
    Ideally if the essay flows nicely then there shouldn't need to be distinct paragraphs for KU and AE. You can bring up the research in the main part as you'll get KU marks for knowing about it (i.e. researcher and date, what it aimed to do and how it was done). For AE you can refer this to a particular argument/approach stating whether it supports it or not, along with some strengths and weaknesses - you don't need to wait until an "AE paragraph" later in your essay to do that.

    It basically doesn't really matter where you raise particular points in your essay, as long as they are relevant and it isn't totally fragmented beyond recognition. If your essay flows nicely and hits the points then it'll get top marks. If it doesn't flow well but still makes most of the key points then it'll still score well.
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    (Original post by HighPi)
    Well this is like asking what techniques will reduce cue dependent forgetting. I mean, we often forget things because we lack the contextual cues that were present when a memory was first encoded. Therefore, to improve context/state dependent memory we should try to study in the same conditions as those that will be present in the exam. As such, the exam conditions will best reflect the contextual cues that were present when you were revising, and the memories of what you were studying are more likely to come to the surface.

    So the best approach would be to ensure you revise at the same time of day as the exam (so you are in a similar frame of mind). The exam hall will be quiet, so try to be in a quiet environment. Sit at a desk (not in bed or on the sofa), as this is what you'll do in the exam. Have a drink of water with you (if you plan to have one in the exam).

    These are both good study techniques and good examples to give in response to such a question coming up. However, I'd be inclined to agree with your teacher that this is unlikely to come up. It's a very specific question and most students would find it inaccessible. But you never know, and better to be safe than sorry!
    Hi I have done the 2010, 2011 and 2012 pastpapers and currently doing the 2008 however the exam layout is different in 2008. My teacher told me to focus only in the last 3 years. Any suggestions in whether it would be useful to do 2008?

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    (Original post by anniexoxo)
    Any suggestions in whether it would be useful to do 2008?
    Well it would be more useful than doing nothing, but probably not more useful than going over your notes.
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    Thanks. Im finding it difficult trying to remember all the dates with the various theories and research evidence. Is anyone else having the same problem?

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    (Original post by HighPi)
    Ideally if the essay flows nicely then there shouldn't need to be distinct paragraphs for KU and AE. You can bring up the research in the main part as you'll get KU marks for knowing about it (i.e. researcher and date, what it aimed to do and how it was done). For AE you can refer this to a particular argument/approach stating whether it supports it or not, along with some strengths and weaknesses - you don't need to wait until an "AE paragraph" later in your essay to do that.

    It basically doesn't really matter where you raise particular points in your essay, as long as they are relevant and it isn't totally fragmented beyond recognition. If your essay flows nicely and hits the points then it'll get top marks. If it doesn't flow well but still makes most of the key points then it'll still score well.
    Sorry for KU , should you mention name, date aim and method is that all or should you include conclusion aswell.

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    What questions are we most likely to be asked about in the early socialisation topic?
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    (Original post by anniexoxo)
    Sorry for KU , should you mention name, date aim and method is that all or should you include conclusion aswell.
    A conclusion tends to score AE marks.
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    (Original post by SarahB3)
    What questions are we most likely to be asked about in the early socialisation topic?
    I think there's pretty much an equal chance of anything within the course to come up. I'd make sure you have some knowledge of and research relating to:

    - Bowlby's attachment theory
    Advocated monotropy. Suggested contact comfort is important and there there is a critical period of attachment. Could use Harlow (1959) to support importance of contact comfort over food.

    - Ainsworth's strange situation
    Ainsworth & Bell (1970); Secure, Insecure Avoidant and Insecure Resistent attachment types.

    - Behaviourist attachment theory
    Classical and operant conditionining. Emphasises food as reincorcer. Look at Harlow (1959) to argue against emphasis on food. Example of classical conditionining could be Watson & Raynor (1920); and for operant conditioning look at Pavlov (1927).

    - Effects of Deprivation/Privation
    Make distinction between the two. Look at Bowlby (1944) for deprivation and Curtiss (1977) for privation.

    - Day care
    Bowlby (1953) argues that it's bad for a child to be separated from PAF. Supported by Belsky & Rovine (1987). However, Shaffer (1996) suggests if it's quality day care then it can be good. Supported by Lamb (1998) who said "Quality day care from infancy clearly has positive effects on children's intellectual, verbal and cognitive development". Scarr (1998) points out that children from low income families more likely to experience poor quality day care.

    If you learn the above, you'll do very well in any early socialisation question.
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    (Original post by anniexoxo)
    Thanks. Im finding it difficult trying to remember all the dates with the various theories and research evidence. Is anyone else having the same problem?
    Unfortunately there's really no easy way of doing this except going over it many times. If you're struggling to remember lots then it might be worth your while focussing your memory on a few and just try to remember the names for the others. Sure you'll lose some marks, but it's better than trying to remember them all and actually remembering none of them.
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    (Original post by HighPi)
    I think there's pretty much an equal chance of anything within the course to come up. I'd make sure you have some knowledge of and research relating to:

    - Bowlby's attachment theory
    Advocated monotropy. Suggested contact comfort is important and there there is a critical period of attachment. Could use Harlow (1959) to support importance of contact comfort over food.

    - Ainsworth's strange situation
    Ainsworth & Bell (1970); Secure, Insecure Avoidant and Insecure Resistent attachment types.

    - Behaviourist attachment theory
    Classical and operant conditionining. Emphasises food as reincorcer. Look at Harlow (1959) to argue against emphasis on food. Example of classical conditionining could be Watson & Raynor (1920); and for operant conditioning look at Pavlov (1927).

    - Effects of Deprivation/Privation
    Make distinction between the two. Look at Bowlby (1944) for deprivation and Curtiss (1977) for privation.

    - Day care
    Bowlby (1953) argues that it's bad for a child to be separated from PAF. Supported by Belsky & Rovine (1987). However, Shaffer (1996) suggests if it's quality day care then it can be good. Supported by Lamb (1998) who said "Quality day care from infancy clearly has positive effects on children's intellectual, verbal and cognitive development". Scarr (1998) points out that children from low income families more likely to experience poor quality day care.

    If you learn the above, you'll do very well in any early socialisation question.

    could you give any tips what to revise in memory/stress/atypical or conformity and obedience?

    Also in conformity and obedience

    how you get your AE marks in strategies resisting social pressure/coercion. in conformity and obedience topic.

    I do have some strengths/weaknesses but cant say much to get AE
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    Thanks. Can you please tell me what you should include for KU? (in terms of name, date, aim etc)
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    (Original post by jazzymina)
    could you give any tips what to revise in memory/stress/atypical or conformity and obedience?

    Also in conformity and obedience

    how you get your AE marks in strategies resisting social pressure/coercion. in conformity and obedience topic.

    I do have some strengths/weaknesses but cant say much to get AE
    Conformity (if this comes up it'll be a 20 marker)Define it; yielding to real or imagined group pressure. The main types of social influence are:

    Informational social influence. In an ambiguous situation people are unsure of the answer so turn to others for guidance on how to respond. Results in internalisation (an enduring change of private beliefs). Research: Sherif (1935) - autokinetic effect.

    Normative social influence. People feel pressured (real or imagined) to adopt the group norm. Results in compliance (change in public behaviour/beliefs but maintaining own private beliefs). Research: Asch (1955) - lines experiment.

    Ingrational social influence. People want to please others and so conform to the ways they think others want them to be. Results in identification (conforming to the expectations of a particular role). Research: Zimbardo (1973) - the Stanford Prison Experiment

    The above explains majority influence. You might also want to touch on minority influence. This is where the minority exert influence over the majority and often convert them. As such it results in internalisation. A good example is the Sufragette movement. Research: Moscovici (1976) - different coloured slides experiment.

    State strengths and weaknesses of the above research to get AE marks.

    Obedience (if this comes up it'll be a 20 marker)

    Define it; yeilding to the demands of a figure of real or perceived authority.

    Various factors affect obedience levels, such as: buffers; legitimacy of the authority; a person's disposition (i.e. their moral compass; how smart they are; their personality); and others.

    Research: Milgram (1963) - Shock experiment; Hofling (1966) - Nurses experiment

    Suggest strengths and weaknesses of the research to score AE marks.

    Resisting Social Pressure/Coercion

    If the question is exclusively on this (and not simply an extension of one of the above), then define social pressure/coercion.

    Various factors affect whether people conform or obey, and as such resistence strategies can help to mitigate these factors.

    Questionining motives/legitimacy of authority. This helps a person re-align themselves with their own moral compass, increasing the likelihood of them establishing an autonomous state. If they simply act in an agentic state (i.e. as an agent of the authority figure), they are more likely to carry out their orders.

    A disobedient model. This applies to both conformity and obedience. If someone sees another person go against the group norm or refuse orders, it gives them moral support to do the same. For instance, a child in school who feels pressured to adopt the normative fashion trends is more likely to resist if someone else comes into school sporting something different. This was also evident in Milgram's study. Whenever a disobedient model was present the participant was more likely to resist.

    Attitude inoculation. This is like a psychological equivalent of a medical vaccination. The idea is to administer small doses of an argument in order to prepare the person for the bigger "real thing". For instance, if you teach a child good responses to the suggestion that smoking is cool, whenever they are in a group where this attitude predominates they will be much better equiped to argue against it and therefore resist it.

    Self esteem. People with higher self esteem are more likely to resist pressures because they are more confident in their own thoughts and beliefs. This is a dispositional factor.

    Reactance. This is almost like a deliberate over-reaction to something in order to emphasise protest against it. For instance, if the government outlawed the wearing of tartan, people - even those who would otherwise never wear tartan - would go out of their way to wear it as a form of protest against the limitation on their freedom.

    ***

    There are others that you could discuss. The above are just off the top of my head, but I think if you know them then you're doing well. Also worth mentioning that there are situational factors as well as dispositional ones, and both interact with each other in a complex way. Zimbardo (1973) argues that the situational factors are so powerful that they are often overwhelmining to almost anyone, irrespective of their disposition. He labels those who can resist such as "heroes". The analogy he gives for this is that it's not just a case of a bad apple in a barrel, but a bad barrel that can invariably turn a good apple bad. So the apples are the people and the barrel is the situation in this analogy.

    But not all conformity/obedience is bad. Quite the opposite in fact, to a large degree it's pretty much essential for our society to function. For example, if drivers didn't conform/obey and decided to drive up the wrong way on the motorway, they would put themself and others in extreme danger.

    Generally you'll get AE marks for points like this. But strengths and weaknesses of resistence strategies will also help. Compare them with each other will score AE as well. For instance, a disobedient model might increase people's resistence but this is still subject to people's disposition as to whether they will resist or not. Milgram's (1963) study suggests that some people - even in the presence of a disobedient model - will not resist the authority figure.

    Hope it helps.
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    (Original post by HighPi)
    Conformity (if this comes up it'll be a 20 marker)Define it; yielding to real or imagined group pressure. The main types of social influence are:

    Informational social influence. In an ambiguous situation people are unsure of the answer so turn to others for guidance on how to respond. Results in internalisation (an enduring change of private beliefs). Research: Sherif (1935) - autokinetic effect.

    Normative social influence. People feel pressured (real or imagined) to adopt the group norm. Results in compliance (change in public behaviour/beliefs but maintaining own private beliefs). Research: Asch (1955) - lines experiment.

    Ingrational social influence. People want to please others and so conform to the ways they think others want them to be. Results in identification (conforming to the expectations of a particular role). Research: Zimbardo (1973) - the Stanford Prison Experiment

    The above explains majority influence. You might also want to touch on minority influence. This is where the minority exert influence over the majority and often convert them. As such it results in internalisation. A good example is the Sufragette movement. Research: Moscovici (1976) - different coloured slides experiment.

    State strengths and weaknesses of the above research to get AE marks.

    Obedience (if this comes up it'll be a 20 marker)

    Define it; yeilding to the demands of a figure of real or perceived authority.

    Various factors affect obedience levels, such as: buffers; legitimacy of the authority; a person's disposition (i.e. their moral compass; how smart they are; their personality); and others.

    Research: Milgram (1963) - Shock experiment; Hofling (1966) - Nurses experiment

    Suggest strengths and weaknesses of the research to score AE marks.

    Resisting Social Pressure/Coercion

    If the question is exclusively on this (and not simply an extension of one of the above), then define social pressure/coercion.

    Various factors affect whether people conform or obey, and as such resistence strategies can help to mitigate these factors.

    Questionining motives/legitimacy of authority. This helps a person re-align themselves with their own moral compass, increasing the likelihood of them establishing an autonomous state. If they simply act in an agentic state (i.e. as an agent of the authority figure), they are more likely to carry out their orders.

    A disobedient model. This applies to both conformity and obedience. If someone sees another person go against the group norm or refuse orders, it gives them moral support to do the same. For instance, a child in school who feels pressured to adopt the normative fashion trends is more likely to resist if someone else comes into school sporting something different. This was also evident in Milgram's study. Whenever a disobedient model was present the participant was more likely to resist.

    Attitude inoculation. This is like a psychological equivalent of a medical vaccination. The idea is to administer small doses of an argument in order to prepare the person for the bigger "real thing". For instance, if you teach a child good responses to the suggestion that smoking is cool, whenever they are in a group where this attitude predominates they will be much better equiped to argue against it and therefore resist it.

    Self esteem. People with higher self esteem are more likely to resist pressures because they are more confident in their own thoughts and beliefs. This is a dispositional factor.

    Reactance. This is almost like a deliberate over-reaction to something in order to emphasise protest against it. For instance, if the government outlawed the wearing of tartan, people - even those who would otherwise never wear tartan - would go out of their way to wear it as a form of protest against the limitation on their freedom.

    ***

    There are others that you could discuss. The above are just off the top of my head, but I think if you know them then you're doing well. Also worth mentioning that there are situational factors as well as dispositional ones, and both interact with each other in a complex way. Zimbardo (1973) argues that the situational factors are so powerful that they are often overwhelmining to almost anyone, irrespective of their disposition. He labels those who can resist such as "heroes". The analogy he gives for this is that it's not just a case of a bad apple in a barrel, but a bad barrel that can invariably turn a good apple bad. So the apples are the people and the barrel is the situation in this analogy.

    But not all conformity/obedience is bad. Quite the opposite in fact, to a large degree it's pretty much essential for our society to function. For example, if drivers didn't conform/obey and decided to drive up the wrong way on the motorway, they would put themself and others in extreme danger.

    Generally you'll get AE marks for points like this. But strengths and weaknesses of resistence strategies will also help. Compare them with each other will score AE as well. For instance, a disobedient model might increase people's resistence but this is still subject to people's disposition as to whether they will resist or not. Milgram's (1963) study suggests that some people - even in the presence of a disobedient model - will not resist the authority figure.

    Hope it helps.
    Thanks so much
    yupyup massively so research evidence can also be ae?



    Also what are the chances of short term effects of stress on health coming up and erm psychological and social strategies to reduce stress.
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    (Original post by JessicaLee123)
    Thanks so much
    yupyup massively so research evidence can also be ae?
    KU could be defined as knowing stuff, whereas AE could be defined as knowing what that stuff means and/or how it compares to other stuff. It's all very well knowing that Milgram carried out a "shock" experiment in 1963 to measure obedience levels; but what do the results mean in terms of our understanding of obedience, and can we be sure that it measures what it's intending to measure? The ability to make observations based on the results of research and assess their validity is the critical analysis that earns AE marks.


    (Original post by JessicaLee123)
    Also what are the chances of short term effects of stress on health coming up and erm psychological and social strategies to reduce stress.
    I wouldn't like to give an estimate, only that there's a reasonable enough chance as to justify knowing at least a few things about it.
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    (Original post by HighPi)
    KU could be defined as knowing stuff, whereas AE could be defined as knowing what that stuff means and/or how it compares to other stuff. It's all very well knowing that Milgram carried out a "shock" experiment in 1963 to measure obedience levels; but what do the results mean in terms of our understanding of obedience, and can we be sure that it measures what it's intending to measure? The ability to make observations based on the results of research and assess their validity is the critical analysis that earns AE marks.




    I wouldn't like to give an estimate, only that there's a reasonable enough chance as to justify knowing at least a few things about it.
    Thank you so much. I am seriously finding this forum more helpful than what I have been taught all year.
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    (Original post by HighPi)
    KU could be defined as knowing stuff, whereas AE could be defined as knowing what that stuff means and/or how it compares to other stuff. It's all very well knowing that Milgram carried out a "shock" experiment in 1963 to measure obedience levels; but what do the results mean in terms of our understanding of obedience, and can we be sure that it measures what it's intending to measure? The ability to make observations based on the results of research and assess their validity is the critical analysis that earns AE marks.




    I wouldn't like to give an estimate, only that there's a reasonable enough chance as to justify knowing at least a few things about it.
    I am writing names of relevant research evidence with the dates alongside them on index cards to try and remember them. Is anyone else doing the same or have any relevant tips on how to remember them? :dontknow:

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    (Original post by HighPi)
    KU could be defined as knowing stuff, whereas AE could be defined as knowing what that stuff means and/or how it compares to other stuff. It's all very well knowing that Milgram carried out a "shock" experiment in 1963 to measure obedience levels; but what do the results mean in terms of our understanding of obedience, and can we be sure that it measures what it's intending to measure? The ability to make observations based on the results of research and assess their validity is the critical analysis that earns AE marks.




    I wouldn't like to give an estimate, only that there's a reasonable enough chance as to justify knowing at least a few things about it.


    How about case studies in research method?
 
 
 
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