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    (Original post by nicoledaysie)
    THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR THIS! I put Antibody and Lymphocyte for that protein table (don't know if i'm right though) and I wrote Carbon Dioxide for 3(b) - Is that right or did it have to be one of the 3 you mentioned?
    No Worries, Carbon Dioxide was Already mentioned in the question on the paper so i'm afraid you would have dropped a mark here.
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    (Original post by JackCollard)
    Will add the Corrections.

    Lots of you are asking for grade boundaries etc.

    This was quite a hard paper in consideration of recent years as there wasn't much on the ',ain topics of biology that people tend to focus on.

    Therefore the grade boundaries are likely to be slightly lower.

    Recent 'Raw Mark Grades' which are the marks of ?/120 (P1) and ?/60 (P2) added together have been as low as 129/180 to as high as 138/180. [For ASTAR]
    These have averages around 133/180 but i should imagine that we would be looking at 130-133 out of 180 overall.

    In turn 90+ is a great score for this paper leaving you to get 40+ on paper two which is easily doable with some question predictions and some hard studying.

    I hope this helps and thanks to all of you for you responses and discussion.
    Wasn't B the pupil, not A? I think you got them the wrong way round
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    (Original post by dRaGoN2509)
    Wasn't B the pupil, not A? I think you got them the wrong way round
    Yeah I can't remember what way around they were but I'm pretty sure it was Pupil and Iris. Lots of people are saying the arrow was pointing at the sclera but I'm not so sure...
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    (Original post by dbarber)
    Grade Boundaries ?
    See My recent Post Here
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    Is anyone able to answer my question? Would be much appreciated, a little stressed out due to it
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    Talked about natural selection wrong way round. Said it went from white to black. Will i get 0?
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    (Original post by Efe0909)
    Is anyone able to answer my question? Would be much appreciated, a little stressed out due to it
    What is your question?
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    This - For the greenhouse gas question would I get a mark for a).Burning fossil fuels and for b). Carbon Dioxide? Aswell for the menstrual cycle graph, should M not be before the first peak? Also, did we need for 11d would oxygen availability and the type of exercise the children are doing be valid control variables? Thanks in advance
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    By Conrad, Advait and Ayaz - credits to JackCollard. The items in bold are certain, the rest is correct but not certain.

    1.a) Vacuole, cell wall, chloroplasts. (3)

    1.b) Receptor cell (sensory), relay Neurone, motor neurone, Effector organ/muscle fibre. (4)

    1.c) Gap between neurones = synapse. (1)

    1.d) 0.0075 seconds. (2)

    2.a.i) Both beef cattle and fish farming has increased. Fish farming experienced an exponential growth from 1980s onwards whilst the increase in beef cattle had fluctuations. Originally the beef cattle at 20m tonnes was greater than fish farming (1m tonnes) but by 2011 the fish farming produce exceeded that of beef cattle. (3)

    2.a.ii) (Calculation in 2020 fish production will be 6 times 1990 rate - how many fish?) 13 million tonnes in 1990 x 6 = 78m tonnes in 2020. (2)

    2.b) Fish proteins broken down by protease enzyme pepsin - proteins into peptides. The HCl stomach acid (pH 2) provides optimal pH for the enzyme. The stomach muscles churn the food, increasing surface area for enzymes to act upon. The acid also kills any microbes on the food to prevent sickness/disease. (4)

    2.c) (Table of structures and function) - haemoglobin transports oxygen in blood around body to cells, insulin made in pancreas, amylase, antibodies made by Lymphocytes. (4)

    3.a) E.g combustion reaction in cars releasing CO2. (1)

    3.b) E.g carbon monoxide. (1)

    3.c) Percentage decrease of 16.0 percent. (2)

    4.a) Methane decreases with a range of 2.5 starting at 4.6 million tonnes in 1990 decreasing to 2.1 million tonnes in 2010. At the beginning the drop was greatest, from 2005-2010 the drop was smallest at 0.1 million tonnes. (2)

    4.b) Reasons for decrease in in CO2 emissions: decrease in the use of fossil fuels being burnt in combustion reactions, more catalytic converters in cars, increase in recycling/less wasting, more energy efficient/renewable resources used. This kind of stuff. (3)

    5.) Decrease in the growth/thickness of greenhouse blanket hence greenhouse effect hence global warming. Ice caps melt at slower rate, reducing risk of xtinction of polar bears. Less carbon monoxide emitted, hence decrease in poisonous gases in atmosphere that can kill people. Decrease in emissions of SO2 and N2O2 will result in less acid rain hence less killing of organisms in soil, trees, aquatic plants and fish - forgot some other things I put down. (5)

    6. CORMS method (Describe an Experiment) (6)

    7.a) Graph. (6)

    7.b) Description of graph. Increase in stomal pores = increase in rate of transpiration but not proportional. At still air, the rate of transpiration caps at 50 units whereas in moving air, the overall rate of transpiration is higher and the rate of transpiration continues past 164 units. (2)

    8.a) Thistle. (1)

    8.b) The bird (name). (1)

    8.c) A= Pupil B= Iris (2)

    8.d) Sclera, optic nerve, lens. (3)

    9. [Fill in the gap question] Explant, [genetically] identical, sterile, micro-organisms (bacteria), sterile growth [medium], starch, chlorophyll, nitrates, large, any. (10)

    10.a) A population is the number of same species in a certain area in a certain time. (1)

    10.b) Describe the changes in populations of the snail colours with reference to natural selection: mutation, variation, gene, DNA, survival of the fittest, reproduction passes alleles for certain gene for colour, black shelled ones die out/extinct. Occurs over generations. (5)

    11.a) 136.1 BPM. (2)

    11.b) Thomas was the anomaly. (1)

    11.c) Heart rate slightly increases just before exercise due to adrenaline being secreted from the adrenal glands causing heart rate to increase - pumps blood harder and faster. Prepares body for fight or flight response (could mention excitement causes the adrenaline). (2)

    d) (Two controlled variables) [mention two]:
    Length of Exercise
    Age of Children / bmi of children
    Time measuring heart rate
    Same temperature / time of day (2)

    12. (Runners and Cyclists lower resting BPM Question) Adapted Red blood Cells Carry More Oxygen in oxyhemoglobin to body cells more efficiently for aerobic respiration. Heart muscles strengthen hence blood can be pumped with greater pressure and be maintained hence less heart beats needed to supply body cells with oxygen to respire = lower heart rate. (4)

    13.a) Bacteria has cell wall, cytoplasm, plasmid, no nucleus. Fungi has cell wall, cytoplasm, nucleus, no plasmids. Protoctist has no cell wall, plasmids but have nuclei and cytoplasm. (4)

    13.b) Virus. (1)

    13.c) E.g Malaria. (1)

    14.i) Oviduct/fallopian tube (1)

    14.ii) Ovary (1)

    14.iii) Uterus Lining (1)

    14.iv) Vagina (1)

    15.a) M at beginning of graph, O at the start of the surge of progesterone. (2)

    15.b) Oestrogen causes the thickening or building up of the uterus lining, progesterone further builds up and maintains uterus lining, if egg cell not fertilised and corpus lute stops secreting progesterone, uterus lining breaks down in menstruation. (3)

    16.a) (Question on Why is Sex off period not always a reliable method of contraception) - women menstrual cycles, whilst predictable can sometimes be different to what they are normally hence can be random and it is hard to tell when you have ovulated hence can result in accidental fertilisation of sperm and ovum during sexual intercourse. (2)

    16.b) (What does Oestrogen do in puberty?) - outlined points:
    Widening of hips/pelvis
    Voice box remains small
    Follicles start maturing hence ovulation begins
    Pubic hair
    Breasts develop
    Larger proportion of body mass converted into fat for nutrients (3)


    16.c) (Which Parent determine babies Sex?). Father, as a sperm carry either an X or a Y set of chromosomes and because a women's chromosomes are always XX, the egg is always carrying a set of an 'X'chromosomes so the sperm can create an XX (female) or XY (Male) baby. (2)

    16.d) (Differences Between Meiosis and Mitosis) [Mention Four of the following: One mark = One comparison].
    Mitosis creates two daughter cells
    Meiosis creates four daughter cells
    Mitosis creates genetically identical cells
    Meiosis creates Genetically different cells
    Mitosis creates two new cells with 46 / a full set of chromosomes
    Meiosis creates four new cells with 23 / half a set of chromosomes
    Mitosis creates Diploid Cells Meiosis creates Haploid Cells (4)

    Other questions:

    Stomata:

    For transport: Water being lost via transpiration hence more drawn up via transpiration pull due to capillarity and cohesion. More water absorbed into roots via osmosis. (Define definitions). (2)

    For transpiration: Stomatal pores open increases surface area for diffusion of gases in and out of leaf. CO2 in for photosynthesis (reference concentrations in and outside leaf) and O2 and water vapour out during day time. (2)

    Increasing wind on rate of transpiration: Wind blows the water vapour particles next to the leaf away (lost from transpiration) hence maintains a high concentration gradient hence increases the rate of transpiration. (3)
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    (Original post by oli19919)
    Any missed questions? Just checking how many marks I think I lost overall


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    Yes there are 6 missing marks if my addition is correct so think about what isn't on there and tell me.
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    Pretty sure question 1b is 4 marks with effector/muscle being the last one
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    (Original post by John_bright)
    I think that protoctists have a nucleus, don't they? So for the characteristics question there was a tick for both the cytoplasm AND the nucleus in the protoctists row.
    Yes they do, small mistake - I was just thinking of the layout of the table because it already put 2 crosses in the left columns.
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    (Original post by oli19919)
    Don't think heart one about long distance athlete was 4 marks, I thought it was 3, but you may be right.

    Equally, you sure that finding neurone distance was 3 marks?

    Sorry, not sure about missing ones


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    Yeah I'm pretty sure because it required more work for the calculation using s = d/t, then converting it from cm into m etc.
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    (Original post by conradliebers)
    Yeah I'm pretty sure because it required more work for the calculation using s = d/t, then converting it from cm into m etc.
    I'm quite confident this was 2 marks
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    (Original post by conradliebers)
    Yes there are 6 missing marks if my addition is correct so think about what isn't on there and tell me.
    I'm pretty sure there was a question about what is the gap between two nerves called or something? after the filling out of the table about the reflex thing? think it was only one mark though - its a synapse, right?
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    (Original post by Johnnieb623)
    I'm quite confident this was 2 marks
    Maybe it is maybe it isn't
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    (Original post by conradliebers)
    Maybe it is maybe it isn't
    I'm 100% certain this question was 2 marks.
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    For 2a ii I interpreted it as being 14 million as it was closer to that i'm pretty sure. Would I get the mark if I wrote down 84 million?
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    Concerning the long-distance runners having a lower heart-rate (at rest):

    The heart is stronger, and more muscular due to its heavy use in stamina exercises, thus it is able to pump more blood effectively at a slower rate.
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    Let's just hope that the grade boundaries are lowered... XD
 
 
 
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