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    [QUOTE=chloepilky;65763013]
    (Original post by Lulu1609)
    Hi everyone! I'm doing this exam too.

    Have you been taught just speaking acquisition or speaking, writing and reading?

    I've been taught spoken, written and reading however I am just focusing on spoken as that's the easiest to analyse.
    I am just doing question 1 for the exam because we were not taught the content for Q2. Sorry
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    (Original post by Gal cool)
    Thank you
    Would this mean that pre-modification is a French borrowing? Just an example
    I think so! Pre derives more from latin 'prae' which translates to 'before'
    I googled 'define prefix' to find the etymology and it tends to start off as latin and THEN to old french - so hopefully either could be seen as correct? (the same also goes with 'prepare')

    'con' is solid Latin though. E.g. 'constant' came from 'constare' - con meaning 'with' + stare meaning 'stand' (it also now translates to 'with' in French + Italian)

    'pro' is also latin as it can mean in front, before or forward (e.g. protect, provide, proceed)
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    Hey guys, I'm in the same boat as some of you. Really focused on psychology, but at least I've finished it today. I'm not that worried about this exam though because we did so many practice questions but I'm not hoping for an A anyway, I think I could definitely get a C with limited knowledge anyway.

    I have to ask what you all think of the decision to just focus on one thing though. I see a lot of you are only revising speech but we were taught speech, reading and writing. What does everyone think about making the decision to just revise speech? I'm not sure, just in case AQA are going to be d*cks and f*ck us all over and make it really difficult or something. Any advice would be great
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    Would anyone like any help with Language change over time?

    Important definitions:

    Pejoration: When a word takes on a harsher more negative tone. Eg 'idiot' meant private citizen and now means a stupid person.

    Amelioration: when a word takes on a more positive meaning. Eg, pretty used to mean sly or generally weird in the 16th century but now means good looking

    weakening: a word that has lost its original strength in meaning, So common words people think of are swear words, like *******, having great religious connotation back in ye olden days but now not so much. However, people dont think this applies to all word classes. The adverb 'soon' used to mean immediately like, right now. but now means in a short while

    narrowing when a word becomes more specific. Eg, wife used to mean woman back in the 17th century. It now means a specific woman ie "My wife"

    broadening: when a word becomes less specific. so 'Place' as in "St Marks Place" would have essentially meant 'mark's street' in old English, now place means an area.

    semantic shift: When a word changes class. So 'drunk' as a word used to be a past tense 'drink' but in modern day usage is now a noun "you are a drunk" in regards to alcohol. Or even "friend" becoming a verb, "Ill friend you on Facebook" or "ill unfriend you if blah blah blah"

    New words can come into the language by the following processes:

    Borrowing: has already been talked about in this thread, but its when the English language English as a whole goes "we need a name for that and they've already got one, i think we'll take it." And it can ether become anglicised (we make it sound English. Like cholat = chocolate) or remains un-anglicised like Niche.

    Eponym: is where we name a thing after the person whom invented the thing. Like the sandwich or Braille

    Proprietary term: When a name is given to a thing by a company or committee, "we are going to call this vacuum the Dyson XC500"

    Acronyms: a word made from the initial letters of a phrase. Eg "Radar" or "Lazer" this is increasingly common in the 20th/21st century as technology and militaristic language are ever present in common lang.

    Initialism: Where a word is made from those letters being individually pronounced. Such as CD

    Blended word: Where 2 words = 1 Eg Smoke + fog = smog

    Affixation/ Prefixation: When morphemes are put after or infront of the bound morphine. "Revision is Uber-dull" or a "towelette" meaning a small towel.

    Other words

    Neologism: a word created in the last 10 ish years

    Anachronistic language: Language that is out of time . So if i talked like "Go back from whenst thou came" that would be anachronistic, normally in the modern day its a stylistic choice

    Tortology: two words that mean the same thing. "I am the most best" the adverb most is made redundant in the sentence.

    Those are the specific words for the language change section. If anyone wants any help with theory or historical context, just drop a message

    Hope that helped a few people.
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    (Original post by Chuck234)
    I hope this helps it's not a fall response but I don't know how we are expected to write a full response in such a short time.
    cannot really see the picture but what did you say about 'wiv' on line 6 and how did u link it to theory?
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    We were taught all three as well. I'm just revising speech. I really don't think there's anyway they wouldn't put a speech question in there. They have every other year and it's the last year this exam is happening so why would they want to change it now? Most people are expecting a speech question and the exam board doesn't want people to fail so I think they'll just stick to normal question paper layout
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    (Original post by Happyman322)
    Would anyone like any help with Language change over time?

    Important definitions:

    Pejoration: When a word takes on a harsher more negative tone. Eg 'idiot' meant private citizen and now means a stupid person.

    Amelioration: when a word takes on a more positive meaning. Eg, pretty used to mean sly or generally weird in the 16th century but now means good looking

    weakening: a word that has lost its original strength in meaning, So common words people think of are swear words, like *******, having great religious connotation back in ye olden days but now not so much. However, people dont think this applies to all word classes. The adverb 'soon' used to mean immediately like, right now. but now means in a short while

    narrowing when a word becomes more specific. Eg, wife used to mean woman back in the 17th century. It now means a specific woman ie "My wife"

    broadening: when a word becomes less specific. so 'Place' as in "St Marks Place" would have essentially meant 'mark's street' in old English, now place means an area.

    semantic shift: When a word changes class. So 'drunk' as a word used to be a past tense 'drink' but in modern day usage is now a noun "you are a drunk" in regards to alcohol. Or even "friend" becoming a verb, "Ill friend you on Facebook" or "ill unfriend you if blah blah blah"

    New words can come into the language by the following processes:

    Borrowing: has already been talked about in this thread, but its when the English language English as a whole goes "we need a name for that and they've already got one, i think we'll take it." And it can ether become anglicised (we make it sound English. Like cholat = chocolate) or remains un-anglicised like Niche.

    Eponym: is where we name a thing after the person whom invented the thing. Like the sandwich or Braille

    Proprietary term: When a name is given to a thing by a company or committee, "we are going to call this vacuum the Dyson XC500"

    Acronyms: a word made from the initial letters of a phrase. Eg "Radar" or "Lazer" this is increasingly common in the 20th/21st century as technology and militaristic language are ever present in common lang.

    Initialism: Where a word is made from those letters being individually pronounced. Such as CD

    Blended word: Where 2 words = 1 Eg Smoke + fog = smog

    Affixation/ Prefixation: When morphemes are put after or infront of the bound morphine. "Revision is Uber-dull" or a "towelette" meaning a small towel.

    Other words

    Neologism: a word created in the last 10 ish years

    Anachronistic language: Language that is out of time . So if i talked like "Go back from whenst thou came" that would be anachronistic, normally in the modern day its a stylistic choice

    Tortology: two words that mean the same thing. "I am the most best" the adverb most is made redundant in the sentence.

    Those are the specific words for the language change section. If anyone wants any help with theory or historical context, just drop a message

    Hope that helped a few people.
    You are a legend! I literally could not find my notes with key terms on. Thank you!!!
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    can anyone give me a quick summary of Bruner? we were taught about him but I can't find any of my notes on him

    also, that was a great summary of language change, thank you!!
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    (Original post by elsierose)
    can anyone give me a quick summary of Bruner? we were taught about him but I can't find any of my notes on him

    also, that was a great summary of language change, thank you!!
    So Bruner is a cognitive theorist and his major thing was the Language acquisition in social situations or the LASS for short.

    Essentially, it shows that a childs cognitive and lexical development is tied to their social interactions with their care giver. So a care giver using lots of diexis in their language, lots of scaffolding will eventually encourage the child to copy and learn more complicated stuff.

    LASS is pretty much linked to the idea of a critical period'. So for example, Gene the girl who was like left alone for god knows how many years did not have that social interaction and therefor could not learn *how to communicate*properly.

    Bard and Sachs did a study linked to this one where they studied a kid who had deaf parents, and the kid only learned how to speak, his speech development was terribly inhibited even when exposed to TV and radio, proving LASS and showing physical human interaction is vital to lexical cognition.

    Also thanks!
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    Anyway of starting revision now and getting everything done? I had psychology today and gonna have rs tomorrow as well as English 😭 don't know what to do?!
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    (Original post by elsierose)
    If anyone is missing content for their child speech acquisition I literally have all of my notes on it typed out so I can send it out to people

    I'm feeling pretty confident for speech acquisition, but feel like I don't know enough for language change at the moment
    Please send them to me! In desperate needs thanks! [email protected]
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    I have literally done no revision because I've had so much music to memorise (which I still haven't finished. Music's on Thursday). Any help on where/how to start or what I should go over?
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    could someone please tell me how to structure a language change essay, i find language change really hard!
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    Any tips for the reading and writing side of things? Which one do we think will come up this year??
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    Hi guys,

    Does anyone have any predictions as to what may come up?

    I'm beginning to panic last minute. :afraid:
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    I don't even know what to do for the language change section fml 😭
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    (Original post by navysheep)
    could someone please tell me how to structure a language change essay, I find language change really hard!
    I've been told by my teacher to put 3+ A01 terms in as the basis of the paragraph then back it up with A02 either a theorist or something like standardisation and add A03 to link it back to the changes at the time of the text or the producer. I have been getting solid B's with this way of writing each paragraph so hope it helps a bit even though you asked for essay structure
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    Guys, my teacher said they may have removed the IPA from the exam booklet so we have to learn it off by heart- is this true?
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    My brain is actually hurting from all this history that's involved in language change. I despise history so much. I'm still as mad as I was two years ago when I realised that English actually involved history!

    Does anyone have any ways to remember the context for each century?
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    (Original post by MidnightMist)
    Guys, my teacher said they may have removed the IPA from the exam booklet so we have to learn it off by heart- is this true?
    No, why would your teacher say that?! The exam board would have had to express that at the beginning of the course
 
 
 
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