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    Hydrolysis of an oil or fat to produce glycerol and soap.

    Basically, this reaction is used in the manufacture of soap, I'll draw out the equation below:
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    HYDROLYSIS OF OIL/FAT TO PRODUCE GLYCEROL + SOAP.

    ( my black marker is running out. *cri* )

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    Okay, so vegetable oil can react with an alcohol to produce a methyl ester.

    Conditions: Strong alkali catalyst. E.g. NaOH

    Type of reaction: Transesterification

    Use of methyl esters: Biodiesel

    I'm going to do the reaction between vegetable oil + methanol which I'll draw out below:
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    REACTION BETWEEN VEGETABLE OIL AND METHANOL TO PRODUCE GLYCEROL AND MORE, IMPORTANTLY METHYL ESTERS OF LONG CHAIN CARBOXYLIC ACIDS.

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    Advantages and possible disadvantages of producing and using biodiesel as a substitute for diesel.


    Advantages:

    - Formed from a renewable resource and therefore potentially is more carbon neutral than diesel from petroleum

    - Produces less harmful particulates

    - No sulphur to remove


    Disadvantages:

    - Expensive to produce

    - May use land which would otherwise be used to produce food crops

    - Fuel economy is less with diesel from petroleum
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    Compounds containing the carbonyl group – Acylation –Topic 5.

    Brb, taking a break.
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    Compounds containing the carbonyl group – Acylation –Topic 5.

    Alright, so there are 4 reactions you need to know with acyl chlorides + acid anhydrides.

    Reactions of water, alcohol, ammonia and amines.

    ~


    So,first we'll start with water + an acyl chloride.


    Example: Ethanoyl chloride with water.

    Condensed equation: CH3COCl + H2O --------------> CH3COOH + HCl

    Conditions: Room temperature

    Observations: Fairly vigorous reaction, White fumes with ammonia.

    ~


    Now water with an acid anhydride.


    Example: Ethanoic anhydride with water.

    Condensed equation: (CH3CO)2 + H2O --------------> 2CH3COOH

    Conditions: Heat.

    Observations: Much less reactive than the acyl chloride.
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    Next, we'll do the reaction with alcohols.

    So, first we'll start with an alcohol + an acyl chloride.


    Example: Ethanoyl chloride with methanol.

    Condensed equation: CH3COCl + CH3OH --------------> CH3COOCH3 (methyl ethanoate) + HCl

    Conditions: Room temperature

    Observations: Fairly vigorous reaction, Steamy fumes.

    ~


    Now alcohol with an acid anhydride.


    Example: Ethanoic anhydride with Ethanol.

    Condensed equation: (CH3CO)2 + CH3CH2OH --------------> CH3COOCH2CH3 (ethyl ethanoate) + CH3COOH (ethanoic acid)

    Conditions: Reflux
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    Now we'll do the reaction with ammonia.

    So, first we'll start with an ammonia+ an acyl chloride. - which is an acid-base reaction.


    Example: Ethanoyl chloride with ammonia.

    Condensed equation: CH3COCl + 2NH3 --------------> CH3CONH2 (ethanamide) + NH4+Cl-

    Conditions: Room temperature

    Observations: Very vigorous reaction, White fumes.

    ~



    Now ammonia with an acid anhydride.


    Example: Ethanoic anhydride with Ammonia.

    Condensed equation: (CH3CO)2 + 2NH3 --------------> CH3CONH2 (ethanamide) + CH3COO-NH4+(ammonium ethanoate)

    Conditions: Reflux
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    Finally, the reaction with amines.

    So, first we'll start with an amine + an acyl chloride. - which is an acid-base reaction.


    Example: Ethanoyl chloride with methylamine.

    Condensed equation: CH3COCl + 2CH3NH2 --------------> CH3CONHCH3 (N-methyl ethanamide)+ CH3NH3+Cl- (Methyl ammonium chloride)

    Conditions: Room temperature

    Observations: Very vigorous reaction, White fumes.

    ~



    Now an amine with an acid anhydride.


    Example: Ethanoic anhydride with ethylamine.

    Condensed equation:(CH3CO)2 + 2CH3CH2NH2 --------------> CH3CONHCH2CH3 (N-ethyl ethanamide) + CH3COO-CH3CH2NH3+(ethyl ammonium ethanoate)

    Conditions: Reflux
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    Nucleophillic addition- elimination mechanisms

    Alright, so you need to be able to outline the mechanisms for water, alcohols, ammonia + amines ONLY with acyl chlorides.

    I'll start with water, I'll draw it below:
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    NUCLEOPHILIC ADDITION -ELIMINATION MECHANISM FOR AN ACYL CHLORIDE AND WATER.

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    Now I'll do the mechanism for an acyl chloride with an alcohol, specifically - methanol.

    Below:
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    NUCLEOPHILIC ADDITION - ELIMINATION MECHANISM FOR AN ACYL CHLORIDE AND AN ALCOHOL. (methanol)

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    Now I'll do the mechanism for an acyl chloride with ammonia.

    Below:
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    NUCLEOPHILIC ADDITION- ELIMINATION MECHANISM FOR AN ACYL CHLORIDE AND AMMONIA.

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    Lastly, the mechanism for an acyl chloride with an amine, specifically - methylamine.


    Below:
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    NUCLEOPHILIC ADDITION -ELIMINATION MECHANISM FOR AN ACYL CHLORIDE AND AN AMINE. (methylamine)

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    Industrial advantages of ethanoic anhydride over ethanoyl chloride in the manufacture of aspirin:

    - Cheaper than the acyl chloride ·

    - Less dangerous to handle than the acyl chlorides since less corrosive ·

    - Less vulnerable to hydrolysis by moisture(easier to store)



    Advantages and disadvantages of using ethanoyl chloride over ethanoic acid in making esters:

    Advantages:

    - Greater yield;

    - Faster reaction

    - Less energy required

    - Product easier to separate·


    Disadvantages:

    - Ethanoyl chloride more hazardous to handle

    - Harder to store
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    Aromatic chemistry – Bonding –Topic 6.

    Description of the bonding in benzene:

    - Planar i.e. all 12 atoms in a single plane·

    - All C-C bonds identical in length and intermediate between typical single and double bonds·

    - All bond angles are 120o i.e. perfect hexagon·

    - 1 electron from each of the C atoms is delocalised in the ring
 
 
 
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