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    (Original post by Glh96)
    I see what you mean, but sympathetic neurones (regardless of being involuntary) innervate muscles, simply not skeletal ones, hence why sympathetic action is able to increase heart rate, by having an effect on cardiac muscle.

    In this way, these neurones meet muscle cells at a junction, surely this is a neuromuscular junction? If a neuromuscular junction applies only to the junction between somatic motor neurones and muscle fibres then I can see where my confusion has arisen. However, if not, I still can not understand why noradrenaline is being quoted as the neurotransmitter at this junction?
    Yeah it is confusing I got confused about it too when I made my notes on this topic.

    A neuromuscular junction only applies from a motor neurone to a skeletal muscle.

    Cardiac muscle and smooth muscle are innervated by some other mechanism, for some reason. We just need to know about the case of a neuromuscular junction from motor neurone --> skeletal muscle.


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    (Original post by AnnekaChan173)
    at a synapse? Synapses are neurone to neurone. Not at the NMJ, the NMJ is always ACh only.
    It says between a neurone and an effector, such as a muscle.
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    (Original post by Hilton184)
    Yeah it is confusing I got confused about it too when I made my notes on this topic.

    A neuromuscular junction only applies from a motor neurone to a skeletal muscle.

    Cardiac muscle and smooth muscle are innervated by some other mechanism, for some reason. We just need to know about the case of a neuromuscular junction from motor neurone --> skeletal muscle.


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    I am so often confused, I think it may have become a permanent personality feature, haha.

    Thanks for clarifying, it just seems odd that there is a junction between a neurone and a muscle and we can't call it a neuromuscular junction. Semantics!
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    (Original post by Hilton184)
    Yeah it is confusing I got confused about it too when I made my notes on this topic.

    A neuromuscular junction only applies from a motor neurone to a skeletal muscle.

    Cardiac muscle and smooth muscle are innervated by some other mechanism, for some reason. We just need to know about the case of a neuromuscular junction from motor neurone --> skeletal muscle.


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    Done a bit more research.

    Smooth muscle directly innervated by motor neurone.

    Cardiac Muscle: autorhythmic cell (in SA node I presume?) is innervated by motor neurone. Autorhythmic cell delivers action potential to gap junction (intercalated disk?) which transfers action potential to cardiac cells.


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    (Original post by Glh96)
    I am so often confused, I think it may have become a permanent personality feature, haha.

    Thanks for clarifying, it just seems odd that there is a junction between a neurone and a muscle and we can't call it a neuromuscular junction. Semantics!
    Yeah absolutely, because to me it still is a neuromuscular junction really! But oh well there are probably more examples which are even more misleading! Haha


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    (Original post by Glh96)
    It says between a neurone and an effector, such as a muscle.
    -sigh- Hilton's explained it. Noradrenaline is involved in changing things like the heart rate in cardiac cells, which is probably what they mean by the whole effector thing. But in one of the other tables in the book (and mark schemes of questions I've done so far) it states that the only neurotransmitter at a voluntary muscle's neuromuscular junction is acetylcholine.
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    (Original post by AnnekaChan173)
    Galapagos. I'm so worried.
    Haha.

    But seriously, do you think there are any topics likely to come up? based off whats not come up for a while. Have your teachers said anything?
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    (Original post by bakedbeans247)
    Haha.

    But seriously, do you think there are any topics likely to come up? based off whats not come up for a while. Have your teachers said anything?
    Unit 4/5? Things that haven't come up a huge amount? I haven't done enough papers to say, sorry. Give me a week or so.
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    Everything unit 4 that comes up is so obscure, just make sure you try having a holistic approach rather than focusing on the big parts
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    Could anybody help me ? I have covered all the unit 5 content like made notes but I cannot answer a single question without looking back at my notes how do I revise so that I can actually answer questions ?!
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    (Original post by bakedbeans247)
    Haha.

    But seriously, do you think there are any topics likely to come up? based off whats not come up for a while. Have your teachers said anything?
    For f214: don't think insulin secretion has been on for a while, action of cAMP and adrenaline etc. and labelling graphs to do with action potential, insulin production using GM bacteria, I think there will be quite a lot more photosynthesis stuff as it was only on a bit last year (a few 1 markers and 2 markers) when I sat the paper, on last years paper the respiration question was to do with fruit and veg and more about data analysis rather than knowledge so it could possibly come up more
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    (Original post by LA_95)
    For f214: don't think insulin secretion has been on for a while, action of cAMP and adrenaline etc. and labelling graphs to do with action potential, insulin production using GM bacteria, I think there will be quite a lot more photosynthesis stuff as it was only on a bit last year (a few 1 markers and 2 markers) when I sat the paper, on last years paper the respiration question was to do with fruit and veg and more about data analysis rather than knowledge so it could possibly come up more
    Oh awesome, thanks. I've only done a couple past papers for f214/5 hope to do like 8-10 each before the exams.

    So you're resitting? Are you in your gap year? What did you get last yr?
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    (Original post by boing360)
    Could anybody help me ? I have covered all the unit 5 content like made notes but I cannot answer a single question without looking back at my notes how do I revise so that I can actually answer questions ?!
    Well if its the case of just not knowing how to answer the questions - in other words exam technique - then all i can say is do as many practice papers as possible! Also look at examiners report, if you haven't used them yet they're basically helpful to see where/how most people mess up.
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    (Original post by AnnekaChan173)
    Unit 4/5? Things that haven't come up a huge amount? I haven't done enough papers to say, sorry. Give me a week or so.
    cool. well i've only done like 2 papers for each unit and i still don't know all content (esp. 5) hoping that the stuff i know come up haha. i'm going to try complete 8-10 before the exams god willing.
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    (Original post by ChoccyPhilly)
    Everything unit 4 that comes up is so obscure, just make sure you try having a holistic approach rather than focusing on the big parts
    Have you ever seen the "beta-oxidation pathway" in an f214 paper before? I've only done a couple, but throughout the year of class tests, i've never seen it before, maybe that'll come up?
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    (Original post by bakedbeans247)
    Oh awesome, thanks. I've only done a couple past papers for f214/5 hope to do like 8-10 each before the exams.

    So you're resitting? Are you in your gap year? What did you get last yr?
    Yes I am I was on an A at AS but my A2 dragged it down to a C unfortunately
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    (Original post by LA_95)
    Yes I am I was on an A at AS but my A2 dragged it down to a C unfortunately
    Same thing happened to me got dragged down to a c due to my a2 grade
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    (Original post by bakedbeans247)
    Have you ever seen the "beta-oxidation pathway" in an f214 paper before? I've only done a couple, but throughout the year of class tests, i've never seen it before, maybe that'll come up?
    It has come up quite a bit, it relates to excretion and detoxification of alcohol as it uses NAD. You'll be fine though. If I were you I'd learn content before banging out those papers because there are so few of them
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    Can anyone post a list of links posted on this thread so far so i don't have to thrall all the pages to find them! Thanks
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    (Original post by AnnekaChan173)
    It has come up quite a bit, it relates to excretion and detoxification of alcohol as it uses NAD. You'll be fine though. If I were you I'd learn content before banging out those papers because there are so few of them
    has it really? Which paper has it shown up in?
 
 
 
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